CN111749815A - Low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline system - Google Patents

Low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111749815A
CN111749815A CN202010491591.2A CN202010491591A CN111749815A CN 111749815 A CN111749815 A CN 111749815A CN 202010491591 A CN202010491591 A CN 202010491591A CN 111749815 A CN111749815 A CN 111749815A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
low
temperature
pipeline
low temperature
attitude control
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CN202010491591.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN111749815B (en
Inventor
程诚
田桂
熊靖宇
郭曼丽
刘国权
周国峰
周海清
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Shanghai Institute of Space Propulsion
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Shanghai Institute of Space Propulsion
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/44Feeding propellants
    • F02K9/56Control
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/44Feeding propellants
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F02COMBUSTION ENGINES; HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
    • F02KJET-PROPULSION PLANTS
    • F02K9/00Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof
    • F02K9/42Rocket- engine plants, i.e. plants carrying both fuel and oxidant therefor; Control thereof using liquid or gaseous propellants
    • F02K9/44Feeding propellants
    • F02K9/56Control
    • F02K9/58Propellant feed valves

Abstract

The invention provides a propellant supply pipeline system of a low-temperature attitude control engine, which comprises a low-temperature fuel annular pipeline, a low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline, a low-temperature heat insulation support, a low-temperature attitude control engine, a control valve group and a throttling orifice plate group, wherein the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline is connected with the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline through a pipeline; the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline and the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline are both fixed with a propulsion system assembly structure through low-temperature heat insulation supports, the upper portion of the low-temperature attitude control engine is connected with the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline through a low-temperature fuel control valve, the low-temperature attitude control engine is connected with the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline through a low-temperature oxidant control valve, branch branches are arranged at the tail ends of the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline and the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline, control valves are arranged on the branch branches, and throttle orifice plates with different apertures are connected behind the control valves in series. The supply pipeline system can solve the problems that the low-temperature propellant has large heat leakage in the pipeline conveying process, the low-temperature attitude control engine inlet condition is controlled, and the precooling consumption of the propellant is adjusted under the multi-working-condition.

