CN111926225A - Corrosion-resistant aviation aluminum alloy plate and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Corrosion-resistant aviation aluminum alloy plate and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN111926225A
CN111926225A CN202010981664.6A CN202010981664A CN111926225A CN 111926225 A CN111926225 A CN 111926225A CN 202010981664 A CN202010981664 A CN 202010981664A CN 111926225 A CN111926225 A CN 111926225A
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aluminum alloy
temperature
percent
aluminum
alloy
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陈智斌
蒋会阳
林建华
付平
谢芳
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Hunan Hengjia New Material Technology Co ltd
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Hunan Hengjia New Material Technology Co ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/06Alloys based on aluminium with magnesium as the next major constituent
    • C22C21/08Alloys based on aluminium with magnesium as the next major constituent with silicon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/026Alloys based on aluminium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/10Alloys based on aluminium with zinc as the next major constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C21/00Alloys based on aluminium
    • C22C21/12Alloys based on aluminium with copper as the next major constituent
    • C22C21/18Alloys based on aluminium with copper as the next major constituent with zinc
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/047Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon of alloys with magnesium as the next major constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/053Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon of alloys with zinc as the next major constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon
    • C22F1/057Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon of alloys with copper as the next major constituent
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F3/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by special physical methods, e.g. treatment with neutrons
    • C22F3/02Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by special physical methods, e.g. treatment with neutrons by solidifying a melt controlled by supersonic waves or electric or magnetic fields

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of aluminum alloy processing, in particular to a preparation method of an aviation aluminum alloy plate, which comprises the following chemical components in percentage by mass: 0.05 to 0.2 percent of zirconium, 0.05 to 0.2 percent of scandium, 3.0 to 6.0 percent of zinc, 3.0 to 6.0 percent of magnesium, 3.0 to 4.0 percent of copper, 0.2 to 0.4 percent of silver, 0.05 to 0.2 percent of lithium, 1.0 to 1.5 percent of manganese, 0.8 to 1.5 percent of silicon, 0.20 to 0.40 percent of titanium, 0.05 to 0.1 percent of ruthenium, the balance of aluminum and inevitable impurities, and the content of the impurities is controlled to be less than 0.15 percent. Preparing aluminum alloy melt according to the expected ingredients, refining crystal grains by adopting ultrasonic vibration in the refining process, and then obtaining the aviation aluminum alloy plate by casting, homogenizing, extruding, solid dissolving, pre-stretching and three-stage aging treatment. The aluminum alloy plate prepared by the invention has the Vickers hardness of 175-190 Hv, the yield strength of 520-562MPa, the tensile strength of 605-656 MPa and the elongation of 9.4-12%, has excellent overall performance, and is particularly suitable for aluminum alloy plates in the field of aerospace.

Description

Corrosion-resistant aviation aluminum alloy plate and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of aluminum alloy processing, in particular to a corrosion-resistant aviation aluminum alloy plate and a preparation method thereof.
Background
Aluminum alloy is an alloy based on aluminum with a certain amount of other alloying elements added, and is one of light metal materials. In addition to the general characteristics of aluminum, aluminum alloys have certain alloy specific characteristics due to the variety and amount of alloying elements added. The density of the aluminum alloy is 2.63-2.85 g/cm3The high-strength high-toughness high-strength high-toughness high-strength high-toughness. With the continuous development of the technology, 7 series aluminum alloy, namely aluminum-magnesium-zinc-copper alloy, which is a heat-treatable alloy, belongs to super-hard aluminum alloy, has good wear resistance and good weldability, but has poor corrosion resistance. In addition, high and new technologies such as aerospace and the like have higher and higher requirements on the performance of the aluminum alloy, such as mechanical strength, heat resistance, corrosion resistance and the like, so that people have to adopt various approaches to improve the comprehensive performance of the alloy.
Disclosure of Invention
Technical problem to be solved
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention provides a corrosion-resistant aviation aluminum alloy plate and a preparation method thereof, which are used for improving the corrosion resistance and weldability of an aluminum alloy material.
