CN112098863A - Method, device and system for detecting failure of lithium ion battery - Google Patents

Method, device and system for detecting failure of lithium ion battery Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112098863A
CN112098863A CN202010960673.7A CN202010960673A CN112098863A CN 112098863 A CN112098863 A CN 112098863A CN 202010960673 A CN202010960673 A CN 202010960673A CN 112098863 A CN112098863 A CN 112098863A
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China
Prior art keywords
resistance
electrode
ion battery
lithium ion
voltage
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
祝佳丽
朱金保
于哲勋
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Dongguan Tafel New Energy Technology Co Ltd
Jiangsu Tafel New Energy Technology Co Ltd
Jiangsu Tafel Power System Co Ltd
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Dongguan Tafel New Energy Technology Co Ltd
Jiangsu Tafel New Energy Technology Co Ltd
Jiangsu Tafel Power System Co Ltd
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Priority to CN202010960673.7A priority Critical patent/CN112098863A/en
Publication of CN112098863A publication Critical patent/CN112098863A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/36Arrangements for testing, measuring or monitoring the electrical condition of accumulators or electric batteries, e.g. capacity or state of charge [SoC]
    • G01R31/385Arrangements for measuring battery or accumulator variables
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/36Arrangements for testing, measuring or monitoring the electrical condition of accumulators or electric batteries, e.g. capacity or state of charge [SoC]
    • G01R31/392Determining battery ageing or deterioration, e.g. state of health

Abstract

The invention discloses a method, a device and a system for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery. In this method, a lithium ion battery is introduced into the reference electrode. The reference electrode comprises a reference electrode lithium layer closely attached to the winding core and a reference electrode pole connected with the reference electrode lithium layer through a reference electrode tab. The outmost negative pole piece that is wrapped by the core diaphragm of rolling up for be separated by the core diaphragm between reference utmost point lithium layer and the negative pole piece. The method collects electrical data between a reference electrode and a positive electrode and a negative electrode, and then judges whether the lithium ion battery fails or not through analysis of the electrical data. The electrical data includes a reference pole and a voltage and resistance between the positive and negative poles. Experiments show that the accuracy of judging whether the lithium ion battery is invalid is high.

Description

Method, device and system for detecting failure of lithium ion battery
Technical Field
The invention relates to a lithium ion battery, in particular to a lithium ion battery failure detection technology.
Background
The lithium ion battery has a limited service life, and the performance of the lithium ion battery gradually deteriorates as the number of times of the cycle charge and discharge of the lithium ion battery increases. The number of times of cyclic charge and discharge of a general lithium ion battery is 500-700 times, the number of times of cyclic charge and discharge of a lithium ion battery with a positive electrode made of a nickel cobalt lithium manganate ternary material is 2000-3000 times, and the number of times of cyclic charge and discharge of a lithium ion battery with a positive electrode made of lithium iron phosphate is 3000-6000 times. Under harsh environments, the number of times a lithium ion battery can be cycled may be less. One of the important causes of the deterioration of the performance of the lithium ion battery is that lithium ions precipitate out of metallic lithium at the negative electrode during the charge and discharge of the lithium ion battery. With the increase of the number of times of sufficient electricity circulation, lithium ions are more and more precipitated at the negative electrode, so that the performance of the lithium ion battery is gradually reduced, mainly represented by the fact that the charging time is longer, the temperature is increased in the discharging process, and the like. In extreme cases, lithium metal precipitated from the negative electrode crystallizes to form lithium dendrites which penetrate the separator between the positive and negative electrodes, causing short circuits and causing fires and even explosions. In addition to the lithium ion battery performance deterioration caused by precipitation of metallic lithium from lithium ions at the negative electrode, there are other causes for deterioration of lithium ion performance, for example, the negative ions in the electrolyte are combined with the positive electrode material, so that the reduction of the electrolyte density can also cause deterioration of lithium ion performance.
On the other hand, deterioration of lithium ion performance generally means an increase in internal resistance between the positive and negative electrodes of the lithium ion battery. The increase of the internal resistance of the lithium ion battery means that the heat productivity of the lithium ion battery is high and even possibly exceeds the load of a battery pack cooling system when the current of the electric automobile is large. In severe cases, even without considering the problem of precipitation of metallic lithium by lithium ions at the negative electrode, it is necessary to discard the lithium ion battery.
