CN111785420A - 一种高压硅橡胶软电缆及其加工工艺 - Google Patents

一种高压硅橡胶软电缆及其加工工艺 Download PDF

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CN111785420A
CN111785420A CN202010474581.8A CN202010474581A CN111785420A CN 111785420 A CN111785420 A CN 111785420A CN 202010474581 A CN202010474581 A CN 202010474581A CN 111785420 A CN111785420 A CN 111785420A
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shielding layer
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silicon rubber
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徐季新
邹洪宇
邱金波
王超
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Zhejiang Yuantong Cable Manufacture Co ltd
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    • H01B3/18Insulators or insulating bodies characterised by the insulating materials; Selection of materials for their insulating or dielectric properties mainly consisting of organic substances
    • H01B3/28Insulators or insulating bodies characterised by the insulating materials; Selection of materials for their insulating or dielectric properties mainly consisting of organic substances natural or synthetic rubbers
    • HELECTRICITY
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    • H01BCABLES; CONDUCTORS; INSULATORS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR CONDUCTIVE, INSULATING OR DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES
    • H01B3/00Insulators or insulating bodies characterised by the insulating materials; Selection of materials for their insulating or dielectric properties
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    • H01B7/28Protection against damage caused by moisture, corrosion, chemical attack or weather
    • H01B7/282Preventing penetration of fluid, e.g. water or humidity, into conductor or cable
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    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
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    • H01B7/00Insulated conductors or cables characterised by their form
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    • HELECTRICITY
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    • H01B7/00Insulated conductors or cables characterised by their form
    • H01B7/17Protection against damage caused by external factors, e.g. sheaths or armouring
    • H01B7/18Protection against damage caused by wear, mechanical force or pressure; Sheaths; Armouring
    • H01B7/22Metal wires or tapes, e.g. made of steel
    • H01B7/228Metal braid

Abstract

本发明涉及电缆技术领域,公开了一种高压硅橡胶软电缆及其加工工艺,包括由铜丝绞合而成的导体(1),导体(1)的材料为镀锡铜丝,导体(1)上由内至外依次包覆有绝缘屏蔽层(2)、复合屏蔽层(3)、外护层(4),绝缘屏蔽层(2)由内之外依次包括内屏蔽层(5)、绝缘层(6)、外屏蔽层(7),复合屏蔽层(3)由半导电尼龙带和镀锡丝编织而成,复合屏蔽层(3)上包覆有包带层(8),外护层(4)由硅橡胶材料制成。本发明具有耐高温、耐辐射耐寒耐酸碱以及腐蚀性的气味,防水等特性,电缆结构柔软,敷设方便,在高温的条件下电气性能稳定,抗老化的性能特别突出,使用的寿命长且广泛的用于冶金,石油化工、电力等制造行业。