(II) technical scheme
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the main technical scheme that:
a preparation method of an aviation aluminum alloy plate comprises the following steps:
s1, designing the composition of an aluminum alloy, wherein the aluminum alloy comprises the following chemical components in percentage by mass:
0.05-0.2% of zirconium, 0.05-0.2% of scandium, 3.0-6.0% of zinc, 3.0-6.0% of magnesium, 3.0-4.0% of copper, 0.2-0.4% of silver, 0.05-0.2% of lithium, 1.0-1.5% of manganese, 0.8-1.5% of silicon, 0.20-0.40% of titanium, 0.05-0.1% of ruthenium, the balance of aluminum and inevitable impurities, wherein the content of the impurities is controlled to be less than 0.15%;
s2, preparing an aluminum alloy ingot, which comprises the following steps:
s21, batching according to the aluminum alloy composition in the step S1, smelting in an argon atmosphere, adding zirconium, scandium, copper and silver in sequence after the pure aluminum raw material is completely melted at the smelting temperature of 790-820 ℃, and stirring for 3-5min after the alloy components are completely melted;
s22, adjusting the smelting temperature to be 730-750 ℃ in an argon atmosphere, pressing pure lithium wrapped by an aluminum foil into the aluminum alloy melt, keeping the pure lithium immersed in the melt for 2-4 minutes, stirring uniformly after the pure lithium is completely dissolved, then sequentially adding magnesium, titanium, zinc, ruthenium, silicon and manganese, and stirring for 2-3 minutes after the pure lithium is completely melted to obtain an alloy melt;
s23, refining the alloy melt, adding hexachloroethane according to 1-1.5% of the total mass of the alloy melt for refining and degassing, slagging off after refining, adjusting the furnace temperature to 720-730 ℃, adding a covering agent and a refining agent which are prepared by mixing titanium dioxide, lithium fluoride, potassium fluoride and magnesium carbonate according to the mass ratio of 1:1:1:1, wherein the adding amount is 1/3 of the amount of hexachloroethane, and preventing the alloy melt from oxidizing and absorbing air;
s24, cooling the alloy melt for a period of time until the temperature of the alloy melt is reduced to a mushy zone, keeping a certain temperature to prevent the alloy melt from being cooled continuously, immersing a ceramic ultrasonic vibration head preheated to 550-650 ℃ into the alloy melt, and applying ultrasonic vibration to the alloy melt; removing the ceramic ultrasonic vibration head after vibrating for a period of time; the vibration frequency of the ultrasonic vibration system is 10-30 kHz; the ultrasonic vibration time is not less than 10 min;
s25, standing for 5-10min, and pouring into a mold; preheating the mold to 500-600 ℃ in advance before casting to obtain an aluminum alloy ingot;
s3, homogenization: carrying out homogenization heat treatment on the aluminum alloy cast ingot in a homogenizing furnace, cutting off the head and the tail of the aluminum alloy cast ingot after the homogenization heat treatment, and milling off a skull layer on the surface of the aluminum alloy cast ingot, wherein the homogenization system is 440-460 ℃, and the homogenization is carried out for 10-20 hours;
s4, extrusion: extruding the homogenized aluminum alloy cast ingot in an extruder, wherein the temperature of a die is 400-450 ℃, the temperature of the aluminum alloy cast ingot is 420-460 ℃, the temperature of an extrusion cylinder is 420-450 ℃, the extrusion speed is 0.2-1.2 mm/s, and the extrusion ratio of the extrusion cylinder is 30-35; extruding to obtain an aluminum alloy plate;
s5, solid solution: performing salt bath solution on the extruded aluminum alloy plate, wherein the temperature of the salt bath solution is 520-550 ℃, and the time is 1-2 h;
s6 pre-stretching: placing the aluminum alloy plate after solid solution in a stretching straightening machine for stretching and straightening, wherein the stretching deformation rate is 3-5%;
s7: and (3) tertiary aging: the temperature of the first-stage aging treatment is 180-190 ℃, and the heat preservation time is 20-30 h; the temperature of the second-stage aging treatment is 230-250 ℃, and the heat preservation time is 10-20 min; the temperature of the third-stage aging treatment is 160-170 ℃, and the heat preservation time is 20-30 h.
And finally, carrying out surface quality, dimension low-power and high-power structure and mechanical property inspection on the aluminum alloy plate subjected to three-stage aging, and packaging the product meeting the customer requirements.