In the prior art, the performance of the lithium ion battery is usually monitored by detecting the voltage and the internal resistance of the positive electrode and the negative electrode. However, the performance state of lithium ions obtained by analyzing the voltage and internal resistance data between the positive electrode and the negative electrode of the lithium ion battery is limited, and the analysis method is very complex. For example, patent document CN 103954915a discloses an indirect lithium ion battery remaining life prediction method based on probability integration, and this patent document determines whether a lithium ion battery fails by predicting the lithium ion battery remaining life.
Disclosure of Invention
The problems to be solved by the invention are as follows: and (5) detecting the failure of the lithium ion battery.
In order to solve the problems, the invention adopts the following scheme:
the invention relates to a method for detecting the failure of a lithium ion battery, which relates to the lithium ion battery; the lithium ion battery comprises a positive electrode, a negative electrode and a reference electrode; the reference electrode comprises a reference electrode lithium layer tightly attached to the winding core and a reference electrode pole connected with the reference electrode lithium layer through a reference electrode tab; the positive electrode comprises a positive pole piece arranged on the winding core and a positive pole post connected with the positive pole piece through a positive pole lug; the negative electrode comprises a negative electrode pole piece arranged on the winding core and a negative electrode pole connected with the negative electrode pole piece through a negative electrode tab; the winding core is formed by laminating or winding a positive pole piece, a negative pole piece and a winding core diaphragm; the outermost layer of the winding core is the negative electrode plate coated by the winding core diaphragm, so that the reference electrode lithium layer is separated from the negative electrode plate through the winding core diaphragm; the outer layer of the reference electrode lithium layer is coated by a reference electrode diaphragm;
the method comprises the following steps:
s1: acquiring electrical data between the reference electrode and the positive electrode and the negative electrode;
s2: and judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by analyzing the electrical data.
Further, according to the method of detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a first full electrical voltage; the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the negative electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state;
the step S2 includes:
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first full-electricity voltage with a first voltage threshold; if the first full-electricity voltage is smaller than the first voltage threshold, judging that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first voltage threshold is a preset value.
Further, according to the method for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a second full-power voltage; the second full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the positive electrode and the reference electrode in a full-charge state;
the step S2 includes:
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the second full-electricity voltage with a second voltage threshold; if the second full-electricity voltage is smaller than the second voltage threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the second voltage threshold is a preset value.
Further, according to the method for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a first resistance; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
said step S2 includes;
calculating a first resistance ratio;
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold value, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value.
Further, according to the method for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a second resistance; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
said step S2 includes;
calculating a second resistance ratio;
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value; if the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value.
Further, according to the method for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a first full-electricity voltage, a first resistance, and a second resistance; the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the negative electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode; the step S2 includes:
calculating a first resistance ratio;
calculating a second resistance ratio;
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value, comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value and comparing the first full-electricity voltage with a first voltage threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold, the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold, or the first full-electricity voltage is smaller than the first voltage threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the first voltage threshold is a preset value.
Further, according to the method for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a second full-electricity voltage, a first resistance and a second resistance; the second full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the positive electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode; the step S2 includes:
calculating a first resistance ratio;
calculating a second resistance ratio;
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value, comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value and comparing the second full-charge voltage with a second voltage threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold value, the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold value, or the second full-electricity voltage is smaller than the second voltage threshold value, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second voltage threshold is a preset value.
According to the device for detecting the failure of the lithium ion battery, the device is connected with the lithium ion battery; the lithium ion battery comprises a positive electrode, a negative electrode and a reference electrode; the reference electrode comprises a reference electrode lithium layer tightly attached to the winding core and a reference electrode pole connected with the reference electrode lithium layer through a reference electrode tab; the positive electrode comprises a positive pole piece arranged on the winding core and a positive pole post connected with the positive pole piece through a positive pole lug; the negative electrode comprises a negative electrode pole piece arranged on the winding core and a negative electrode pole connected with the negative electrode pole piece through a negative electrode tab; the winding core is formed by laminating or winding a positive pole piece, a negative pole piece and a winding core diaphragm; the outermost layer of the winding core is the negative electrode plate coated by the winding core diaphragm, so that the reference electrode lithium layer is separated from the negative electrode plate through the winding core diaphragm; the outer layer of the reference electrode lithium layer is coated by a reference electrode diaphragm;
the device comprises the following modules:
m1, used for: acquiring electrical data between the reference electrode and the positive electrode and the negative electrode;
m2, used for: and judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by analyzing the electrical data.
Further, according to the apparatus for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a first full-power voltage; the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the negative electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state;
in the module M2:
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first full-electricity voltage with a first voltage threshold; if the first full-electricity voltage is smaller than the first voltage threshold, judging that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first voltage threshold is a preset value.