Description

一种高压硅橡胶软电缆及其加工工艺
技术领域
本发明涉及电缆技术领域,尤其涉及一种高压硅橡胶软电缆及其加工工艺。
背景技术
高温环境用高压硅橡胶电缆主要应用于冶金,石油化工、电力等恶劣环境中使用,这种电缆长期使用环境温度在150℃以上,要有极强耐油,耐寒特性,同时对电缆的电性能要求极高,局放量不能大于20Pc,目前这种产品大部分都采用进口产品,在国内还处于空白领域。
现有的高压硅橡胶电缆,一般都采用挤包一层绝缘层,无内外挤包半导电硅橡胶屏蔽层,由于电缆导体由多根导线绞合而成,它与绝缘层之间易形成气隙,导体表面不光滑,会造成电场集中,造成电缆击穿影响使用寿命。如中国发明专利(申请号:CN200820063200.1)公开了一种耐热环保型高压高抗拉高抗撕裂绝缘软电线及电缆。该软电线,包括导体及绝缘层,即同芯层状结构电线中心的导体外为环保型高压高抗拉高抗撕裂绝缘层。该软电缆,包括导体及导体绝缘层及外护套,即具有同芯层状结构的电缆,其中心的导体外为环保型高压高抗拉高抗撕裂绝缘层包裹,该绝缘层外为环保型高压高抗拉高抗撕裂护套层包裹。上述专利中的电缆长期使用温度在150-200℃之间,在此种工作环境下铜导体非常容易发生氧化,氧化后在该处电阻率会急剧增大,造成此处发热严重,进而导致电缆的使用寿命下降。
发明内容
本发明针对现有技术中耐高温性能差、使用寿命短的缺点,提供了一种耐高温性能好、使用寿命长的高压硅橡胶软电缆及其加工工艺。
为了解决上述技术问题,本发明通过下述技术方案得以解决:
高压硅橡胶软电缆,包括由铜丝绞合而成的导体,导体的材料为镀锡铜丝,导体上由内至外依次包覆有绝缘屏蔽层、复合屏蔽层、外护层,绝缘屏蔽层由内之外依次包括内屏蔽层、绝缘层、外屏蔽层,复合屏蔽层由半导电尼龙带和镀锡丝编织而成,复合屏蔽层上包覆有包带层,外护层由硅橡胶材料制成。
作为优选,绝缘屏蔽层的耐温等级在-60°~180°。
作为优选,内屏蔽层和外屏蔽层均由半导电硅橡胶制成。
作为优选,导体的外壁上绕包有半导电带。
作为优选,外护层由硅橡胶材料制成,外护层的耐温等级在-60°~180°。
作为优选,导体包括多层由铜丝制成的导电层,导电层的绞距由内至外逐渐减小,相邻的导电层绞合方向相反。
一种高压硅橡胶软电缆的加工工艺,包括以上所述的高压硅橡胶软电缆,还包括以下工艺步骤:
步骤1,先将单线进行束绞,束绞结束后,对束绞后的绞线通过正规绞合的方式进行绞合,形成导体,导体的紧压系数控制在0.85-0.9;
步骤2,制备绝缘屏蔽层:内屏蔽层和绝缘层均通过蒸汽连续硫化挤出机挤出在导体上,内屏蔽层和绝缘层采用高温高压硫化体系,选用双25硫化剂作为内屏蔽层和绝缘层的硫化剂,硫化温度在165℃~175℃,蒸汽压力在0.7-0.8MPa;外屏蔽层采用通过蒸汽连续硫化挤出机挤出在绝缘层上,外屏蔽层采用低温低压硫化体系,选用铂金硫化剂,硫化温度在130℃-150℃,蒸汽压力0.1-0.2MPa;
步骤3,制备复合屏蔽层;采用重叠绕包一层半导电尼龙带和镀锡丝编织层,半导电尼龙带平整的绕包在绝缘屏蔽层上,绕包搭盖率不小于15%,镀锡丝编织密度不小于80%;
步骤4,制备外护层;外护层采用硅胶材料,外护层通过蒸汽连续硫化挤出机挤出在复合屏蔽层上,采用高温高压硫化体系,硫化温度在165℃~175℃,蒸汽压力在0.7-0.75MP。
本发明由于采用了以上技术方案,具有显著的技术效果:适用于交流电额定电压以及固定的动力传输线或者是移动电器用连接电缆,具有耐高温、耐辐射耐寒耐酸碱以及腐蚀性的气味,防水等特性,电缆结构柔软,敷设方便,在高温的条件下电气性能稳定,抗老化的性能特别突出,使用的寿命长且广泛的用于冶金,石油化工、电力等制造行业。
附图说明
图1是本发明的结构示意图。
图2是绝缘层的结构示意图。
图3是复合屏蔽层的结构示意图
附图中各数字标号所指代的部位名称如下:1—导体、2—绝缘屏蔽层、3—复合屏蔽层、4—外护层、5—内屏蔽层、6—绝缘层、7—外屏蔽层、8—包带层。
具体实施方式
下面结合附图与实施例对本发明作进一步详细描述。
实施例1
高压硅橡胶软电缆,如图1至图3所示,包括由铜丝绞合而成的导体1,导体1的外壁上绕包有半导电带,导体1的材料为镀锡铜丝,由于硅橡胶电缆的的长期使用温度要达到180℃的高温场合和恶劣环境下,为此,导体材料需选用耐腐蚀、抗氧化性能优越的镀锡铜丝,导体1上由内至外依次包覆有绝缘屏蔽层2、复合屏蔽层3、外护层4,绝缘屏蔽层2由内之外依次包括内屏蔽层5、绝缘层6、外屏蔽层7,为提高绝缘线芯的电气绝缘性能,选用半导电硅橡胶作为内屏蔽层5和外屏蔽层7,内屏蔽层5和绝缘层6采用低温低压硫化体系,外屏蔽层7采用高温高压硫化体系,用此种方式生产的绝缘屏蔽层2,内屏蔽层5和外屏蔽层7表面十分光滑平整,绝缘屏蔽层2表面电场分布更加均匀,以改善线芯电场分布,降低局部放电因素,进而延长中压硅橡胶电力电缆的使用寿命,保证电缆的长期安全稳定运行,复合屏蔽层3由半导电尼龙带和镀锡丝编织而成,既可以有效的传导泄漏电流、感应电流、屏蔽电磁干扰,同时又能保证电缆具有较好的柔软性能,复合屏蔽层3上包覆有包带层8,包带层8为非吸湿性包带绕包而成,外护层4由硅橡胶材料制成。绝缘屏蔽层2的耐温等级在-60°~180°。内屏蔽层5和外屏蔽层7均由半导电硅橡胶制成,绝缘层6由硅橡胶绝缘材料制成。
