CN112098155A - Oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device and method and sampling position determination method - Google Patents

Oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device and method and sampling position determination method Download PDF

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CN112098155A
CN112098155A CN202010959208.1A CN202010959208A CN112098155A CN 112098155 A CN112098155 A CN 112098155A CN 202010959208 A CN202010959208 A CN 202010959208A CN 112098155 A CN112098155 A CN 112098155A
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oil
water
sampling
reaction kettle
reaction
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CN112098155B (en
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刘月田
柴汝宽
薛亮
辛晶
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China University of Petroleum Beijing CUPB
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China University of Petroleum Beijing CUPB
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/02Devices for withdrawing samples
    • G01N1/10Devices for withdrawing samples in the liquid or fluent state
    • G01N1/14Suction devices, e.g. pumps; Ejector devices
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/02Devices for withdrawing samples
    • G01N1/10Devices for withdrawing samples in the liquid or fluent state
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/28Preparing specimens for investigation including physical details of (bio-)chemical methods covered elsewhere, e.g. G01N33/50, C12Q
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using sub-millimetre waves, infrared, visible or ultraviolet light
    • G01N21/17Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated
    • G01N21/25Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using sub-millimetre waves, infrared, visible or ultraviolet light
    • G01N21/17Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated
    • G01N21/25Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands
    • G01N21/31Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry
    • G01N21/35Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry using infra-red light
    • G01N21/3577Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry using infra-red light for analysing liquids, e.g. polluted water
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using sub-millimetre waves, infrared, visible or ultraviolet light
    • G01N21/17Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated
    • G01N21/25Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands
    • G01N21/31Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry
    • G01N21/35Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry using infra-red light
    • G01N2021/3595Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry using infra-red light using FTIR

Abstract

The specification provides an oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device, an oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental method and a sampling position determining method, wherein the oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device comprises the following steps: the reaction kettle is provided with an injection end and an outflow end which are opposite in the longitudinal direction; the reaction kettle is provided with a hollow cavity, at least one sampler is arranged in the hollow cavity, the at least one sampler is arranged between the injection end and the outflow end according to a preset relation, and the preset relation is that the cross section where the sampler is located equally divides the volume of a seepage field in the reaction kettle into a plurality of target sampling volumes; a sampling port corresponding to each sampler is arranged on the reaction kettle; the first heating mechanism is arranged at the injection end; a second heating mechanism disposed at the outflow end; an injection mechanism for injecting the displacement fluid and the crude oil into the reaction kettle; the sampling pump is connected with the sampling port; the first oil-water separator is connected with the sampling pump; infrared spectrum tester and ion spectrum tester. The specification can simulate the oil-water-rock reaction and realize the in-situ fluid property measurement, and is beneficial to explaining the oil-water-rock reaction mechanism.

Description

Oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device and method and sampling position determination method
Technical Field
The application relates to the technical field of indoor experiments of oil and gas field development, in particular to an oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device and method and a sampling position determining method.
Background
The crude oil-formation water-rock reaction is a main control factor for occurrence and flow of reservoir fluid, and the experiment exploration of the crude oil-formation water-rock reaction mechanism is helpful for fundamentally understanding the formation and distribution mechanism of residual oil in the development process of an oil-gas reservoir, and provides theoretical support for targeted enhanced recovery. Before oil and gas development, a core displacement experiment is generally required indoors to simulate the oil and gas development, core parameters such as recovery rate and the like are obtained in the simulation process to research the distribution and formation mechanism of residual oil and guide the subsequent oil and gas exploitation.
In the prior art, in some core displacement experiments, the contrast difference between the injection amount and the extraction amount of crude oil is used as a technical means, and the extraction degree is used as an index to reversely push the distribution and saturation characteristics of the residual oil in the core, so that the total residual crude oil amount in the core can be obtained. However, the specific nature of the crude oil remaining inside the core is not known. Because the chemical composition of the residual oil has a direct influence on the enhanced oil recovery technology, the research on the chemical composition of the residual oil has important practical significance.
Or in some core displacement experiments, crude oil-formation water-rock reaction inside the core is reversely pushed by researching physical and chemical properties of produced fluid and comparing with the change of injected fluid. However, the obtained produced fluid is the fluid flowing through the inner part of the core in a certain time period, and the produced fluid obtained under the condition is actually the average value of the properties of the whole fluid, so that the difference distribution characteristics of the fluid in the core cannot be accurately mastered, and the accuracy of the reaction research of crude oil-formation water-rock is weakened.
With the development of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) and CT (Computed Tomography) technologies, the method can be used for scanning a displacement core, accurately exploring the oil and water distribution characteristics in the core, and determining the position and saturation of the residual oil. But the physical and chemical properties of crude oil and injected water in the displacement process cannot be accurately detected due to the limitation of the conditions of the equipment, and the reaction mechanism of crude oil-formation water-rock cannot be explained. That is, only the amount of remaining oil can be obtained by the above experimental technique, and where the remaining oil is, the property of the remaining oil cannot be grasped.
Therefore, experimental studies in the prior art cannot be well used for carrying out fine research on the reaction mechanism of crude oil-formation water-rock, and it is very necessary to provide an experimental device and method for oil-water-rock reaction of an oil reservoir and a method for determining a sampling position to solve the defects of the existing experimental device and method.
It should be noted that the above background description is only for the sake of clarity and complete description of the technical solutions of the present invention and for the understanding of those skilled in the art. Such solutions are not considered to be known to the person skilled in the art merely because they have been set forth in the background section of the invention.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve at least one technical problem in the prior art, the application provides an oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device, an oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental method and a sampling position determination method, which can simulate oil-water-rock reaction and realize in-situ fluid property determination, can represent oil-water distribution characteristics, can determine in-situ oil-water physical characteristics, and are beneficial to explaining an oil-water-rock reaction mechanism.