Preferably, in step S1, the aluminum alloy includes the following chemical components in percentage by mass: 0.1 to 0.2% of zirconium, 0.1 to 0.2% of scandium, 4.0 to 5.0% of zinc, 4.0 to 5.0% of magnesium, 3.5 to 4.0% of copper, 0.3 to 0.4% of silver, 0.1 to 0.2% of lithium, 1.2 to 1.5% of manganese, 0.8 to 1.0% of silicon, 0.20 to 0.25% of titanium, 0.08 to 0.1% of ruthenium, and the balance of aluminum and inevitable impurities.
Preferably, in step S2, electromagnetic stirring is adopted during the stirring process, and the purity of argon is not lower than 99.999%.
Preferably, in step S3, the system after the homogenization heat treatment is treatment at 460 ℃ for 10 h.
Preferably, in step S4, the mold temperature is 440 ℃, the aluminum alloy ingot casting temperature is 455-460 ℃, the extrusion container temperature is 445-450 ℃, the extrusion speed is 0.5mm/S, and the extrusion ratio of the extrusion container is 30.
Preferably, in step S5, the salt bath solution temperature is 530 ℃ and the time is 1 h.
Preferably, in step S7, in step S7, the temperature of the first stage aging treatment is 180 ℃, and the heat preservation time is 1 h; the temperature of the second stage aging treatment is 220 ℃, and the heat preservation time is 4 h; the temperature of the third stage aging treatment is 170 ℃, and the heat preservation time is 20-22 h; and air cooling to room temperature after the third-stage aging.
The invention also relates to a corrosion-resistant aviation aluminum alloy plate prepared by any one of the embodiments.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) the contents and the proportions of Mg, Si and Cu elements in the aluminum alloy are reasonably optimized, and higher strength is obtained with lower alloy content. Specifically, the hardness of the aluminum alloy plate can be improved by the copper content of 3.0-4.0%, the strength, oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy plate can be improved by the manganese content of 1.0-1.5% and the silicon content of 0.8-1.5%, the titanium is beneficial to grain refinement, and the prepared aluminum-lithium alloy has high specific strength, high plasticity, high toughness and excellent corrosion resistance by adding a small amount of rare noble metal ruthenium with stronger melt purification capacity, so that the comprehensive mechanical property of the alloy is greatly improved. The addition of ruthenium can improve the superplasticity, thermal deformation, corrosion resistance, weldability and the like of common aluminum alloy, and can reduce the harm of impurities. The addition of metallic lithium element to the aluminum alloy reduces the alloy density and greatly improves the elastic modulus. The density of the alloy is reduced by 3 percent and the elastic modulus can be improved by 5 to 6 percent when 1 percent of metal lithium is added, and the alloy can be ensured to have obvious hardening effect after quenching and artificial aging.
(2) The Ag and the Mg can simultaneously exert a synergistic effect to generate the optimal strengthening effect, so that the aging rate of the aluminum-lithium alloy is greatly accelerated, and the Ag can also improve the welding performance of the aluminum alloy. Mg has larger solid solubility in Al, and the addition of Mg can reduce the content of Li in AlSolid solubility. It can increase the volume fraction of the' phase at a certain Li content. In addition, it can form T (Al)2LiMg) stable phase, inhibiting the formation of phases. The addition of Mg can produce a solid solution strengthening effect, strengthen the precipitation-free zone and reduce the harmful effect of the precipitation-free zone. When Cu and Mg are added into the aluminum lithium alloy at the same time, S' (Al) can be formed2CuMg) phase. The S 'phase is preferentially unevenly precipitated near the defects such as dislocation and the like, and the S' phase can effectively prevent coplanar slippage and has a certain positive effect on improving the strength and the toughness of the alloy. If the Mg content is too high, the T phase is preferentially precipitated in the grain boundary, and brittleness is increased. When the Mg content is less than 0.5%, S' phase is less, the alloy strength is reduced, and the proper Mg content has a certain good effect on improving the high-temperature performance of the aluminum-lithium alloy.
