CN111791866A - Transport vehicle emergency parking releasing system - Google Patents

Transport vehicle emergency parking releasing system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111791866A
CN111791866A CN202010586365.2A CN202010586365A CN111791866A CN 111791866 A CN111791866 A CN 111791866A CN 202010586365 A CN202010586365 A CN 202010586365A CN 111791866 A CN111791866 A CN 111791866A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
emergency
air
storage tank
braking
vehicle
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN202010586365.2A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
刘伍权
朱岩
夏旭
周广猛
宋世露
赵旻
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Army Military Transportation University
Original Assignee
Army Military Transportation University
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Army Military Transportation University filed Critical Army Military Transportation University
Priority to CN202010586365.2A priority Critical patent/CN111791866A/en
Publication of CN111791866A publication Critical patent/CN111791866A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T17/00Component parts, details, or accessories of power brake systems not covered by groups B60T8/00, B60T13/00 or B60T15/00, or presenting other characteristic features
    • B60T17/06Applications or arrangements of reservoirs
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T13/00Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems
    • B60T13/10Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems with fluid assistance, drive, or release
    • B60T13/24Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems with fluid assistance, drive, or release the fluid being gaseous
    • B60T13/26Compressed-air systems
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T13/00Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems
    • B60T13/10Transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive; Brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems with fluid assistance, drive, or release
    • B60T13/66Electrical control in fluid-pressure brake systems
    • B60T13/68Electrical control in fluid-pressure brake systems by electrically-controlled valves
    • B60T13/683Electrical control in fluid-pressure brake systems by electrically-controlled valves in pneumatic systems or parts thereof
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T17/00Component parts, details, or accessories of power brake systems not covered by groups B60T8/00, B60T13/00 or B60T15/00, or presenting other characteristic features
    • B60T17/18Safety devices; Monitoring
    • B60T17/22Devices for monitoring or checking brake systems; Signal devices
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60TVEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
    • B60T7/00Brake-action initiating means
    • B60T7/02Brake-action initiating means for personal initiation
    • B60T7/08Brake-action initiating means for personal initiation hand actuated
    • B60T7/10Disposition of hand control

Abstract

The invention relates to an emergency parking releasing system of a transport vehicle, which comprises an automobile double-loop air pressure braking system of an original vehicle, wherein the automobile double-loop air pressure braking system is connected with an emergency parking releasing mechanism, the emergency parking releasing mechanism comprises an emergency air storage tank, an emergency braking valve, a first emergency electromagnetic valve and a control mechanism arranged in a cab, the control mechanism completes the automatic or manual work control and conversion functions of the braking system and the emergency parking releasing mechanism, the emergency air storage tank is connected with the original air storage tank of the automobile double-loop air pressure braking system in parallel through the first emergency electromagnetic valve and is connected with an air compressor, and the emergency air storage tank is connected with the automobile double-loop air pressure braking system through the original vehicle braking valve to form an air charging loop preferentially supplying emergency air storage tank. Has the advantages that: according to the invention, within 1 minute after the vehicle is started, the pressure of not less than 7KG is established in the original vehicle braking system, so that the rapid brake release can be realized in a short time after the vehicle is started in an emergency, and the braking safety of the normal running and parking of the vehicle can be ensured.