In order to achieve the above object, the technical solutions provided in the present specification are as follows:
an oil reservoir oil water rock reaction experimental apparatus includes:
a reaction vessel disposed longitudinally along a lengthwise extension direction, the reaction vessel having opposing injection and outflow ends in the longitudinal direction; the reaction kettle is provided with a hollow chamber for filling rock cores with different mesh numbers, at least one sampler is arranged in the hollow chamber, the at least one sampler is arranged between the injection end and the outflow end according to a preset relationship, and the preset relationship is that the cross section of the sampler equally divides the volume of a seepage field in the reaction kettle into a plurality of target sampling volumes; the reaction kettle is provided with a sampling port corresponding to each sampler;
the first heating mechanism is arranged at the injection end;
a second heating mechanism disposed at the outflow end;
the injection mechanism is connected with the injection end and injects the displacement fluid and the crude oil into the reaction kettle;
the sampling pump is connected with the sampling port;
the first oil-water separator is connected with the sampling pump and is provided with a first oil outlet and a first water outlet;
the infrared spectrum tester is connected with the first oil outlet;
and the ion spectrum tester is connected with the first water outlet.
As a preferred embodiment, the reaction kettle is of a cylinder structure, the length of the reaction kettle is 30cm, and the diameter of the bottom surface of the reaction kettle is 2.5 cm.
In a preferred embodiment, the sampler is a capillary sampler, and the volume of the seepage field in the reaction kettle is expressed as:
the target sampling volume is expressed as:
in the above formula, a represents the distance between the injection end or the outflow end and the origin of coordinates, and has a unit of m; c1Represents a constant; vtExpressed as the seepage field volume in m3;VnExpressed as target sample volume in m3(ii) a n represents the number of target sampling volumes; y isnShown as the cross-sectional location of the sampler.
As a preferred embodiment, when the number of the samplers is nine, the positions of the cross sections of the nine samplers on the coordinate are: y is1=0,y2=0.1185a;y2′=-0.1185a;y3=0.2421a;y3′=-0.2421a;y4=0.3788a;y4′=-0.3788a;y5=0.5471a;y5′=-0.5471a。
As a preferred embodiment, the injection mechanism includes:
an injection pump;
an intermediate container connected to the infusion pump, comprising: the displacement system comprises a first intermediate container for containing displacement fluid and a second intermediate container for containing crude oil, wherein the first intermediate container and the second intermediate container are arranged in parallel;
a first control valve disposed between the injection pump and the first intermediate container;
a second control valve disposed between the injection pump and the second intermediate container.
As a preferred embodiment, the experimental apparatus comprises: the second oil-water separator is connected with the outflow end and is provided with a second oil outlet and a second water outlet; the first measuring cylinder is connected with the second oil outlet; the second measuring cylinder is connected with the second water outlet; an electronic balance.
As a preferred embodiment, the experimental apparatus further comprises: and the gas supply mechanism supplies gas to the hollow cavity of the reaction kettle and is connected with a pressure gauge.
An experimental method using the oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device comprises the following steps:
setting the first heating mechanism to be at a first temperature and the second heating mechanism to be at a second temperature so as to simulate the actual oil reservoir characteristics;
injecting a displacement fluid into the reaction kettle through the injection mechanism to saturate a rock core in the reaction kettle, forming formation water in the rock core, and stopping injecting the displacement fluid after the flow of the injection end and the flow of the outflow end are balanced;
opening the sampling pump to sample formation water in the rock core, and analyzing the formation water ion composition through the ion spectrum tester;
injecting crude oil into the reaction kettle through the injection mechanism to saturate the rock core in the reaction kettle, and stopping injecting the crude oil after the rock core is saturated;
after waiting for a preset time, starting the sampling pump to sample the crude oil in the rock core, and analyzing the difference of the crude oil components in different positions of the rock core through an infrared spectrum tester so as to research the crude oil differential characteristics under the influence of temperature and gravity;
injecting a displacement fluid into the reaction kettle through the injection mechanism to displace crude oil in the rock core, performing oil-water separation on produced fluid at the outflow end, and measuring the produced oil and water;
in the core displacement process, the sampling pump and the first oil-water separator are opened to sample fluid in the core, crude oil component characteristics in the current state are determined through an infrared spectrum tester, and formation water ion composition characteristics in the current state are determined through an ion spectrum tester.
A method of determining a sampling location for in situ fluid sampling, the method comprising:
fluid seepage between a production well and a water injection well is equivalent to flow of a one-source one-sink seepage flow field, a physical oil-water-rock reaction model of an oil reservoir and a flow line equation of the flow field are established, and the flow field is quantified;
determining a seepage field volume and a plurality of target sampling volumes based on the established flow field streamline equation, wherein the plurality of target sampling volumes equally divide the seepage field volume;
and selecting a cross section position between the target sampling volumes in the physical model to place the sampler based on the established physical model.
As a preferred embodiment, the flow field streamline equation is expressed as:
wherein, the long semi-axis is a, the short semi-axis is
The seepage field volume is expressed as:
the target sampling volume is expressed as:
in the above formula, x represents the x-axis coordinate value of the fluid trajectory; y represents the y-axis coordinate value of the fluid trajectory; a represents the distance between the production well or the water injection well and the origin of coordinates, and the unit is m; c1Represents a constant; vtExpressed as the seepage field volume in m3;VnExpressed as target sample volume in m3(ii) a n represents the number of target sampling volumes; y isnShown as the cross-sectional location of the sampler.
The oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device and method and the sampling position determining method provided by the embodiment of the application have the following advantages and characteristics:
according to the oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device and method provided by the embodiment of the specification, the injection end and the outflow end of the reaction kettle are respectively provided with the heating mechanisms, a certain temperature difference can be formed in the reaction kettle and the rock core, and the actual oil reservoir characteristics can be reflected. The experimental device can simulate the oil-water-rock reaction and realize in-situ fluid property measurement so as to be used for researching the crude oil differential characteristics under the influence of temperature and gravity; and the in-situ liquid in the rock core can be obtained in the rock core displacement process, and the liquid property can be measured. Therefore, the distribution characteristics of the residual oil and the components of the residual oil in the rock core under different displacement time and different displacement modes can be determined, and a powerful support is provided for explaining the oil-water-rock reaction mechanism and improving the recovery ratio in a targeted manner.
In the experimental method provided by the embodiment of the specification, the actual oil reservoir characteristics can be simulated, the distribution characteristics of the crude oil components in the core in the presence of a temperature gradient can be obtained, and the differentiation characteristics of the crude oil components under the influence of temperature and gravity coupling can be mastered.
The oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device and the sampling position determining method provided by the embodiment of the specification can be used for establishing a mathematical model to determine the position of the sampler by combining the fluid flow and distribution rules, ensuring the sampling representativeness and avoiding blind sampling. Specifically, target sampling volumes which are equally divided in a seepage field flow field are uniformly selected, a sampler is placed at a cross section position between the target sampling volumes, and a material composition change rule of a sampling position in the whole displacement is accurately represented. Meanwhile, one sampling position parameter is verified with a sampling position adjacent to the equal volume distance to form a gradient, and the change rule of the substances among the sampling positions is accurately described.
Specific embodiments of the present application are disclosed in detail with reference to the following description and drawings, indicating the manner in which the principles of the application may be employed. It should be understood that the embodiments of the present application are not so limited in scope.
Features that are described and/or illustrated with respect to one embodiment may be used in the same way or in a similar way in one or more other embodiments, in combination with or instead of the features of the other embodiments.
It should be emphasized that the term "comprises/comprising" when used herein, is taken to specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps or components but does not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps or components.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present application or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings needed to be used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly described below, it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present application, and other drawings can be obtained by those skilled in the art without inventive labor.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of an experimental apparatus for oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction provided in an embodiment of the present disclosure;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of a reservoir fluid flow model provided in an embodiment of the present disclosure;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a planar model of a seepage field provided in an embodiment of the present disclosure;
FIG. 4 is a schematic flow chart of an experimental method for oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction provided in an embodiment of the present disclosure;
fig. 5 is a flowchart illustrating a method for determining a sampling position according to an embodiment of the present disclosure.
Description of reference numerals:
1. an injection pump; 2. a first intermediate container; 3. a second intermediate container; 4. a reaction kettle; 5. a first heating mechanism; 6. a core; 7. a sampler; 8. a second heating mechanism; 9. a sampling pump; 10. a first oil-water separator; 11. an infrared spectrum tester; 12. an ion spectrum tester; 13. a second oil-water separator; 14. a measuring cylinder; 15. an electronic balance; 16. and an air supply mechanism.
Detailed Description
While the invention will be described in detail with reference to the drawings and specific embodiments, it is to be understood that these embodiments are merely illustrative of and not restrictive on the broad invention, and that various equivalent modifications can be effected therein by those skilled in the art upon reading the disclosure.
It will be understood that when an element is referred to as being "disposed on" another element, it can be directly on the other element or intervening elements may also be present. When an element is referred to as being "connected" to another element, it can be directly connected to the other element or intervening elements may also be present. The terms "vertical," "horizontal," "upper," "lower," "left," "right," and the like as used herein are for illustrative purposes only and do not denote a unique embodiment.
The reservoir oil-water rock reaction experimental device, method and sampling position determination method according to the embodiment of the present invention will be explained and explained with reference to fig. 1 to 5. Specifically, an upward direction in fig. 1 is defined as "up", and a downward direction illustrated in fig. 1 is defined as "down".
In water-rock reaction experimental research, a micro CT scanning system is usually adopted to perform real-time in-situ imaging monitoring, and parameters such as diffusion distribution tendency and saturation distribution of fluid among core pores are monitored in real time, so as to determine the distribution position and saturation of experimental fluid. Meanwhile, the water rock reaction in the reaction kettle is reversely deduced through the ion test result of the produced liquid.
But the physical characteristics of the in-situ fluid at different positions of the rock core cannot be directly obtained by adopting the device, and the device is not helpful for the explanation of the water-rock chemical reaction. In addition, the produced fluid obtained by such devices is produced fluid flowing through the entire core, and thus the fluid properties of the obtained produced fluid are actually the average of the fluid properties inside the entire core. Through experimental research carried out by the device, the differences of water-rock reactions at different positions in the rock core are ignored. The in-situ fluid is expressed as fluid at a certain position in the rock core in the testing process, the concept of the in-situ fluid is different from that of conventional fluid, and the in-situ fluid considers the occurrence state and environment of the fluid in the rock core and better accords with the characteristics of an actual oil reservoir.