Further, according to the apparatus for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a second full-power voltage; the second full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the positive electrode and the reference electrode in a full-charge state;
in the module M2:
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the second full-electricity voltage with a second voltage threshold; if the second full-electricity voltage is smaller than the second voltage threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the second voltage threshold is a preset value.
Further, according to the apparatus for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a first resistance; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the module M2 includes the following modules:
m21, used for: calculating a first resistance ratio;
m291, for: judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold value, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value.
Further, according to the apparatus for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a second resistance; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the module M2 includes the following modules:
m22, used for: calculating a second resistance ratio;
m292, for: judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value; if the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value.
Further, according to the apparatus for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a first full-electricity voltage, a first resistance, and a second resistance; the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the negative electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode; the module M2 includes the following modules:
m21, used for: calculating a first resistance ratio;
m22, used for: calculating a second resistance ratio;
m293 for: judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value, comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value and comparing the first full-electricity voltage with a first voltage threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold, the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold, or the first full-electricity voltage is smaller than the first voltage threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the first voltage threshold is a preset value.
Further, according to the apparatus for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery of the present invention, the electrical data includes a second full-power voltage, a first resistance, and a second resistance; the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the positive electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode; the module M2 includes the following modules:
m21, used for: calculating a first resistance ratio;
m22, used for: calculating a second resistance ratio;
m294, for: judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value, comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value and comparing the second full-charge voltage with a second voltage threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold value, the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold value, or the second full-electricity voltage is smaller than the second voltage threshold value, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second voltage threshold is a preset value.
The system for detecting the failure of the lithium ion battery comprises a processor, an electrical data acquisition circuit and the lithium ion battery; the lithium ion battery comprises a positive electrode, a negative electrode and a reference electrode; the reference electrode comprises a reference electrode lithium layer tightly attached to the winding core and a reference electrode pole connected with the reference electrode lithium layer through a reference electrode tab; the positive electrode comprises a positive pole piece arranged on the winding core and a positive pole post connected with the positive pole piece through a positive pole lug; the negative electrode comprises a negative electrode pole piece arranged on the winding core and a negative electrode pole connected with the negative electrode pole piece through a negative electrode tab; the winding core is formed by laminating or winding a positive pole piece, a negative pole piece and a winding core diaphragm; the outermost layer of the winding core is the negative electrode plate coated by the winding core diaphragm, so that the reference electrode lithium layer is separated from the negative electrode plate through the winding core diaphragm; the outer layer of the reference electrode lithium layer is coated by a reference electrode diaphragm; the processor is connected with the anode pole, the cathode pole and the reference pole of the lithium ion battery through the electric data acquisition circuit; the processor judges whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by the method for detecting the failure of the lithium ion battery.
The invention has the following technical effects: according to the invention, the reference electrode is introduced into the lithium ion battery, the electrical data between the reference electrode and the anode and the cathode are collected, and then the electrical data are analyzed to judge whether the lithium ion battery fails or not. Compared with the prior art, the accuracy is higher.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of an embodiment of a lithium ion battery failure detection system according to the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of a lithium ion cell structure according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Wherein 800 is a processor, 801 is a first electrical data acquisition circuit, and 802 is a first electrical data acquisition circuit; reference numeral 41 denotes a positive electrode tab, 42 denotes a negative electrode tab, 43 denotes a reference electrode tab, 900 denotes a lithium ion battery, 910 denotes a battery case, 920 denotes a battery cell, 921 denotes a jelly roll, 922 denotes a reference electrode tab, 11 denotes a positive electrode tab, 12 denotes a negative electrode tab, 13 denotes a jelly roll separator, 21 denotes a reference electrode base, 22 denotes a reference electrode lithium layer, 23 denotes a reference electrode separator, 31 denotes a positive electrode tab, 32 denotes a negative electrode tab, and 33 denotes a reference electrode tab.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
The lithium ion battery failure detection system, as shown in fig. 1, includes a processor 800, an electrical data acquisition circuit, and a lithium ion battery 900. The lithium ion battery 900 includes a battery case 910, and a cell 920 and an electrolyte disposed within the battery case 910. The battery cells 920 disposed in the battery case 910 are soaked by the electrolyte in the battery case 910. The battery case 910 is provided with a positive electrode post 41, a negative electrode post 42, and a reference electrode post 43.