Description

Transport vehicle emergency parking releasing system
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of transport vehicles, and particularly relates to an emergency parking releasing system for a transport vehicle.
Background
At present, for a transport vehicle adopting an air braking mode, an engine drives a single-stage piston type air compressor to input compressed air into a wet air storage tank through a drying agent and a pressure regulating valve, and after oil-water separation is carried out in the wet air storage tank, the compressed air is respectively led to a front brake air chamber and a rear brake air chamber of a dry air storage tank, a parking brake system and a trailer brake valve through four-loop protection valves. The front cavity of the dry gas storage tank provides a braking gas source for the front wheels through a braking valve, provides an actuating gas source for a braking relay valve of the trailer, and provides a gas source for a gas horn, exhaust braking and clutch boosting. The rear chamber of the dry gas reservoir provides an actuating gas source to the rear wheel brake relay valve through the brake valve and provides a braking gas source to the rear wheel through the relay valve. According to the use and maintenance standard, in order to avoid water storage in the air storage tank, when a vehicle stops and enters a garage, air in the air storage tank is usually discharged completely, even if the pressure in the air storage tank is kept at atmospheric pressure. When the vehicle is restarted, the brake system needs to be inflated again, even if the opening degree of the accelerator is kept large, the inflation time generally needs 2-3 minutes, and the started transport vehicle can be guaranteed to have the brake function. When the transport vehicle meets emergency situations such as flood fighting and emergency rescue, emergency military mission and the like, the transport vehicle needs to be quickly and safely started, and meanwhile, the good and safe braking function of the vehicle after the emergency starting must be ensured.
The development of an emergency parking releasing system which can safely and quickly release the brake of a vehicle when the vehicle is in an emergency state in which an emergency occurs in a short time after the vehicle is started is urgently needed.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the technology and provide an emergency brake releasing system for a transport vehicle, which can realize the safe and quick brake release of the vehicle in a short time after the vehicle is started in an emergency state of an emergency event and still maintain the safety of the original vehicle brake.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme: the utility model provides an emergent system of parking of separating of transport vechicle, includes that front wheel gas circuit, rear wheel gas circuit and trailer gas circuit constitute the car double loop air brake system of former car, characterized by: the automobile double-loop air pressure braking system is connected with an emergency parking mechanism, the emergency parking mechanism comprises an emergency braking pipeline and a control mechanism, the emergency braking pipeline comprises an emergency air storage tank, an emergency braking valve and a first emergency electromagnetic valve, the control mechanism is arranged in a cab, the control mechanism completes automatic or manual work control and conversion functions of the braking system and the emergency parking mechanism, the emergency air storage tank is connected with an original air storage tank of the automobile double-loop air pressure braking system in parallel through the first emergency electromagnetic valve and is connected with an air compressor, and the emergency air storage tank is connected with the automobile double-loop air pressure braking system through the original automobile braking valve to form an air charging loop of the emergency air storage tank preferentially.
The emergency gas storage tank is connected with a pressure sensor, and the pressure sensor is connected with a control mechanism.
The emergency air storage tank is connected with the air compressor through an emergency brake valve and a first emergency electromagnetic valve to form an emergency air storage tank inflation loop, and the emergency brake valve is a one-way valve.
The emergency parking releasing mechanism is connected with the front wheel air path through a pressure sensor, a second electromagnetic valve and a third electromagnetic valve, the emergency parking releasing mechanism is connected with the rear wheel air path through a pressure sensor, a fourth electromagnetic valve and a sixth electromagnetic valve, and the emergency parking releasing mechanism is connected with the trailer air path through a pressure sensor and a fifth electromagnetic valve.
Has the advantages that: compared with the prior art, the emergency release system provided by the invention has the advantages that the pressure of not less than 7KG is built in the front brake chamber and the rear brake chamber within 1 minute after the vehicle is started, so that the emergency release system is suitable for safely and quickly releasing the brake within a short time after the vehicle is started when an emergency occurs; the emergency parking releasing system enables the system to have the braking releasing capability only in a short time after the vehicle is started, and does not work when the vehicle is normally driven, parked or parked, and the emergency parking releasing system does not reduce the braking safety performance of the original vehicle when the vehicle is normally driven, parked or parked, and improves the braking safety of the vehicle when the vehicle is started.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the connection of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a functional diagram of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a control mechanism connection block diagram;
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of the engine start and the vehicle park brake release connection;
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of the air reservoir of the original brake system being charged by the automobile starting and air compressor;
FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of the solenoid valve being fully reset after the pressure of the gas tank reaches the requirement;
FIG. 8 is a schematic diagram of a vehicle in need of braking when the original braking system has not established braking pressure;
FIG. 9 is a simplified original vehicle brake system connection diagram;
fig. 10 is a structural view of a brake system of an original vehicle.
In the figure: 1. front wheel gas circuit, 2, rear wheel gas circuit, 3, trailer gas circuit, 4, emergent gas holder, 5, emergent brake valve, 6, first emergency solenoid valve, 7, former gas holder, 8, former brake valve, 9, pressure sensor, 10, 11, second, three solenoid valves, 12, fourth solenoid valve, 13, fifth solenoid valve, 14, sixth solenoid valve, 15, air compressor machine.
Detailed Description
The following detailed description of the preferred embodiments will be made in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Referring to fig. 1-10 in detail, the embodiment provides an emergency parking system for a transport vehicle, which comprises an automobile double-loop pneumatic braking system composed of a front wheel air path 1, a rear wheel air path 2 and a trailer air path 3, the automobile double-loop air pressure braking system is connected with an emergency parking mechanism, the emergency parking mechanism comprises an emergency braking pipeline consisting of an emergency air storage tank 4, an emergency braking valve 5 and a first emergency electromagnetic valve 6, and a control mechanism arranged in a cab, the control mechanism completes the automatic/manual work control and conversion functions of the braking system and the emergency parking mechanism, the emergency air storage tank is connected with an original air storage tank 7 of the automobile double-loop air braking system in parallel through a first emergency electromagnetic valve 6, and is connected with an air compressor 15, and the emergency air storage tank is connected with an automobile double-loop air pressure braking system through an original automobile braking valve 8 to form an air charging loop preferentially feeding the emergency air storage tank. The emergency gas storage tank is connected with a pressure sensor 9, and the pressure sensor is connected with a control mechanism. The emergency air storage tank is connected with the air compressor 15 through the emergency brake valve 5 and the first emergency electromagnetic valve 6 to form an emergency air storage tank inflation loop, and the emergency brake valve is a one-way valve. The front wheel air passage is connected with a second electromagnetic valve 10 and a third electromagnetic valve 11 through a pressure sensor, the rear wheel air passage is connected with a fourth electromagnetic valve 12 and a sixth electromagnetic valve 12 through a pressure sensor, and the 14 trailer air passage is connected with a fifth electromagnetic valve 13 through a pressure sensor and is respectively connected with a control mechanism. The 1 st to the sixth electromagnetic valves are added to form a control mechanism for completing the automatic/manual work control and conversion functions of a braking system and an emergency parking mechanism through a corresponding control chip and circuit in the control mechanism, a soft and hard air pipeline, a cab indicator lamp and a manual switch.
Principle of operation
The total volume of dry and wet gas tanks of original transport vehicle is V80L, and the power of engine isBecause the system is fully exposed to air, the process of compression charging can be considered an isothermal compression process, air as the ideal gas,
setting: eta from engine to air compressordcEfficiency of air compressor is etacAtmospheric pressure of p0
The whole vehicle parking pressure is p1Gas density is rho1The work consumed in the compression process is Wt1
Brake pressure of whole vehicle is p2Gas density is rho2,p2>p1The work consumed in the compression process is Wt2
The time t required for the original vehicle to reach the parking pressure and the braking pressure respectively1,t2Calculated from the following formula:
1. auxiliary tank volume determination
From t1,t2The expression of (2) shows that in order to shorten the starting time of the whole vehicle, the volume of the gas storage tank needs to be reduced, and the requirement can be met by setting the gas storage tank of the auxiliary starting system as the original vehicle 1/3 with reference to the starting time of the original vehicle for 2-3 minutes. So that there is an auxiliary gas tank total volume
2. To avoid water being stored in the air tank, when the vehicle is parked and stored, the air in the air tank is usually discharged, i.e. the pressure in the air tank is kept at the atmospheric pressure p0When the vehicle is started for the second time, the brake system needs to be recharged, and even if the accelerator opening is kept at a large value, the time is generally 2-3 minutes.
The automobile emergency parking releasing system is used for a system for quick starting and safe starting in emergency situations (emergency events such as flood fighting and emergency rescue). On the basis of not damaging the original vehicle braking principle and braking safety, an emergency braking pipeline consisting of an emergency air storage tank, an emergency braking valve and a first emergency electromagnetic valve is additionally arranged in the pneumatic pipeline. The driver's cab is equipped with brake system state indicator and relative control parts to complete the automatic and manual work control and conversion functions of the brake system and emergency system. The driver's cab is equipped with brake system state indicator and relative control parts to complete the automatic and manual work control and conversion functions of the brake system and emergency system. The emergency starting device is only used for emergency starting and is not suitable for starting at ordinary times; it is necessary to ensure that the vehicle has a certain braking safety in the event of an emergency start. Referring to fig. 8 in detail, when emergency braking is required within a short time after the vehicle is started, if the vehicle is in the period of charging the front and rear air tanks at this time and effective braking pressure is not established yet, the charged emergency air tank charges the front and rear brake chambers through the electromagnetic valve, thereby ensuring effective implementation of the braking function. And when the emergency air storage tank is subjected to inflation braking, the pressure of the emergency air storage tank is reduced to be below 7kg, the first emergency electromagnetic valve is opened, the original air storage tank is stopped from being inflated, namely, the emergency air storage tank can be inflated preferentially by the system, so that the braking pressure of the emergency air storage tank is met preferentially.