In order to overcome the defects of the existing experimental research, the embodiment of the specification provides an oil reservoir water rock reaction experimental device. As shown in fig. 1, the experimental apparatus includes: a reaction vessel 4 disposed longitudinally along the longitudinal extension direction, the reaction vessel 4 having opposite injection and outflow ends in the longitudinal direction; the reaction kettle 4 is provided with a hollow cavity used for filling rock cores 6 with different mesh numbers, at least one sampler 7 is arranged in the hollow cavity, the at least one sampler 7 is arranged between the injection end and the outflow end according to a preset relationship, and the preset relationship is that the cross section of the sampler 7 equally divides the seepage field volume in the reaction kettle 4 into a plurality of target sampling volumes; the reaction kettle 4 is provided with a sampling port corresponding to each sampler 7; a first heating mechanism 5 disposed at the injection end; a second heating means 8 provided at the outflow end; an injection mechanism connected with the injection end and injecting the displacement fluid and the crude oil into the reaction kettle 4; a sampling pump 9 connected to the sampling port; the first oil-water separator 10 is connected with the sampling pump 9, and the first oil-water separator 10 is provided with a first oil outlet and a first water outlet; the infrared spectrum tester 11 is connected with the first oil outlet; and the ion spectrum tester 12 is connected with the first water outlet.
The reaction kettle 4 is used for containing a rock core 6 and arranging a sampler 7. The reaction vessel 4 is disposed longitudinally along the longitudinal extension, and the fluid entering from the injection end flows toward the outflow end along the gravity direction. And heating mechanisms are respectively arranged at the injection end and the outflow end of the reaction kettle 4, so that the oil-water-rock reaction under the influence of temperature and gravity can be researched. The temperatures of different depth positions in an actual oil reservoir have obvious difference, particularly the oil reservoir depth is often hundreds of meters or even kilometers, and the crude oil components of an upper oil reservoir and a lower oil reservoir are different under the action of gravity and temperature. The oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device provided by the specification can reflect actual oil reservoir characteristics, for example, the temperature of an injection end can be set to be 20 ℃ through the first heating mechanism 5, the temperature of an outflow end is set to be 200 ℃ through the second heating mechanism 8, crude oil close to the outflow end is subjected to a cracking reaction under the catalysis of the temperature, different components are generated, wherein heavy crude oil components are transported to the lower end of the reaction kettle 4, and light hydrocarbon components are transported to the upper end of the reaction kettle 4. Therefore, the experimental device can simulate the formation process of an actual oil reservoir, and the in-situ fluid is sampled through the sampler 7, so that the oil reservoir distribution and formation mechanism can be explained.
The first heating mechanism 5 and the second heating mechanism 8 may be set at the same temperature or different temperatures to form a certain temperature difference, so that the in-situ fluid can be sampled and measured under the influence of the temperature gradient. Preferably, the first heating mechanism 5 and the second heating mechanism 8 are electric heating plates.
The reaction kettle 4 is preferably of a cylindrical structure, the length of the reaction kettle 4 is 30cm, and the diameter of the bottom surface of the reaction kettle 4 is 2.5 cm. When utilizing this device to carry out the displacement experiment, this injection end is arranged in simulating the water injection well in the stratum, and this outflow end is arranged in simulating the production well in the stratum, because actual displacement in-process, stratum thickness is great, and reation kettle 4's length is at 30cm, compares in the thickness of actual stratum, and the action of gravity can be ignored to the displacement process in reation kettle 4.
A sampler 7 is also arranged in the reaction kettle 4, and at least one sampler 7 is arranged in the reaction kettle. In general, the sampler 7 is provided in plural because different positions of the core 6 are sampled. A plurality of samplers 7 are arranged in a preset relationship between the injection end and the outflow end so that the in-situ fluid collected by the samplers 7 is located in the flow path of the displacement fluid or the crude oil to better characterize the differences in crude oil composition at different positions of the core 6. The sampler 7 may be embedded in the core 6 or may be fixed in some other way to collect the in situ fluid. The reaction kettle 4 is provided with a sampling port corresponding to the sampler 7 for the fluid collected by the sampler 7 to flow out. The number of the sampling ports is matched with that of the samplers 7, and the sampling ports are arranged on the side wall of the reaction kettle 4. And the collected in-situ fluid flows out through the connecting external pipeline.
The sampling pump 9 is connected with the sampling port. A valve can be arranged between the sampling pump 9 and the sampling port. Specifically, as shown in fig. 1, the sampling pump 9 is connected to each sampling port through a pipeline, and the pipeline is provided with a valve for controlling the sampling pump 9 to collect fluid from each sampling port.
In the embodiment of the present specification, the predetermined relationship between the injection end and the outflow end of the sampler 7 is that the cross section of the sampler 7 equally divides the seepage field volume in the reaction vessel 4 into a plurality of target sampling volumes. Wherein, the section of the sampler 7 is the section of the sampler 7 along the width direction of the reaction kettle 4.
The fluid in the reaction vessel 4 forms a seepage field in the reaction vessel 4 when permeating along the pores in the core 6. The actual reservoir fluid flow follows a source-sink rule, and the fluid flow in the reaction kettle 4 is similar to the actual reservoir and conforms to the source-sink flow rule. As shown in fig. 2, the entire volume of the seepage field in the reaction tank 4 is a spindle. A plurality of samplers 7 are arranged along the whole seepage field and buried at preset positions, so that fluid distribution characteristics of different positions in the rock core 6 can be fully represented. For example, the whole seepage field volume is equally divided into three target sampling volumes, the position of the sampler 7 is cut in an equal volume based on the seepage field flowing from one source to one sink, the number of the samplers 7 is one less than that of the target sampling volumes, two samplers 7 are arranged, and the sampler comprises a first sampler and a second sampler, and the spindle-shaped seepage field is equally divided by the cross section where the first sampler and the second sampler are located. A space rectangular coordinate system is established by taking a half of the distance between an injection end and an outflow end of the reaction kettle 4 as a coordinate origin, a seepage field is an ellipsoid seepage field formed by a fluid flow line rotating for a circle around a coordinate axis, and in-situ fluids obtained by the first sampler and the second sampler represent fluid component characteristics of the upper part and the middle part of the ellipsoid and can reflect the change rule of the material composition of the part in the whole displacement.