As shown in fig. 2, the cell 920 includes a winding core 921, a reference pole piece 922, and a reference pole separator 23. The winding core 921 is a winding core structure of a lithium ion battery in the prior art, and may be formed by winding the positive electrode tab 11, the winding core diaphragm, and the negative electrode tab 12, or may be formed by stacking the positive electrode tab 11, the winding core diaphragm, and the negative electrode tab 12. In the example of fig. 2, the winding core 921 is formed by stacking the positive electrode tab 11, the winding core separator 13, and the negative electrode tab 12. The positive electrode plate 11 and the negative electrode plate 12 are arranged alternately, and the positive electrode plate 11 and the negative electrode plate 12 are separated by a winding core diaphragm 13, referring to the enlargement of two circles on the right side of fig. 2, the uppermost layer is the negative electrode plate 12 coated by the winding core diaphragm 13, the lowermost layer is the negative electrode plate 12 coated by the winding core diaphragm 13, that is, the outermost layer is the negative electrode plate 12 coated by the winding core diaphragm 13.
The positive electrode plate 11 is generally composed of a positive electrode substrate layer and a positive electrode active layer coated on both sides of the positive electrode substrate layer. The positive electrode base layer is generally made of a metal material, preferably aluminum or copper, and has a thickness of 5 to 15 μm. The positive active layer can be made of nickel cobalt lithium manganate or lithium iron phosphate or other positive active materials of the lithium ion battery, and is coated on the positive base part 111 according to 0.5-2.0 mol per square meter, and the thickness is 100-200 micrometers. The positive electrode base layer is connected to the positive electrode tab 31, so that the positive electrode tab 11 is connected to the positive electrode tab 31 and connected to the positive electrode post 41 via the positive electrode tab 31. The positive electrode tab 31 is connected to the positive electrode base layer by welding.
The negative electrode plate 12 is generally composed of a negative electrode substrate layer and a negative electrode active layer coated on both sides of the negative electrode substrate layer. The negative electrode substrate layer is generally made of a metal material, preferably aluminum or copper, and has a thickness of 5 to 15 μm. The negative active layer is usually graphite, and is coated on the negative substrate layer according to the proportion of 4-12.5 mol per square meter, and the thickness is 50-150 micrometers. The negative active layer is used as an anode material layer of the lithium ion battery, and those skilled in the art understand that other negative active materials of the lithium ion battery, such as carbon nanomaterials, silicon-based negative materials, tin alloys, lithium titanate, tin oxides, and the like, can also be used. The negative base layer is connected to the negative tab 32, such that the negative pole piece 12 is connected to the negative tab 32 and to the negative pole post 42 via the negative tab 32. The negative electrode substrate layer and the negative electrode tab 32 are typically joined by welding.
The reference pole piece 922 is attached to the winding core 921, and includes a reference pole base layer 21 and a reference pole lithium layer 22 attached to the reference pole base layer 21. The reference electrode base layer 21 is made of a conductive material, usually a metal material, preferably aluminum or copper, and has a thickness of 4.5 to 30 μm. The reference electrode lithium layer 22 is a lithium metal, typically a lithium film having a thickness of 10 to 30 μm. When the reference electrode piece 922 is attached to the winding core 921, the reference electrode lithium layer 22 faces inward, and the reference electrode base layer 21 is located outward, so that the reference electrode lithium layer 22 and the negative electrode piece 12 are separated by the winding core separator 13. The reference pole diaphragm 23 is applied over the reference pole piece 922.
Specifically, the lithium ion battery 900 of the present invention is a lithium ion battery with a reference electrode, and includes a positive electrode, a negative electrode, and a reference electrode. The positive electrode comprises the positive electrode pole piece 11 and the positive electrode pole 41, the negative electrode comprises the negative electrode pole piece 12 and the negative electrode pole 42, and the reference electrode comprises the reference electrode lithium layer 22 and the reference electrode pole 43. The processor 800 is connected to the positive, negative and reference poles of the lithium ion battery 900 via an electrical data acquisition circuit. The electrical data acquisition circuit is used for the lithium ion battery 900 to reference electrical data between the positive and negative poles. In this embodiment, the electrical data acquisition circuit includes a first electrical data acquisition circuit 801 and a second electrical data acquisition circuit 802. The first electrical data acquisition circuit 801 is connected with the anode and the reference electrode of the lithium ion battery 900 through the anode pole 41 and the reference pole 43 connected with the lithium ion battery 900, and is used for acquiring electrical data between the reference electrode and the anode; the second electrical data acquisition circuit 802 is connected to the negative electrode and the reference electrode of the lithium ion battery 900 by connecting the negative electrode post 42 and the reference electrode post 43 of the lithium ion battery 900, and is configured to acquire electrical data between the reference electrode and the negative electrode. The electrical data between the reference electrode and the positive electrode acquired by the first electrical data acquisition circuit 801 includes a voltage and a resistance between the reference electrode and the positive electrode. The electrical data between the reference electrode and the negative electrode collected by the second electrical data collection circuit 802 includes the voltage and the resistance between the reference electrode and the negative electrode. Circuits for acquiring voltage and resistance are familiar to those skilled in the art, and detailed circuit structures of the first electrical data acquisition circuit 801 and the second electrical data acquisition circuit 802 are not described in detail herein. The processor 800 receives the electrical data between the reference electrode and the positive electrode and the negative electrode acquired by the electrical data acquisition circuit by executing the program instruction set, and then judges whether the connected lithium ion battery 900 is failed or not according to the electrical data. The process of the processor 800 executing the program instruction set to determine whether the lithium ion battery 900 is failed is the method for detecting the failure of the lithium ion battery according to the present invention. The method mainly comprises the following two steps:
s1: acquiring electrical data between a reference pole and a positive pole and a negative pole;
s2: and judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by analyzing the electrical data.