The emergency release system establishes a pressure of not less than 7KG in the front and rear brake chambers within 1 minute after the vehicle is started so as to adapt to an emergency in a short time after the vehicle is started, and the vehicle can safely and quickly release the brake under the action of the emergency system.
The emergency parking releasing system only enables the system to have emergency braking capability in a short time after the vehicle is started, does not work when the vehicle is normally driven, parked or parked, and cannot be used under the condition of frequent braking.
The emergency parking releasing system does not reduce the braking safety performance of the vehicle when the vehicle normally runs, parks or parks, and improves the braking safety of the vehicle when the vehicle is started.
Working process
On the basis of an original brake system, a set of auxiliary emergency parking releasing system is added, and switching mechanisms are introduced between the auxiliary emergency parking releasing system and the original vehicle brake system, wherein the switching mechanisms form a control strategy of the emergency parking releasing system, and the control strategy specifically comprises the following steps:
a. starting the emergency parking releasing system, detecting the pressure of an original vehicle gas storage tank, automatically resetting the system when the pressure meets the requirement (the pressure is 7kg conventionally), and otherwise, continuously operating the system;
b. after the system is operated, a main braking system of the whole vehicle is bypassed, so that the air compressor 15 inflates the emergency parking release system, and corresponding state information is given out through a cab signal lamp;
c. the pressure of the emergency parking releasing system reaches the starting pressure (the conventional pressure is 7kg) of the whole vehicle, corresponding state information is given through a cab signal lamp to prompt that the vehicle can be started at the moment, and meanwhile, the air compressor continues to inflate the emergency parking releasing system;
d. when the emergency parking releasing system reaches the safe braking pressure, the control system is switched to a main braking system of the whole vehicle, the original air storage tank of the main braking system is inflated, and corresponding state information is given through a cab signal lamp;
e. when the emergency starting is carried out, due to certain factors such as emergency braking, the pressure of the emergency parking releasing system is reduced to be lower than the braking safety pressure, the control system is immediately switched from the main system to the emergency parking releasing system, air is preferentially supplied to the emergency parking releasing system, and corresponding state information is given out through a cab signal lamp;
f. after the pressure of the emergency release system is recovered to the safe pressure, the control system is switched to the main system, the main system is continuously inflated, and corresponding state information is given through a cab signal lamp;
g. in the running process of the system, the pressure of the main system is continuously detected, once the pressure of the main system reaches the safe pressure, the system is reset, the auxiliary system is bypassed and is completely isolated from the main system, and the vehicle normally uses the original vehicle braking system.
The emergency parking releasing system is additionally provided with 6 electromagnetic valves and control chips and circuits corresponding to the electromagnetic valves. All the electromagnetic valves are set to be in a normally closed state, after the automobile is started, the air tank pressure sensors transmit pressure data of all the air tanks to the electronic control unit ECU, when the pressure of the emergency air tank and the pressures of the front air tank and the rear air tank are lower than 7Kg, the first emergency electromagnetic valve 1 is opened, the air compressor inflates the emergency air tank, when the pressure of the emergency air tank reaches 7Kg, the rest electromagnetic valves are opened, the emergency air tank inflates the rear brake chamber, and the hand brake is pulled, so that the parking brake can be released. After the parking brake is released, the electromagnetic valves are all closed, the air compressor inflates the wet air storage tank, but preferentially inflates the emergency air storage tank, namely when the pressure of the emergency air storage tank is lower than 7Kg, the first emergency electromagnetic valve 1 is opened again under the control of the control circuit, and turns to the emergency air storage tank to inflate. So, until pressure sensor and pressure indicator show that preceding, back gas holder pressure reach brake pressure, first emergency solenoid valve 1 closes, also can be closed by driver's manual, no longer aerifys to emergent gas holder, and emergent system of parkking that parks closes.
When the vehicle is in a transition period that the front air storage tank and the rear air storage tank do not build effective brake pressure, the emergency air storage tank inflates the front brake chamber and the rear brake chamber, and the air compressor also turns to the emergency air storage tank to inflate the emergency air storage tank, so that the brake function is guaranteed to be effectively realized.
The above detailed description of the emergency release system for a transport vehicle with reference to the embodiments is illustrative and not restrictive, and several embodiments may be mentioned within the limits of the invention, and changes and modifications may be made without departing from the general inventive concept within the scope thereof.