In principle, the more the number of the samplers 7 is, the more sufficient the data is acquired, and the more finely the differentiation characteristics of the crude oil components inside the core 6 can be described. In addition, the parameters between adjacent samplers 7 can form a gradient according to the distance between adjacent samplers 7, so that the change rule of the substances between the samplers 7 can be described more intuitively. The sampler 7 is a capillary sampler, and the sampler 7 is small in size, so that the influence on the fluid flow in the rock core 6 can be reduced.
In the experimental device for oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction provided by the embodiment of the specification, a seepage field and a temperature field exist in the reaction kettle 4. The seepage field is a spindle, even if uniform sampling or equidistant sampling is performed along the actual volume of the reaction kettle 4, the fluid migration rule in the reaction kettle 4 cannot be accurately represented, and the measured data is not representative. The experimental device fully considers the actual shape of the seepage field, the sampling is more representative, and the fluid migration rule in the seepage field can be prepared and reflected.
In the examples of the present specification, the volume of the seepage field in the reaction tank 4 is expressed as:
the target sampling volume is expressed as:
in the above formula, a represents the distance between the injection end or the outflow end and the origin of coordinates, and has a unit of m; c1Represents a constant; vtExpressed as the seepage field volume in m3;VnExpressed as target sample volume in m3(ii) a n represents the number of target sampling volumes; y isnShown as the cross-sectional position of the sampler 7.
In this specification, the fluid flowing rule in the reaction vessel 4 is approximated to a source-sink seepage field flow, and the following formula is obtained according to the principle of the complex potential superposition of the source-sink seepage field:
in the above formula, W represents the potential that a production source converges to any point in an infinite formation; q represents the yield per thickness (yield strength), t/d; z is expressed as any point on the plane; C. c0'、C0"is a constant.
Obtaining by angle-preserving transformation:
then the process of the first step is carried out,
wherein C ═ C0'+C0″=C3+iC4
In the formula: r is1Expressed as the distance in m from any point in the formation to the producing well; r is2Expressed as the distance, m, of any point in the formation from the injection well; theta1、θ2Representing the included angle between the connecting line from any point of the stratum to the production well and the injection well and the positive direction of the coordinate axis, rad; i. c3、C4Expressed as a constant.
The flow function is:
finishing to obtain:
the streamline equation is:
in the formula: x and y are flow line equation unknowns; c1Is a constant.
The streamline equation is shown in FIG. 3, and the formed seepage field plane has a long semi-axis length and a short semi-axis length
Obtainable from formula (1):
integrating (2) to obtain seepage volume Vt
So when n is equally divided: volume Vn
Simultaneous equations (3) to (5);
thus, by solving equation (6), y can be obtainednAnd a, C1N. The solving process is schematically as follows:
introducing a Melaulin formula:
when f (y)n) When the value is 0:
when the order of 4 is later, the values are all 0 and are approximate to
In one embodiment, when the number of the samplers 7 is nine, the cross section where the nine samplers 7 are located is located in the coordinate position: y is1=0,y2=0.1185a;y2′=-0.1185a;y3=0.2421a;y3′=-0.2421a;y4=0.3788a;y4′=-0.3788a;y5=0.5471a;y5′=-0.5471a。
TABLE 1 Cross-sectional position of sampler at equal division of seepage field
In table 1, the number of target sampling volumes is 2 to 10, the number of corresponding samplers 7 is 1 to 9, and the positions of the samplers 7 are compared with the table, so that blind arrangement of the samplers 7 can be avoided. In addition, what has been illustrated above is the position of the cross section of the sampler 7, on which sampler 7 there are sampling points for extracting the fluid, a plurality of sampling points on the sampler 7 being preferably placed along the central axis of the ellipsoidal seepage field, i.e. along the central axis of the reaction vessel 4 in the longitudinal extension.
During the displacement of the crude oil, the fluid taken out from the sampler 7 may be subjected to oil-water separation by the first oil-water separator 10. The first oil-water separator 10 may be a micro oil-water separator because the amount of the sample taken by the sampler 7 is small. The micro oil-water separator is provided with a first oil outlet and a first water outlet, the first oil outlet is connected with an infrared spectrum tester 11 and can test and analyze crude oil components, and the first water outlet is connected with an ion spectrum tester 12 and can test and analyze ion composition in the displacement fluid. Preferably, the infrared spectrum tester 11 is a fourier transform infrared spectrum tester.
In an embodiment of the present specification, as shown in fig. 1, the injection mechanism includes: an injection pump 1; an intermediate container connected to the infusion pump 1, comprising: a first intermediate container 2 for containing a displacement fluid and a second intermediate container 3 for containing crude oil, wherein the first intermediate container 2 and the second intermediate container 3 are arranged in parallel; a first control valve arranged between the injection pump 1 and the first intermediate container 2; a second control valve arranged between the injection pump 1 and the second intermediate container 3.