(3) Zr is added into the aluminum-lithium alloy, and the Zr and the Al can form metastable phase beta' (Al)3Zr) in the form of a rod having LI2The structure has a lattice constant a of 0.41 nm. Zr atoms have large bonding energy (0.24eV) with vacancies, are easily bonded with the vacancies during the solidification of the alloy, and cause the reduction of the vacancies bonded with lithium atoms, thereby preventing the precipitation of ' phase, but the ' phase can form nucleation growth at a beta ' phase interface to form a beta '/' composite structure phase, thereby increasing the mismatching degree with a matrix, and the hardness of the beta '/' phase is large, so that the dislocation is difficult to cut through, the coplanar slippage can be effectively inhibited, and the plasticity of the alloy is improved. Sc and Zr form extremely fine ternary coherent phase Al3(Sc1-xZrx). Typically, the Sc content is between 0.07% and 0.3%, the Zr content is between 0.07% and 0.15%, the ratio of the two preferably remaining at about 1:1, expressed as Al3(Sc,Zr)。Al3(Sc, Zr) is similar to the 'structure, and can become the' core of non-uniform nucleation in the aging process to form Al3Li/Al3(Sc, Zr) composite particles.
(4) The aluminum alloy melt is dispersed by vibration of the ultrasonic vibration system in the casting process, so that the grain structure is more uniform, the tensile strength and the yield strength are improved, and the corrosion resistance is also improved. The test result shows that the aluminum alloy melt after the ultrasonic vibration is applied can achieve better degassing effect, and the distribution condition of the pinholes in the solidified structure morphology is obviously better than that of the aluminum alloy melt without the ultrasonic vibration. Applying ultrasonic vibrationsAfter the action, a fine equiaxed solidification structure is generated. When ultrasonic vibration is applied at the same temperature, the average size of the obtained crystal grains is remarkably reduced. Numerous dispersed Al exist in the alloy solidification structure formed after ultrasonic vibration is applied3Ti particles, the coagulated structure at this time appeared to be significantly refined with respect to the non-ultrasonic vibration.
(5) The strength and the fracture toughness of the aluminum alloy are further improved by adopting a three-level homogenization heat treatment process; adopting deformation aging process to make Mg2Si phase is dispersed and separated out evenly in crystal boundary crystal, and the strength and the corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy are further improved.
(5) About 0.22 percent of transition element Ti is added into the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, and the alloy is analyzed by primary aging, secondary aging and tertiary aging processes, an Optical Microscope (OM), a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), a micro-control universal testing machine, a microhardness tester and the like to test the cast structure and phase precipitation distribution form of the alloy, mechanical properties after aging, fracture morphology and the like, and the result shows that the addition of the Ti element can refine grains, improve dendrite segregation and strengthen the alloy. The mechanical property of the alloy is improved most obviously by the three-stage aging.
(6) Through solution treatment, the shear precipitation phase' phase redissolution and the grain boundary precipitation phase redissolution are promoted, and the corrosion performance and the toughness of the aluminum-lithium alloy can be improved. The aluminum alloy plate prepared by the invention has the Vickers hardness of 175-190 Hv, the yield strength of 520-562MPa, the tensile strength of 605-656 MPa and the elongation of 9.4-12%, has excellent overall performance, and is particularly suitable for aluminum alloy plates in the field of aerospace.
The invention effectively improves the welding processing performance, high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance through the design of the aluminum alloy components.
Detailed Description
For a better understanding of the present invention, reference will now be made in detail to the present invention by way of specific embodiments thereof.
Example 1
The embodiment also provides a preparation method of the aviation aluminum alloy plate, which comprises the following specific steps:
s1, designing the composition of an aluminum alloy, wherein the aluminum alloy comprises the following chemical components in percentage by mass:
0.1% zirconium, 0.1% scandium, 4.0% zinc, 4.0% magnesium, 3.5% copper, 0.3% silver, 0.1% lithium, 1.2% manganese, 0.8% silicon, 0.25% titanium, 0.08% ruthenium, the balance being aluminum and unavoidable impurities, the impurities being about 0.05%.
S2, preparing an aluminum alloy ingot, which comprises the following steps:
and S21, mixing the materials according to the aluminum alloy composition obtained in the step S1, smelting in an argon atmosphere at the smelting temperature of 800 ℃, adding zirconium, copper and silver in sequence after the pure aluminum raw material is completely molten, and stirring for 5min after the alloy components are completely molten.