Claims (4)

1. The utility model provides an emergent system of parking of separating of transport vechicle, includes that front wheel gas circuit, rear wheel gas circuit and trailer gas circuit constitute the car double loop air brake system of former car, characterized by: the automobile double-loop air pressure braking system is connected with an emergency parking mechanism, the emergency parking mechanism comprises an emergency braking pipeline and a control mechanism, the emergency braking pipeline comprises an emergency air storage tank, an emergency braking valve and a first emergency electromagnetic valve, the control mechanism is arranged in a cab, the control mechanism completes automatic or manual work control and conversion functions of the braking system and the emergency parking mechanism, the emergency air storage tank is connected with an original air storage tank of the automobile double-loop air pressure braking system in parallel through the first emergency electromagnetic valve and is connected with an air compressor, and the emergency air storage tank is connected with the automobile double-loop air pressure braking system through the original automobile braking valve to form an air charging loop of the emergency air storage tank preferentially.
2. The transport vehicle emergency parking system as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the emergency gas storage tank is connected with a pressure sensor, and the pressure sensor is connected with a control mechanism.
3. The transport vehicle emergency parking system according to claim 1 or 2, wherein: the emergency air storage tank is connected with the air compressor through an emergency brake valve and a first emergency electromagnetic valve to form an emergency air storage tank inflation loop, and the emergency brake valve is a one-way valve.
4. The transport vehicle emergency parking system as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the emergency parking releasing mechanism is connected with the front wheel air path through a pressure sensor, a second electromagnetic valve and a third electromagnetic valve, the emergency parking releasing mechanism is connected with the rear wheel air path through a pressure sensor, a fourth electromagnetic valve and a sixth electromagnetic valve, and the emergency parking releasing mechanism is connected with the trailer air path through a pressure sensor and a fifth electromagnetic valve.
CN202010586365.2A 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 Transport vehicle emergency parking releasing system Pending CN111791866A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202010586365.2A CN111791866A (en) 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 Transport vehicle emergency parking releasing system

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202010586365.2A CN111791866A (en) 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 Transport vehicle emergency parking releasing system

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN111791866A true CN111791866A (en) 2020-10-20

Family

ID=72803124

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN202010586365.2A Pending CN111791866A (en) 2020-06-24 2020-06-24 Transport vehicle emergency parking releasing system

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN111791866A (en)

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113022523A (en) * 2021-03-30 2021-06-25 安徽江淮汽车集团股份有限公司 Air braking system and automobile pneumatic system

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113022523A (en) * 2021-03-30 2021-06-25 安徽江淮汽车集团股份有限公司 Air braking system and automobile pneumatic system

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