Description

Low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline system
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of liquid rocket engines, in particular to a propellant supply pipeline system of a low-temperature attitude control engine.
Background
With the development of aerospace science and technology, large-scale aerospace tasks such as manned landing on the moon, manned Mars landing and the like are put forward, which also puts higher requirements on a space propulsion system. The low-temperature propellant combinations of liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen/methane and the like are widely applied to carrier rockets and the upper stages due to the characteristics of high specific impulse performance, no toxicity, no pollution, in-situ resource utilization potential, low cost and the like. The cryogenic propellants are considered to be the most economical and efficient chemical propellants for space entry and orbital transfer. For attitude control engines or their units, small supply flows of cryogenic propellants can increase in temperature and even vaporize in elongated delivery lines due to heat from heat conduction and external radiation. Therefore, how to guarantee the state of the low-temperature propellant at the inlet of the attitude control engine is important content of the design of the propellant supply pipeline of the low-temperature attitude control engine. The condition of the inlet propellant for controlling the engine by the low-temperature attitude through precooling discharge is a method commonly used in engineering, but under different task requirements or working conditions, the amount of the propellant consumed by precooling is different, the precooling consumption of the low-temperature attitude control engine or a unit thereof can be accurately adjusted, and the service life of a propulsion system is prolonged.
Through the search of the prior art, the invention patent with application publication number CN 105298682A discloses a cold thrust augmentation tail nozzle of an aircraft engine, wherein a fairing is positioned in a cylinder body, and a fairing support plate is arranged between the fairing and the cylinder body; the spindle body is positioned at the outlet of the fairing, the driven worm is fixedly connected with the spindle body, the driving worm is meshed with the driven worm, and the stepping motor is connected with the driving worm; the liquid nitrogen container is positioned inside the fairing, a liquid nitrogen injection port of the liquid nitrogen injection pipe extends out of the fairing and faces the cylinder body, and a liquid nitrogen injection port of the liquid nitrogen injection pipe is communicated with the outside of the cylinder body; a boosting flame stabilizer is arranged between the cylinder body and the fairing; and a cold stress application trigger is arranged at the tail end of the driven worm in the fairing and used for controlling the liquid nitrogen injection action. The cooling structure of the engine cannot carry out multi-working-condition precooling adjustment capability, and cannot prolong the service life of the system.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the shortcomings of the prior art, it is an object of the present invention to provide a low temperature attitude control engine propellant supply line system.
The purpose of the invention is realized by the following scheme:
a propellant supply pipeline system of a low-temperature attitude control engine comprises a low-temperature fuel annular pipeline, a low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline, a low-temperature heat insulation support, a low-temperature attitude control engine, a control valve group and a throttling orifice plate group; the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline and the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline are both connected and fixed with a propulsion system assembly structure through low-temperature heat insulation supports, the upper portion of the low-temperature attitude control engine is connected with the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline through a low-temperature fuel control valve and connected with the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline through a low-temperature oxidant control valve, branch branches are arranged at the tail ends of the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline and the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline, the branch branches are provided with control valve sets, and throttle orifice plate sets with different apertures are connected behind the control valve sets in series. And the low-temperature fuel and the low-temperature oxidant enter the precooling discharge pipeline through the orifice plate group at the tail end of the respective annular pipeline. The low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline is used for opening or closing different control valves under different working conditions, so that the low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline has multi-working-condition precooling and adjusting capacity.
Preferably, the surfaces of the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline and the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline are coated by foam materials and multi-layer heat insulation materials.
Preferably, the foam material is preferably polyurethane foam or aerogel foam, and the multi-layer heat insulation material is formed by alternately laying high-reflectivity material and terylene nets. The thermal control coating of the low-temperature propellant annular pipeline is carried out by adopting the foam material and the multiple layers of heat insulation materials, so that the heat leakage of the environment to the low-temperature propellant conveying pipeline can be greatly reduced, and the precooling discharge and the propellant consumption for maintaining the inlet condition of the engine are reduced.
Preferably, the low-temperature heat insulation support comprises a pipeline fixing part and a general assembly connecting part, the bottom of the general assembly connecting part is fixedly connected with the general assembly structure of the propulsion system, a groove matched with the pipeline fixing part in shape is formed in the top of the general assembly connecting part, and the pipeline fixing part penetrates through the annular pipeline and then is fixed in the groove in the top of the general assembly connecting part through a strap.
Preferably, the pipeline fixing part is made of a material with low temperature resistance and low thermal conductivity, such as Polymethacrylimide (PMI), and the assembly connecting part is made of a material with high strength and low thermal conductivity, such as polychlorotrifluoroethylene, polytetrafluoroethylene or a G10 glass fiber composite material (low temperature resistant resin is required).
Preferably, the assembly connecting portion is an I-shaped structure with a vertical waist-shaped hole in the middle, the pipeline fixing portion is a waist-shaped structure with a through hole in the middle, and the grooves in the top of the assembly connecting portion are consistent with the radians at the two ends of the pipeline fixing portion.