S22, adjusting the melting temperature to 750 ℃ in an argon atmosphere, pressing pure lithium wrapped by aluminum foil into the aluminum alloy melt, keeping the pure lithium immersed in the melt for 4 minutes, stirring uniformly after the pure lithium is completely dissolved, then sequentially adding magnesium, titanium, zinc, ruthenium, silicon and manganese, and stirring for 3 minutes after the pure lithium is completely melted to obtain an alloy melt;
s23, refining the alloy melt, adding hexachloroethane according to 1.5% of the total mass of the alloy melt for refining and degassing, slagging off after refining, adjusting the furnace temperature to 725 ℃, adding a covering agent and a refining agent which are prepared by mixing titanium dioxide, lithium fluoride, potassium fluoride and magnesium carbonate according to the mass ratio of 1:1:1:1, wherein the adding amount is 1/3 of the amount of hexachloroethane, and preventing the alloy melt from oxidizing and absorbing air;
s24, cooling the alloy melt for a period of time until the temperature of the alloy melt is reduced to a pasty area, keeping a certain temperature and not continuously cooling, immersing a ceramic ultrasonic vibration head preheated to 550 ℃ into the alloy melt, and applying ultrasonic vibration to the alloy melt; removing the ceramic ultrasonic vibration head after vibrating for a period of time; the vibration frequency of the ultrasonic vibration system is 10 kHz; the ultrasonic vibration time is not less than 10 min;
s25, standing for 10min, and pouring into a mold; preheating the die to 550 ℃ in advance before casting to obtain an aluminum alloy ingot;
s3, homogenization: carrying out homogenization heat treatment on the aluminum alloy cast ingot in a homogenizing furnace, cutting the head and the tail of the aluminum alloy cast ingot subjected to the homogenization heat treatment, and milling off a skull layer on the surface of the aluminum alloy cast ingot, wherein the homogenization system is 460 ℃, and the homogenization is carried out for 10 hours;
s4, extrusion: extruding the homogenized aluminum alloy cast ingot in an extruder, wherein the temperature of a die is 450 ℃, the temperature of the aluminum alloy cast ingot is 460 ℃, the temperature of an extrusion cylinder is 450 ℃, the extrusion speed is 1mm/s, and the extrusion ratio of the extrusion cylinder is 30; extruding to obtain an aluminum alloy plate;
s5, solid solution: performing salt bath solution on the extruded aluminum alloy plate, wherein the temperature of the salt bath solution is 520 ℃, and the time is 1 h;
s6 pre-stretching: placing the aluminum alloy plate after solid solution in a stretching straightener to carry out stretching straightening, wherein the stretching deformation rate is 4%;
s7: and (3) tertiary aging: carrying out three-stage aging heat treatment on the stretched aluminum alloy plate; the primary aging system is 190 ℃, and the treatment is carried out for 1 h; the secondary aging system is 220 ℃, and the treatment lasts for 5 hours; the third-stage aging system is 170 ℃, and the treatment time is 15 h.
On the basis of example 1, specific parameter conditions were changed and adjusted to give examples 2 to 5. The examples, in which specific conditions are not specified, were conducted under conventional conditions or conditions recommended by the manufacturer. The reagents or instruments used are not indicated by the manufacturer, and are all conventional products available commercially.
Examples 2 to 5
The process parameter conditions for the preparation of the aluminum alloy sheets of examples 2-5 are shown in Table 1:
TABLE 1 Process parameter conditions for the preparation of aluminum alloy sheets in examples 2-5
Examples Performance testing
The performance of the aluminum alloy sheets obtained in examples 1 to 5 was measured, and the results are shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2 results of performance tests on aluminum alloy sheets obtained in examples 1 to 5
Examples Vickers hardness (Hv) Yield strength MPa Tensile strength (MPa) Elongation (%)
1 190 562 656 12
2 178 536 610 10
3 185 560 624 10.5
4 184 555 638 11.6
5 175 520 605 9.4
As can be seen from Table 2, the performance indexes of the aluminum alloy sheets obtained in examples 1 to 5 are as follows: the alloy plate has the advantages of 175-190 Hv of Vickers hardness, 520-562MPa of yield strength, 605-656 MPa of tensile strength and 9.4-12% of elongation percentage, is excellent in overall performance, is particularly suitable for being used as an aluminum alloy plate in the field of aerospace, and particularly has the most excellent performance of the aluminum alloy plate obtained in the embodiment 1.