The injection pump 1 is preferably a constant flow pump so that the solution in the intermediate container can be displaced at a constant flow rate. A piston may be provided in the intermediate container, and a space below the piston in the intermediate container may be filled with a fluid to be injected into the reaction vessel 4. The intermediate container includes: a first intermediate container and a second intermediate container, wherein the displacement fluid may be an aqueous solution, or other types of displacement fluids placed according to experimental requirements, and the application is not particularly limited. By connecting two parallel intermediate containers with the injection pump 1 and the reaction kettle 4, fluids with different properties can be selectively injected. In order to be able to control the injection of the fluid in the first intermediate container 2 and the second intermediate container 3, respectively, a first control valve is provided between the first intermediate container 2 and the injection pump 1 to control the opening and closing of the pipeline between the first intermediate container 2 and the injection pump 1, and a second control valve is provided between the second intermediate container 3 and the injection pump 1 to control the opening and closing of the pipeline between the second intermediate container 3 and the injection pump 1.
In an embodiment of the present specification, the experimental apparatus includes: the second oil-water separator 13 is connected with the outflow end, and the second oil-water separator 13 is provided with a second oil outlet and a second water outlet; the first measuring cylinder is connected with the second oil outlet; the second measuring cylinder is connected with the second water outlet; an electronic balance 15. In this embodiment, the second oil-water separator 13 is used to separate crude oil and water in the effluent from the outflow end. And the yield of the produced liquid was measured by a measuring cylinder 14 and an electronic balance 15.
In an embodiment of the present specification, the experimental apparatus further includes: and the gas supply mechanism 16 is used for supplying gas to the hollow cavity of the reaction kettle 4, and the gas supply mechanism 16 is connected with a pressure gauge. When the displacement experiment is carried out, the gas supply mechanism 16 is always opened, so that the stability of the back pressure in the displacement process is ensured. The air supply mechanism 16 may be a high pressure air cylinder, or may be in other forms, such as an air supply mechanism formed by connecting an air storage tank, an air compressor, and other devices, which are not specifically limited in this application.
The specification also provides an experimental method using the oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device, as shown in fig. 4, the experimental method includes:
s10: setting the first heating mechanism 5 to be at a first temperature and the second heating mechanism 8 to be at a second temperature so as to simulate the actual oil reservoir characteristics;
s20: injecting a displacement fluid into the reaction kettle 4 through the injection mechanism to saturate a rock core in the reaction kettle 4, forming formation water in the rock core, and stopping injecting the displacement fluid after the flow of the injection end and the flow of the outflow end are balanced;
s30: the sampling pump 9 is opened to sample the formation water in the rock core 6, and the ion composition of the formation water is analyzed through the ion spectrum tester 12;
s40: injecting crude oil into the reaction kettle 4 through the injection mechanism to saturate the rock core 6 in the reaction kettle 4, and stopping injecting the crude oil after the rock core 6 is saturated;
s50: after waiting for a preset time, starting the sampling pump 9 to sample the crude oil in the rock core 6, and analyzing the difference of the crude oil components in different positions of the rock core 6 by using an infrared spectrum tester 11 to research the crude oil differential characteristics under the influence of temperature and gravity;
s60: injecting a displacement fluid into the reaction kettle 4 through the injection mechanism to displace crude oil in the rock core 6, performing oil-water separation on produced fluid at the outflow end, and measuring the produced oil and water;
s70: in the core displacement process, the sampling pump 9 and the first oil-water separator 10 are opened to sample the fluid in the core 6, the crude oil component characteristics in the current state are determined through the infrared spectrum tester 11, and the formation water ion composition characteristics in the current state are determined through the ion spectrum tester 12.
Specifically, in the embodiment of the present specification, in step S10, the first temperature set by the first heating mechanism 5 and the second temperature set by the second heating mechanism 8 may be maintained at the same temperature, or may be different temperatures, so as to form a certain temperature difference between the injection end and the outflow end, thereby enabling in-situ fluid sampling and measurement under the coupling influence of the temperature gradient and gravity.
In step S20, when the displacement fluid is injected into the reaction vessel 4, the advection pump and the first control valve are opened, and the solution in the first intermediate container 2 is displaced at a constant flow rate to saturate the core 6 inside the reaction vessel 4. The displacement fluid is an aqueous solution. In step S40, when the crude oil is injected into the reaction kettle 4, the advection pump and the second control valve are opened, the first control valve is closed at the same time, the crude oil in the second intermediate container 3 is displaced at a constant flow rate to saturate the core 6 inside the reaction kettle 4, the injection of the crude oil is stopped after the core 6 is saturated, and at this time, the advection pump and the second control valve are closed. When the core 6 is saturated, the second water outlet of the second oil-water separator 13 connected to the outflow end of the reaction kettle 4 does not discharge water any more, which indicates that the core 6 is completely saturated with oil.
After waiting for a predetermined time and after the core 6 is aged, the sampling pump 9 is turned on to sample different positions of the core 6, for example, the uppermost, lowermost, and middle portions of the core 6, by using the sampler 7 in step S50. Generally, under the influence of temperature gradient and gravity, crude oil components have obvious differentiation characteristics in the reaction kettle 4, and the characteristics and the content of the components existing at each position of the core 6 have large difference, so that the distribution characteristics of the crude oil in an oil reservoir can be directly explained, and the method has great scientific significance. The preset time is not limited in the application and can be adjusted according to experimental requirements.
In step S60, when the core displaces the crude oil, the advection pump and the first control valve are opened, the second control valve is closed, the aqueous solution in the first intermediate container 2 is displaced at a constant flow rate, in this process, the pressure of the gas supply mechanism 16 is set to keep the displacement system stable, the produced fluid is subjected to real-time oil-water separation by the second oil-water separator 13, and the produced oil and water are measured in real time by the measuring cylinder 14 and the electronic balance 15, so that the macroscopic size evaluation of the effect of improving the recovery ratio can be realized.