实施例2
高压硅橡胶软电缆,如图1至图3所示,在实施例1的基础上,外护层4由硅橡胶材料制成,外护层4的耐温等级在-60°~180°。在承受高温、低温或者环境更为苛刻的条件下,电缆依然能够正常稳定的工作;具备良好耐热性、耐寒性、耐老化性能、耐臭氧、耐油性能;具备优良的机械物理性能。
实施例3
高压硅橡胶软电缆,如图1至图3所示,在实施例1的基础上,导体1包括多层由铜丝制成的导电层,导电层的绞距由内至外逐渐减小,相邻的导电层绞合方向相反。为了确保电缆的柔软性,必须提高电缆导体柔软性和弯曲性,导体的结构设计很大程度决定了这样的性能;导体单丝直径越细,柔软性越好;导体相邻的导电层之间采用正反向绞合,同时保证每层均有较小的绞距(最外层绞距不大于12倍,次外层不大于14倍,以此类推)弯曲性能越好,同时采用纳米级紧压模具,一方面对绞合导体进行紧压,保证导体圆整紧实,另一方面可以消除导体表面的毛刺在防止尖端放电的,提高导体表面的光滑程度,使导体表面电场分布更加均匀。
一种高压硅橡胶软电缆的加工工艺,包括以上所述的高压硅橡胶软电缆,还包括以下工艺步骤:
步骤1,先将单线进行束绞,束绞结束后,对束绞后的绞线通过正规绞合的方式进行绞合,形成导体1,导体1的紧压系数控制在0.85-0.9;确保导体具有杰出的稳定性和柔软性;紧压系数控制在0.85-0.9范围内,确保导体1表面光滑、紧实、无毛刺,导体1外还绕包有一层半导电尼龙带,确保导体结构紧实不松散;
步骤2,制备绝缘屏蔽层:内屏蔽层5和绝缘层6均通过蒸汽连续硫化挤出机挤出在导体1上,内屏蔽层5和绝缘层6采用高温高压硫化体系,选用双25硫化剂作为内屏蔽层5和绝缘层6的硫化剂,硫化温度在165℃~175℃,蒸汽压力在0.7-0.8MPa,在此条件下硫化的硅橡胶焦烧性能好、产物无毒、硫化胶压缩变形较低、具有较高的伸长率,与此同时双25硫化剂不受炭黑的影响,可以用于半导电层的挤出硫化;外屏蔽层7采用通过蒸汽连续硫化挤出机挤出在绝缘层6上,外屏蔽层7采用低温低压硫化体系,选用铂金硫化剂,具有成型硫化速度快,成型温度低,具有硫化温度低,硫化速度快等特点,硫化温度在130℃-150℃,蒸汽压力0.1-0.2MPa,若一次挤出和二次挤出采用相同的硫化体系,在二次挤出外屏蔽层7时,先挤出的内屏蔽层5和绝缘层6很容易发生过硫,出现脆化开裂的问题,对产品的性能的影响也十分巨大,因此采用本技术的硫化体系成型后的产品物理性能优异,尺寸稳定,收缩率低,产品拉伸强度,抗撕裂强度,回弹性能大大提高;硫化温度在150℃以上气压在0.5MPa以上视为高温高压硫化体系,反之则称为低温低压硫化体系,内屏蔽层5和绝缘层6采用高温温高压硫化体系、外屏蔽层7采用低温低压硫化体系,可以极大程度的使硅橡胶完成硫化,保证成型后的产品拥有良好的物理性能和介电性能;
步骤3,制备复合屏蔽层;采用重叠绕包一层半导电尼龙带和镀锡丝编织层,防止电流沿径向泄漏,保证使用安全,具有良好的电绝缘性能、耐热性能和一定的机械强度,半导电尼龙带平整的绕包在绝缘屏蔽层2上,绕包搭盖率不小于15%,镀锡丝编织密度不小于80%,保证编织节距均匀;
步骤4,制备外护层;外护层4采用硅胶材料,外护层4通过蒸汽连续硫化挤出机挤出在复合屏蔽层3上,采用高温高压硫化体系,硫化温度在165℃~175℃,蒸汽压力在0.7-0.75MP,生产出的硅橡胶具有良好的机械性能。
上述工艺生产出的高压硅橡胶软电缆,具有以下性能:
1、导体具有优异的导电性能,测得的成品电阻为0.105Ω/km,远小于国标要求0.108Ω/km。
2、绝缘和护套优异的机械性能,如下表参数所示;
从上表可得看出,使用本工艺生产得到的绝缘屏蔽层2和外护层4,具有优异的介电性能和机械性能,完全可以达到在-60℃~180℃之间,承受高温、低温或者环境更为苛刻的条件下正常稳定的工作。
该电缆成品在38.5kV的电压条件下,通电5min,电缆未发生击穿,并且局部放量不超过200PC,而行业内同类高压硅橡胶产品的放电量在超过2000PC的水平。如此低的局放放电量,可为高压硅橡胶电缆的长期持续稳定运行。