Comparative example 1
Comparative example 1 was the same as example 1 except that scandium was not added to the raw material and the raw material aluminum was changed to 86.52%. The detection shows that the hardness of the prepared aluminum alloy plate is about 159Hv, the yield strength is 540MPa, the tensile strength is 609MPa, and the elongation is 6.8%.
Comparative example 2
Comparative example 2 was the same as example 1 except that zirconium was not added to the starting material and the starting material aluminum was changed to 86.52%. The detection shows that the hardness of the prepared aluminum alloy plate is about 161Hv, the yield strength is 536MPa, the tensile strength is 590MPa, and the elongation is 6.1%.
Comparative example 3
Comparative example 3 is identical to example 1 in all other conditions except that the treatment of ultrasonically vibrating the alloy melt of step S24 is not included. The detection shows that the obtained aluminum alloy has large and uneven crystal grains, and the hardness of the prepared aluminum alloy plate is about 148Hv, the yield strength is 525MPa, the tensile strength is 589MPa, and the elongation is 11.9%.
Comparative example 4
Comparative example 4 is identical to example 1 except that step S7 has only a first stage ageing of 25 hours at 160 ℃. The fracture toughness and the corrosion resistance are weakened through detection. The hardness of the prepared aluminum alloy plate is 188Hv, the yield strength is 536MPa, the tensile strength is 570MPa, and the elongation is 7.6%. The mechanical properties are inferior to those of example 1.
Comparative example 5
Comparative example 5 the same as example 1 except that titanium was not added to the raw material and the raw material aluminum was changed to 86.77%. The detection shows that the crystal grains become large and have certain dendrite segregation. The hardness of the prepared aluminum alloy plate is about 153Hv, the yield strength is 505MPa, the tensile strength is 590MPa, and the elongation is 8.6%. The mechanical properties are inferior to those of example 1.

Claims (8)

1. The preparation method of the aviation aluminum alloy plate is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
s1, designing the composition of an aluminum alloy, wherein the aluminum alloy comprises the following chemical components in percentage by mass:
0.05-0.2% of zirconium, 0.05-0.2% of scandium, 3.0-6.0% of zinc, 3.0-6.0% of magnesium, 3.0-4.0% of copper, 0.2-0.4% of silver, 0.05-0.2% of lithium, 1.0-1.5% of manganese, 0.8-1.5% of silicon, 0.20-0.40% of titanium, 0.05-0.1% of ruthenium, the balance of aluminum and inevitable impurities, wherein the content of the impurities is controlled to be less than 0.15%;
s2, preparing an aluminum alloy ingot, which comprises the following steps:
s21, batching according to the aluminum alloy composition in the step S1, smelting in an argon atmosphere, adding zirconium, scandium, copper and silver in sequence after the pure aluminum raw material is completely melted at the smelting temperature of 790-820 ℃, and stirring for 3-5min after the alloy components are completely melted;
s22, adjusting the smelting temperature to be 730-750 ℃ in an argon atmosphere, pressing pure lithium wrapped by an aluminum foil into the aluminum alloy melt, keeping the pure lithium immersed in the melt for 2-4 minutes, stirring uniformly after the pure lithium is completely dissolved, then sequentially adding magnesium, titanium, zinc, ruthenium, silicon and manganese, and stirring for 2-3 minutes after the pure lithium is completely melted to obtain an alloy melt;
s23, refining the alloy melt, adding hexachloroethane according to 1-1.5% of the total mass of the alloy melt for refining and degassing, slagging off after refining, adjusting the furnace temperature to 720-730 ℃, adding a covering agent and a refining agent which are prepared by mixing titanium dioxide, lithium fluoride, potassium fluoride and magnesium carbonate according to the mass ratio of 1:1:1:1, wherein the adding amount is 1/3 of the amount of hexachloroethane, and preventing the alloy melt from oxidizing and absorbing air;