In step S70, for any time during the process of displacing crude oil from the core, the sampling pump 9 may be turned on to sample different positions of the core through the sampler 7, and the oil-water separation and the test and analysis may be performed. In the process of displacing crude oil by the core, ions in water and crude oil components sampled at different positions of the core 6 are different, and along with the displacement, the change degree of the ions in the water taken out from a certain position is also different.
In the experimental device provided by the embodiment of the specification, after sampling in the step, it is found that the crude oil on the upper part of the reaction kettle 4 is rich in saturated hydrocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon and is easily displaced by water, ions in the water have more chances to react with polar organic molecules such as colloid and asphaltene adsorbed on the surface of minerals, so that the crude oil in the produced liquid contains a certain amount of colloid and asphaltene, and the concentration of ions in the water changes, so that the reaction mechanism of the crude oil-formation water-minerals can be determined. The ion concentration in the water at the lower part of the reaction kettle 4 is not obviously changed, and because the part is rich in colloid and asphaltene and is adsorbed on the surface of the mineral in the initial stage, the displacement difficulty of the saturated hydrocarbon and the aromatic hydrocarbon is enhanced through the interaction between the part and the saturated hydrocarbon and the aromatic hydrocarbon, so that the ion and the like in the water are difficult to contact with the adsorbed colloid and asphaltene, and finally the produced oil hardly contains the colloid and the asphaltene.
The present specification also provides a method of determining a sampling location, as shown in fig. 2, 3 and 5, for in situ fluid sampling, the method comprising:
s11: fluid seepage between a production well and a water injection well is equivalent to flow of a one-source one-sink seepage flow field, an oil-water-rock reaction physical model and a flow line equation of the flow field are established, and the flow field is quantified;
s12: determining a seepage field volume and a plurality of target sampling volumes based on the established flow field streamline equation, wherein the plurality of target sampling volumes equally divide the seepage field volume;
s13: based on the established physical model, cross-sectional positions between the target sampling volumes are selected within the physical model to place the sampler 7.
Specifically, the flow field streamline equation is expressed as:
wherein, the long semi-axis is a, the short semi-axis is
The seepage field volume is expressed as:
the target sampling volume is expressed as:
in the above formula, x represents the x-axis coordinate value of the fluid trajectory; y represents the y-axis coordinate value of the fluid trajectory; a represents the distance between the production well or the water injection well and the origin of coordinates, and the unit is m; c1Represents a constant; vtExpressed as the seepage field volume in m3;VnExpressed as target sample volume in m3(ii) a n represents the number of target sampling volumes; y isnShown as the cross-sectional position of the sampler 7.
In the step of establishing the oil-water-rock reaction physical model of the oil reservoir, the distance between the production well and the water injection well is the distance between the injection end and the outflow end of the built reaction kettle 4, specifically 2 a. In the seepage field shown in fig. 3, the origin of coordinates is the midpoint between the injection end and the outflow end. For the solution of the seepage flow streamline equation and the solution of the cross section position of the sampler 7, the detailed description is omitted here, and please refer to the above description. Wherein the sampler 7 has sampling points for extracting the fluid, the sampling points on the plurality of samplers 7 are preferably placed along the central axis of the seepage field, i.e. along the line between the injection end and the outflow end of the physical model.
The oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device, the oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental method and the sampling position determination method can accurately consider the component difference of crude oil at different positions in the oil reservoir formation process under the influence of temperature, and have more pertinence in formulating the technical policy for improving the recovery ratio. The oil reservoir oil-water-rock reaction experimental device and the method for determining the sampling position combine the flowing and distribution rule of fluid in the seepage field, ensure the accurate position of the sampler by establishing a mathematical model, ensure the representativeness of the sampling, avoid blind sampling, accurately represent the change rule of the material composition of the sampling position in the whole displacement, verify the change rule with the sampling position adjacent to the equal volume distance to form a gradient, and accurately describe the change rule of the material in the sampling position.
The above embodiments are merely illustrative of the technical concepts and features of the present application, and the purpose of the present invention is to enable those skilled in the art to understand the content of the present application and implement the present application, and not to limit the protection scope of the present application. All equivalent changes and modifications made according to the spirit of the present application should be covered in the protection scope of the present application.
All articles and references disclosed, including patent applications and publications, are hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes. The term "consisting essentially of …" describing a combination shall include the identified element, ingredient, component or step as well as other elements, ingredients, components or steps that do not materially affect the basic novel characteristics of the combination. The use of the terms "comprising" or "including" to describe combinations of elements, components, or steps herein also contemplates embodiments that consist essentially of such elements, components, or steps. By using the term "may" herein, it is intended to indicate that any of the described attributes that "may" include are optional.
A plurality of elements, components, parts or steps can be provided by a single integrated element, component, part or step. Alternatively, a single integrated element, component, part or step may be divided into separate plural elements, components, parts or steps. The disclosure of "a" or "an" to describe an element, ingredient, component or step is not intended to foreclose other elements, ingredients, components or steps.