The acquisition in step S1 is to acquire the electrical data acquired by the electrical data acquisition circuit.
In step S2, it is determined whether the lithium ion battery is failed according to the following four conditions:
a first condition, whether the first full-power voltage is less than a first voltage threshold;
a second condition, whether the second full electric voltage is less than a second voltage threshold;
a third condition, whether the first resistance ratio is greater than a first resistance ratio threshold;
the fourth condition is whether the second resistance ratio is greater than a second resistance ratio threshold.
Wherein the content of the first and second substances,
the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the positive electrode and the reference electrode in a full-charge state;
the first voltage threshold is a preset value;
the second full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the positive electrode and the reference electrode in a full-charge state;
the second voltage threshold is a preset value;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and a first reference resistance;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance to a second reference resistance;
the first resistance is the resistance value between the currently detected positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the first reference resistance is a resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode which is initially detected;
the second resistance is the current detected resistance between the negative electrode and the reference electrode
The second reference resistance is a resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode detected initially;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value.
The four conditions for judging whether the lithium ion battery fails can be judged independently or in a combined mode. When independently judged, the following conditions are satisfied: the first full-electric voltage is less than a first voltage threshold, or the second full-electric voltage is less than a second voltage threshold; or the first resistance ratio is greater than a first resistance ratio threshold; or the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold value, the lithium ion battery is judged to be invalid.
When the combination mode is determined, the present embodiment provides two combination modes: the first combination is to combine the first condition, the third condition, and the fourth condition; the second combination is to combine the second condition, the third condition, and the fourth condition.
Under the first combination mode, the following conditions are met: and if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold value, the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold value, or the first full-electricity voltage is smaller than the first voltage threshold value, the lithium ion battery is judged to be invalid.
Under the second combination formula, satisfy: and if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold value, the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold value, or the second full-electricity voltage is smaller than the second voltage threshold value, the lithium ion battery is judged to be invalid.
The method for detecting the failure of the lithium ion battery is based on the following experimental data about the lithium ion battery.
First, 16 sheets of the positive electrode tab 11 having a size of 53 mm × 108 mm, 17 sheets of the negative electrode tab 12 having a size of 55 mm × 110 mm, and 34 sheets of the winding core separator 13 having a size of 55 mm × 110 mm were laminated in the laminated structure shown in fig. 2 to obtain a winding core 921 having a thickness of about 3.9 mm and a width and a length of 55 mm and 110 mm, respectively. The positive electrode plate 11 uses an aluminum foil with a thickness of 13 microns as a positive electrode substrate layer, the positive electrode active layer adopts nickel cobalt lithium manganate, and the nickel cobalt lithium manganate is coated on the positive electrode substrate layer according to a single-side coating amount of 162 micrograms per square millimeter to form the positive electrode active layer. The negative electrode plate 12 uses a copper foil with the thickness of 8 microns as a negative electrode substrate layer, the negative electrode active layer adopts graphite, and the graphite is coated on the negative electrode substrate layer by a single-side coating amount of 103 micrograms per square millimeter to form the negative electrode active layer. The positive electrode tab 31 is an aluminum tab. The negative electrode tab 32 is a copper nickel-plated tab. The roll core diaphragm 13 is a commercial polypropylene microporous diaphragm with the thickness of 16 microns and the porosity of 50%.