Claims (7)

1.高压硅橡胶软电缆,其特征在于:包括由铜丝绞合而成的导体(1),导体(1)的材料为镀锡铜丝,导体(1)上由内至外依次包覆有绝缘屏蔽层(2)、复合屏蔽层(3)、外护层(4),绝缘屏蔽层(2)由内之外依次包括内屏蔽层(5)、绝缘层(6)、外屏蔽层(7),复合屏蔽层(3)由半导电尼龙带和镀锡丝编织而成,复合屏蔽层(3)上包覆有包带层(8),外护层(4)由硅橡胶材料制成。
2.根据权利要求1所述的高压硅橡胶软电缆,其特征在于:绝缘屏蔽层(2)的耐温等级在-60°~180°。
3.根据权利要求1所述的高压硅橡胶软电缆,其特征在于:内屏蔽层(5)和外屏蔽层(7)均由半导电硅橡胶制成。
4.根据权利要求1所述的高压硅橡胶软电缆,其特征在于:导体(1)的外壁上绕包有半导电带。
5.根据权利要求1所述的高压硅橡胶软电缆,其特征在于:外护层(4)由硅橡胶材料制成,外护层(4)的耐温等级在-60°~180°。
6.根据权利要求1所述的高压硅橡胶软电缆,其特征在于:导体(1)包括多层由铜丝制成的导电层,导电层的绞距由内至外逐渐减小,相邻的导电层绞合方向相反。
7.一种高压硅橡胶软电缆的加工工艺,其特征在于:包括权利要求1至6任一项所述的高压硅橡胶软电缆,还包括以下工艺步骤:
步骤1,先将单线进行束绞,束绞结束后,对束绞后的绞线通过正规绞合的方式进行绞合,形成导体(1),导体(1)的紧压系数控制在0.85-0.9;
步骤2,制备绝缘屏蔽层:内屏蔽层(5)和绝缘层(6)均通过蒸汽连续硫化挤出机挤出在导体(1)上,内屏蔽层(5)和绝缘层(6)采用高温高压硫化体系,选用双25硫化剂作为内屏蔽层(5)和绝缘层(6)的硫化剂,硫化温度在165℃~175℃,蒸汽压力在0.7-0.8MPa;外屏蔽层(7)采用通过蒸汽连续硫化挤出机挤出在绝缘层(6)上,外屏蔽层(7)采用低温低压硫化体系,选用铂金硫化剂,硫化温度在130℃-150℃,蒸汽压力0.1-0.2MPa;
步骤3,制备复合屏蔽层;采用重叠绕包一层半导电尼龙带和镀锡丝编织层,半导电尼龙带平整的绕包在绝缘屏蔽层(2)上,绕包搭盖率不小于15%,镀锡丝编织密度不小于80%;
步骤4,制备外护层;外护层(4)采用硅胶材料,外护层(4)通过蒸汽连续硫化挤出机挤出在复合屏蔽层(3)上,采用高温高压硫化体系,硫化温度在165℃~175℃,蒸汽压力在0.7-0.75MP。
CN202010474581.8A 2020-05-29 2020-05-29 一种高压硅橡胶软电缆及其加工工艺 Pending CN111785420A (zh)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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CN112509742A (zh) * 2020-12-21 2021-03-16 安徽世林照明股份有限公司 一种多层绕包式的电线及其加工工艺
CN112509744A (zh) * 2020-12-21 2021-03-16 安徽世林照明股份有限公司 一种防火散热功能电线电缆
CN113555149A (zh) * 2021-07-26 2021-10-26 安徽电缆股份有限公司 一种高性能军用5g通讯装置用硅橡胶软电缆

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112509742A (zh) * 2020-12-21 2021-03-16 安徽世林照明股份有限公司 一种多层绕包式的电线及其加工工艺
CN112509744A (zh) * 2020-12-21 2021-03-16 安徽世林照明股份有限公司 一种防火散热功能电线电缆
CN113555149A (zh) * 2021-07-26 2021-10-26 安徽电缆股份有限公司 一种高性能军用5g通讯装置用硅橡胶软电缆

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