It is to be understood that the above description is intended to be illustrative, and not restrictive. Many embodiments and many applications other than the examples provided will be apparent to those of skill in the art upon reading the above description. The disclosures of all articles and references, including patent applications and publications, are hereby incorporated by reference for all purposes.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides an oil reservoir oil water rock reaction experimental apparatus which characterized in that includes:
a reaction vessel disposed longitudinally along a lengthwise extension direction, the reaction vessel having opposing injection and outflow ends in the longitudinal direction; the reaction kettle is provided with a hollow chamber for filling rock cores with different mesh numbers, at least one sampler is arranged in the hollow chamber, the at least one sampler is arranged between the injection end and the outflow end according to a preset relationship, and the preset relationship is that the cross section of the sampler equally divides the volume of a seepage field in the reaction kettle into a plurality of target sampling volumes; the reaction kettle is provided with a sampling port corresponding to each sampler;
the first heating mechanism is arranged at the injection end;
a second heating mechanism disposed at the outflow end;
the injection mechanism is connected with the injection end and injects the displacement fluid and the crude oil into the reaction kettle;
the sampling pump is connected with the sampling port;
the first oil-water separator is connected with the sampling pump and is provided with a first oil outlet and a first water outlet;
the infrared spectrum tester is connected with the first oil outlet;
and the ion spectrum tester is connected with the first water outlet.
2. The oil reservoir water rock reaction experimental device of claim 1, wherein the reaction kettle is of a cylinder structure, the length of the reaction kettle is 30cm, and the diameter of the bottom surface of the reaction kettle is 2.5 cm.
3. The oil reservoir petrography reaction experimental apparatus of claim 1, wherein the sampler is a capillary sampler, and the volume of the seepage field in the reaction kettle is expressed as:
the target sampling volume is expressed as:
in the above formula, a represents the distance between the injection end or the outflow end and the origin of coordinates, and has a unit of m; c1Represents a constant; vtExpressed as the seepage field volume in m3;VnExpressed as target sample volume in m3(ii) a n represents the number of target sampling volumes; y isnShown as the cross-sectional location of the sampler.
4. The oil reservoir water petrography reaction experimental apparatus of claim 3, characterized in that, when the number of the samplers is nine, the position of the cross section where the nine samplers are located in the coordinate is: y is1=0,y2=0.1185a;y2′=-0.1185a;y3=0.2421a;y3′=-0.2421a;y4=0.3788a;y4′=-0.3788a;y5=0.5471a;y5′=-0.5471a。
5. The reservoir oil water rock reaction experimental device of claim 1, wherein the injection mechanism comprises:
an injection pump;
an intermediate container connected to the infusion pump, comprising: the displacement system comprises a first intermediate container for containing displacement fluid and a second intermediate container for containing crude oil, wherein the first intermediate container and the second intermediate container are arranged in parallel;
a first control valve disposed between the injection pump and the first intermediate container;
a second control valve disposed between the injection pump and the second intermediate container.
6. The oil reservoir water petrography reaction experimental apparatus of claim 5, characterized in that, the experimental apparatus includes: the second oil-water separator is connected with the outflow end and is provided with a second oil outlet and a second water outlet; the first measuring cylinder is connected with the second oil outlet; the second measuring cylinder is connected with the second water outlet; an electronic balance.
7. The oil reservoir water petrography reaction experimental apparatus of claim 1, characterized in that, the experimental apparatus further comprises: and the gas supply mechanism supplies gas to the hollow cavity of the reaction kettle and is connected with a pressure gauge.
8. An experimental method using the experimental apparatus for oil reservoir water-rock reaction according to claim 1, wherein the experimental method comprises:
setting the first heating mechanism to be at a first temperature and the second heating mechanism to be at a second temperature so as to simulate the actual oil reservoir characteristics;
injecting a displacement fluid into the reaction kettle through the injection mechanism to saturate a rock core in the reaction kettle, forming formation water in the rock core, and stopping injecting the displacement fluid after the flow of the injection end and the flow of the outflow end are balanced;
opening the sampling pump to sample formation water in the rock core, and analyzing the formation water ion composition through the ion spectrum tester;
injecting crude oil into the reaction kettle through the injection mechanism to saturate the rock core in the reaction kettle, and stopping injecting the crude oil after the rock core is saturated;
after waiting for a preset time, starting the sampling pump to sample the crude oil in the rock core, and analyzing the difference of the crude oil components in different positions of the rock core through an infrared spectrum tester so as to research the crude oil differential characteristics under the influence of temperature and gravity;
injecting a displacement fluid into the reaction kettle through the injection mechanism to displace crude oil in the rock core, performing oil-water separation on produced fluid at the outflow end, and measuring the produced oil and water;
in the core displacement process, the sampling pump and the first oil-water separator are opened to sample fluid in the core, crude oil component characteristics in the current state are determined through an infrared spectrum tester, and formation water ion composition characteristics in the current state are determined through an ion spectrum tester.
9. A method of determining a sampling location for in situ fluid sampling, the method comprising:
fluid seepage between a production well and a water injection well is equivalent to flow of a one-source one-sink seepage flow field, a physical oil-water-rock reaction model of an oil reservoir and a flow line equation of the flow field are established, and the flow field is quantified;
determining a seepage field volume and a plurality of target sampling volumes based on the established flow field streamline equation, wherein the plurality of target sampling volumes equally divide the seepage field volume;
and selecting a cross section position between the target sampling volumes in the physical model to place the sampler based on the established physical model.
10. The method for determining a sampling location of claim 9, wherein said flow field streamline equation is expressed as:
wherein, the long semi-axis is a, the short semi-axis is
The seepage field volume is expressed as:
the target sampling volume is expressed as:
in the above formula, x represents the x-axis coordinate value of the fluid trajectory; y represents the y-axis coordinate value of the fluid trajectory; a represents the distance between the production well or the water injection well and the origin of coordinates, and the unit is m; c1Represents a constant; vtExpressed as the seepage field volume in m3;VnExpressed as target sample volume in m3(ii) a n represents the number of target sampling volumes; y isnShown as the cross-sectional location of the sampler.
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