Then, a reference electrode piece 922 is attached to the bottom surface of the winding core 921, and then a reference electrode separator 23 is attached to the bottom surface to obtain the battery cell 920. The reference electrode sheet 922 includes a copper foil 8 μm thick as the reference electrode base layer 21, and a lithium film 20 μm thick as the reference electrode lithium layer 22. The dimensions of the reference lithium layer 22 were 40 mm x 70 mm. The reference pole base layer 21 has dimensions of 48 mm × 90 mm. The reference electrode separator 23 is made of the same material as the winding core separator 13 and has the following dimensions: 55 mm by 110 mm. The reference electrode tab 33 is made of a nickel copper plate.
The battery cell 920 is placed in the battery case 910, and the positive electrode tab 31 and the positive electrode post 41 are welded to each other, the negative electrode tab 32 and the negative electrode post 42 are welded to each other, and the reference electrode tab 33 and the reference electrode post 43 are welded to each other. And injecting an electrolyte to seal the battery case 910 to obtain the lithium ion battery 900. The electrolyte adopts commercial electrolyte, the solvent of the commercial electrolyte is a mixed solvent formed by mixing ethylene carbonate, methyl ethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate, and the electrolyte lithium salt is lithium hexafluorophosphate with the concentration of 1 mol per liter. The battery case 910 is soft-packaged with an aluminum plastic film. The size of the prepared lithium ion battery is 4.0 mm multiplied by 60 mm multiplied by 150 mm. The lithium ion battery capacity was 3.2 hours ampere. When full charge, the voltage difference between the positive and negative electrodes is 4.2V. The resistance between the positive and reference electrodes was 14.7 milliohms; the resistance between the negative electrode and the reference electrode was 9.9 milliohms. When the new lithium ion battery is charged by 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%, the voltage difference between the positive electrode and the negative electrode is respectively as follows: 2.8 volts, 3.55 volts, 3.65 volts, 3.83 volts, 4.01 volts, 4.20 volts, and the voltage difference between the positive electrode and the reference electrode is: 3.25 volts, 3.68 volts, 3.77 volts, 3.92 volts, 4.09 volts, 4.25 volts, the voltages of the negative electrode with respect to the reference electrode were: 0.45 volts, 0.14 volts, 0.13 volts, 0.09 volts, 0.05 volts.
The lithium ion battery was subjected to a cycle sufficiency electrical test. After the charge and discharge are cycled for 500 times, 1000 times, 1500 times, 2000 times and 2500 times, the voltage difference of the positive electrode relative to the reference electrode is respectively as follows: 4.250 volts, 4.244 volts, 4.232 volts, 4.221 volts, 4.192 volts, and the negative relative to the reference voltages are: 0.052 volts, 0.050 volts, 0.044 volts, 0.032 volts, 0.021 volts, -0.008 volts, and the resistance impedance between the positive electrode and the reference electrode is respectively: 16.1 milli-ohms, 17.2 milli-ohms, 18.8 milli-ohms, 19.6 milli-ohms, 22.8 milli-ohms. The resistance impedances between the negative electrode and the reference electrode were 10.3 milliohms, 11.7 milliohms, 13.3 milliohms, 14.6 milliohms, and 16.3 milliohms, respectively.
According to the above experimental results, as the number of cycles of charge and discharge increases, the full-charge voltage of the positive electrode with respect to the reference electrode and the full-charge voltage of the negative electrode with respect to the reference electrode gradually decrease, and the resistance between the positive electrode and the reference electrode and the resistance between the negative electrode and the reference electrode gradually increase. After 2500 cycles of full charge, the full voltage of the positive electrode with respect to the reference electrode decreased from 4.250 v to 4.192 v, the full voltage of the negative electrode with respect to the reference electrode decreased from 0.052 v to-0.008 v, the resistance between the positive electrode and the reference electrode increased by 55.1% from the initial 14.7 milliohms, and the resistance between the negative electrode and the reference electrode increased by 64.6% from the initial 9.9 milliohms.
On the other hand, generally speaking, the number of times of the lithium ion battery with the positive electrode made of the nickel cobalt lithium manganate ternary material can be cyclically charged and discharged is 2000-3000. Therefore, after 2500 cycles of full charge, the service life of the lithium ion battery can be judged to be close to the limit and to be at the edge of scrap. Therefore, selecting a threshold value near-0.008 volts and 4.192 volts, respectively, may be used as the first voltage threshold value and the second voltage threshold value in the aforementioned first condition and second condition as the criterion for evaluating whether the battery is failed. For example, the first voltage threshold is selected to be-0.010 volts and the second voltage threshold is selected to be 4.190 volts. Similarly, the first resistance ratio threshold value and the second resistance ratio threshold value in the third condition and the fourth condition may be selected based on the increase in resistance between the positive electrode and the reference electrode and the increase in resistance between the negative electrode and the reference electrode, respectively. For example, the first resistance ratio threshold value is selected to be 1.60, and the second resistance ratio threshold value is selected to be 1.70.