s24, cooling the alloy melt for a period of time until the temperature of the alloy melt is reduced to a mushy zone, keeping a certain temperature to prevent the alloy melt from being cooled continuously, immersing a ceramic ultrasonic vibration head preheated to 550-650 ℃ into the alloy melt, and applying ultrasonic vibration to the alloy melt; removing the ceramic ultrasonic vibration head after vibrating for a period of time; the vibration frequency of the ultrasonic vibration system is 10-30 kHz; the ultrasonic vibration time is not less than 10 min;
s25, standing for 5-10min, and pouring into a mold; preheating the mold to 500-600 ℃ in advance before casting to obtain an aluminum alloy ingot;
s3, homogenization: carrying out homogenization heat treatment on the aluminum alloy cast ingot in a homogenizing furnace, cutting off the head and the tail of the aluminum alloy cast ingot after the homogenization heat treatment, and milling off a skull layer on the surface of the aluminum alloy cast ingot, wherein the homogenization system is 440-460 ℃, and the homogenization is carried out for 10-20 hours;
s4, extrusion: extruding the homogenized aluminum alloy cast ingot in an extruder, wherein the temperature of a die is 400-450 ℃, the temperature of the aluminum alloy cast ingot is 420-460 ℃, the temperature of an extrusion cylinder is 420-450 ℃, the extrusion speed is 0.2-1.2 mm/s, and the extrusion ratio of the extrusion cylinder is 30-35; extruding to obtain an aluminum alloy plate;
s5, solid solution: performing salt bath solution on the extruded aluminum alloy plate, wherein the temperature of the salt bath solution is 520-550 ℃, and the time is 1-2 h;
s6 pre-stretching: placing the aluminum alloy plate after solid solution in a stretching straightening machine for stretching and straightening, wherein the stretching deformation rate is 3-5%;
s7: and (3) tertiary aging: carrying out three-stage aging heat treatment on the stretched aluminum alloy plate; the primary aging system is 180 ℃ and 190 ℃, and the treatment lasts for 1-2 h; the secondary aging system is 210 plus 220 ℃, and the treatment lasts for 3-5 h; the third-level aging system is 150 ℃ and 170 ℃, and the treatment lasts 15-20 h.
2. The preparation method of claim 1, wherein in the step S1, the aluminum alloy comprises the following chemical components in percentage by mass: 0.1 to 0.2% of zirconium, 0.1 to 0.2% of scandium, 4.0 to 5.0% of zinc, 4.0 to 5.0% of magnesium, 3.5 to 4.0% of copper, 0.3 to 0.4% of silver, 0.1 to 0.2% of lithium, 1.2 to 1.5% of manganese, 0.8 to 1.0% of silicon, 0.20 to 0.25% of titanium, 0.08 to 0.1% of ruthenium, and the balance of aluminum and inevitable impurities.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein in step S2, the argon purity is not less than 99.999% by electromagnetic stirring.
4. The production method according to claim 1, wherein the homogenization heat treatment system is a treatment at 460 ℃ for 10 hours in step S3.
5. The production method according to claim 1, wherein in step S4, the mold temperature is 440 ℃, the aluminum alloy ingot casting temperature is 455-460 ℃, the extrusion barrel temperature is 445-450 ℃, the extrusion speed is 0.5mm/S, and the extrusion ratio of the extrusion barrel is 30.
6. The method according to claim 1, wherein in step S5, the salt bath solution temperature is 530 ℃ and the time is 1 h.
7. The preparation method according to claim 1, wherein in step S7, the temperature of the first stage aging treatment is 180 ℃, and the holding time is 1 h; the temperature of the second stage aging treatment is 220 ℃, and the heat preservation time is 4 h; the temperature of the third stage aging treatment is 170 ℃, and the heat preservation time is 20-22 h; and air cooling to room temperature after the third-stage aging.
8. A corrosion-resistant aircraft aluminum alloy sheet produced by the production method according to any one of claims 1 to 7.
CN202010981664.6A 2020-09-17 2020-09-17 Corrosion-resistant aviation aluminum alloy plate and preparation method thereof Pending CN111926225A (en)

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