Obviously, the first voltage threshold, the second voltage threshold, the first resistance ratio threshold and the second resistance ratio threshold may be different for different lithium ion batteries due to different selection of anode materials, cathode materials, electrolyte materials and different internal structures.

Claims (15)

1. A method for detecting failure of a lithium ion battery is characterized in that the method relates to a lithium ion battery; the lithium ion battery comprises a positive electrode, a negative electrode and a reference electrode; the reference electrode comprises a reference electrode lithium layer tightly attached to the winding core and a reference electrode pole connected with the reference electrode lithium layer through a reference electrode tab; the positive electrode comprises a positive pole piece arranged on the winding core and a positive pole post connected with the positive pole piece through a positive pole lug; the negative electrode comprises a negative electrode pole piece arranged on the winding core and a negative electrode pole connected with the negative electrode pole piece through a negative electrode tab; the winding core is formed by laminating or winding a positive pole piece, a negative pole piece and a winding core diaphragm; the outermost layer of the winding core is the negative electrode plate coated by the winding core diaphragm, so that the reference electrode lithium layer is separated from the negative electrode plate through the winding core diaphragm; the outer layer of the reference electrode lithium layer is coated by a reference electrode diaphragm;
the method comprises the following steps:
s1: acquiring electrical data between the reference electrode and the positive electrode and the negative electrode;
s2: and judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by analyzing the electrical data.
2. The method of lithium ion battery failure detection of claim 1, wherein the electrical data comprises a first full electrical voltage; the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the negative electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state;
the step S2 includes:
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first full-electricity voltage with a first voltage threshold; if the first full-electricity voltage is smaller than the first voltage threshold, judging that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first voltage threshold is a preset value.
3. The method of lithium ion battery failure detection of claim 1, wherein the electrical data comprises a second full electrical voltage; the second full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the positive electrode and the reference electrode in a full-charge state;
the step S2 includes:
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the second full-electricity voltage with a second voltage threshold; if the second full-electricity voltage is smaller than the second voltage threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the second voltage threshold is a preset value.
4. The method of lithium ion battery failure detection of claim 1, wherein the electrical data comprises a first resistance; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
said step S2 includes;
calculating a first resistance ratio;
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold value, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value.
5. The method of lithium ion battery failure detection of claim 1, wherein the electrical data comprises a second resistance; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
said step S2 includes;
calculating a second resistance ratio;
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value; if the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value.
6. The method of lithium ion battery failure detection of claim 1, wherein the electrical data comprises a first full electrical voltage, a first resistance, and a second resistance; the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the negative electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode; the step S2 includes:
calculating a first resistance ratio;
calculating a second resistance ratio;
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value, comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value and comparing the first full-electricity voltage with a first voltage threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold, the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold, or the first full-electricity voltage is smaller than the first voltage threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the first voltage threshold is a preset value.
7. The method of lithium ion battery failure detection of claim 1, wherein the electrical data comprises a second full electrical voltage, a first resistance, and a second resistance; the second full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the positive electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode; the step S2 includes:
calculating a first resistance ratio;
calculating a second resistance ratio;
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value, comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value and comparing the second full-charge voltage with a second voltage threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold value, the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold value, or the second full-electricity voltage is smaller than the second voltage threshold value, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second voltage threshold is a preset value.
8. The device for detecting the failure of the lithium ion battery is characterized in that the device is connected with the lithium ion battery; the lithium ion battery comprises a positive electrode, a negative electrode and a reference electrode; the reference electrode comprises a reference electrode lithium layer tightly attached to the winding core and a reference electrode pole connected with the reference electrode lithium layer through a reference electrode tab; the positive electrode comprises a positive pole piece arranged on the winding core and a positive pole post connected with the positive pole piece through a positive pole lug; the negative electrode comprises a negative electrode pole piece arranged on the winding core and a negative electrode pole connected with the negative electrode pole piece through a negative electrode tab; the winding core is formed by laminating or winding a positive pole piece, a negative pole piece and a winding core diaphragm; the outermost layer of the winding core is the negative electrode plate coated by the winding core diaphragm, so that the reference electrode lithium layer is separated from the negative electrode plate through the winding core diaphragm; the outer layer of the reference electrode lithium layer is coated by a reference electrode diaphragm;
the device comprises the following modules:
m1, used for: acquiring electrical data between the reference electrode and the positive electrode and the negative electrode;
m2, used for: and judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by analyzing the electrical data.
9. The lithium ion battery failure detection apparatus of claim 8, wherein the electrical data comprises a first full electrical voltage; the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the negative electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state;
in the module M2:
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first full-electricity voltage with a first voltage threshold; if the first full-electricity voltage is smaller than the first voltage threshold, judging that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first voltage threshold is a preset value.
10. The lithium ion battery failure detection apparatus of claim 8, wherein the electrical data comprises a second full electrical voltage; the second full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the positive electrode and the reference electrode in a full-charge state;
in the module M2:
judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the second full-electricity voltage with a second voltage threshold; if the second full-electricity voltage is smaller than the second voltage threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the second voltage threshold is a preset value.
11. The lithium ion battery failure detection apparatus of claim 8, wherein the electrical data comprises a first resistance; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the module M2 includes the following modules:
m21, used for: calculating a first resistance ratio;
m291, for: judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold value, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value.
12. The lithium ion battery failure detection apparatus of claim 8, wherein the electrical data comprises a second resistance; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the module M2 includes the following modules:
m22, used for: calculating a second resistance ratio;
m292, for: judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value; if the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value.
13. The lithium ion battery failure detection apparatus of claim 8, wherein the electrical data comprises a first full electrical voltage, a first resistance, and a second resistance; the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the negative electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode; the module M2 includes the following modules:
m21, used for: calculating a first resistance ratio;
m22, used for: calculating a second resistance ratio;
m293 for: judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value, comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value and comparing the first full-electricity voltage with a first voltage threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold, the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold, or the first full-electricity voltage is smaller than the first voltage threshold, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the first voltage threshold is a preset value.
14. The lithium ion battery failure detection apparatus of claim 8, wherein the electrical data comprises a second full electrical voltage, a first resistance, and a second resistance; the first full-charge voltage is a voltage difference between the positive electrode and a reference electrode in a full-charge state; the first resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode; the second resistance is a currently detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode; the module M2 includes the following modules:
m21, used for: calculating a first resistance ratio;
m22, used for: calculating a second resistance ratio;
m294, for: judging whether the lithium ion battery fails or not by comparing the first resistance ratio with a first resistance ratio threshold value, comparing the second resistance ratio with a second resistance ratio threshold value and comparing the second full-charge voltage with a second voltage threshold value; if the first resistance ratio is larger than the first resistance ratio threshold value, the second resistance ratio is larger than the second resistance ratio threshold value, or the second full-electricity voltage is smaller than the second voltage threshold value, determining that the lithium ion battery is invalid;
the first resistance ratio is a ratio of the first resistance and the first reference resistance;
the second resistance ratio is a ratio of the second resistance and the second reference resistance;
the first reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the positive electrode and the reference electrode;
the second reference resistance is an initially detected resistance value between the negative electrode and the reference electrode;
the first resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second resistance ratio threshold value is a preset value;
the second voltage threshold is a preset value.
15. The system for detecting the failure of the lithium ion battery is characterized by comprising a processor, an electrical data acquisition circuit and the lithium ion battery; the lithium ion battery comprises a positive electrode, a negative electrode and a reference electrode; the reference electrode comprises a reference electrode lithium layer tightly attached to the winding core and a reference electrode pole connected with the reference electrode lithium layer through a reference electrode tab; the positive electrode comprises a positive pole piece arranged on the winding core and a positive pole post connected with the positive pole piece through a positive pole lug; the negative electrode comprises a negative electrode pole piece arranged on the winding core and a negative electrode pole connected with the negative electrode pole piece through a negative electrode tab; the winding core is formed by laminating or winding a positive pole piece, a negative pole piece and a winding core diaphragm; the outermost layer of the winding core is the negative electrode plate coated by the winding core diaphragm, so that the reference electrode lithium layer is separated from the negative electrode plate through the winding core diaphragm; the outer layer of the reference electrode lithium layer is coated by a reference electrode diaphragm; the processor is connected with the anode, the cathode and the reference electrode of the lithium ion battery through the electric data acquisition circuit; the electrical data acquisition circuit is used for acquiring electrical data between a reference electrode and a positive electrode and a negative electrode of the lithium ion battery; the processor judges whether the lithium ion battery fails by the method for detecting the failure of the lithium ion battery according to any one of claims 1 to 7.
CN202010960673.7A 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 Method, device and system for detecting failure of lithium ion battery Pending CN112098863A (en)

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