Preferably, the low-temperature fuel control valve is communicated with a low-temperature fuel annular pipeline above the low-temperature attitude control engine through a fuel branch, and the low-temperature oxidant control valve is communicated with a low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline above the low-temperature attitude control engine through an oxidant branch. The low-temperature propellant enters the head of the corresponding attitude control engine from the upper part through the connecting pipe between the low-temperature propellant and the annular pipeline, and bubbles in the connecting pipe can move upwards to enter the annular pipeline in the precooling process, so that the formation of air pockets at the inlet of the engine is avoided, and the normal ignition work of the engine is influenced.
Preferably, the number of the low temperature posture control engines is 1 to 6.
Preferably, the annular pipeline of the low-temperature fuel and the annular pipeline of the low-temperature oxidant are both provided with a plurality of low-temperature heat insulation supports.
The working principle of the invention is as follows: when the low-temperature attitude control engine or a unit thereof works, low-temperature propellants (low-temperature fuel and low-temperature oxidizer) are supplied by an upstream propellant conveying pipeline, the low-temperature fuel and the low-temperature oxidizer respectively enter a low-temperature fuel annular pipeline and a low-temperature oxidizer annular pipeline, and the propellants enter a plurality of low-temperature attitude control engines through the two annular pipelines. In the process of precooling the pipeline, a propellant control valve at the head of the engine is in a closed state, low-temperature propellant cannot enter the engine, a plurality of branch pipelines are arranged at the tail end of the annular pipeline, each branch pipeline is provided with a control valve, and then the branch pipelines are connected with throttle orifice plates with different apertures. After precooling is completed, the control valve group at the tail end of the annular pipeline is completely closed, then the propellant control valve of the engine is controlled by corresponding posture according to a system control instruction, and low-temperature propellant enters the combustion chamber of the engine to be combusted to form high-temperature fuel gas to be sprayed out from the spray pipe so as to generate thrust.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the propellant supply pipeline system of the low-temperature attitude control engine adopts the foam material and the multilayer heat insulation material to carry out thermal control coating on the low-temperature propellant annular pipeline, and can greatly reduce the heat leakage of the environment to the low-temperature propellant conveying pipeline, thereby reducing precooling emission and maintaining the propellant consumption under the condition of the inlet of the engine.
2. The low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline system is fixedly connected with the propulsion system assembly frame through the specially-made low-temperature heat insulation support, and can further reduce the heat exchange quantity between the low-temperature propellant conveying pipeline and the system frame on the basis of ensuring the structural strength of the heat insulation support.
3. The propellant supply pipeline system of the low-temperature attitude control engine disclosed by the invention opens or closes the control valve at the tail end of the annular pipeline under different working modes, so that the propellant supply pipeline of the low-temperature attitude control engine has multi-working-condition precooling and adjusting capacity, and the service life of a propulsion system is prolonged.
4. According to the low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline system, the low-temperature propellant enters the head part of the corresponding attitude control engine from the upper part through the connecting pipe between the low-temperature propellant and the annular pipeline, bubbles in the connecting pipe can swim upwards to enter the annular pipeline in the precooling process, so that cavitation at the inlet of the engine is avoided, and the normal propellant supply of the engine is ensured.
Drawings
Other features, objects and advantages of the invention will become more apparent upon reading of the detailed description of non-limiting embodiments with reference to the following drawings:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the structure of a low temperature attitude control engine propellant supply piping system of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a thermally controlled wrapping of a propellant annular line in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the structure of the low-temperature heat insulation support of the invention.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in detail with reference to specific examples. The following examples will assist those skilled in the art in further understanding the invention, but are not intended to limit the invention in any way. It should be noted that it would be obvious to those skilled in the art that various changes and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit of the invention. All falling within the scope of the present invention.
The low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline system can solve the problems that the low-temperature propellant has large heat leakage in the pipeline conveying process, the low-temperature attitude control engine inlet condition is controlled, and the precooling consumption of the propellant is adjusted under the multi-working-condition. The invention can reduce the consumption of the propellant, prolong the service life of the engine, and has the advantages of simple structure, multi-working-condition adjustment, simple operation and control, high-efficiency precooling and the like.
As shown in fig. 1 to 3, the present invention will be described in detail with reference to specific embodiments below:
example 1
A low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline system comprises a low-temperature fuel annular pipeline 1, a low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline 2, a low-temperature heat insulation support 3, a low-temperature attitude control engine 4, a control valve 5 and a throttle orifice 6; the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline 1 and the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline 2 are both connected and fixed with a propulsion system assembly structure through a low-temperature heat insulation support 3, the upper part of a low-temperature attitude control engine 4 is connected with the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline 1 through a low-temperature fuel control valve 41, and is connected with the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline 2 through a low-temperature oxidant control valve 42, the tail end of the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline 1 is provided with a plurality of branch branches, each branch is provided with a control valve 5, and the branch branches are connected with a throttle orifice plate 6 in series; the tail end of the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline 2 is provided with a plurality of branch branches, each branch is provided with a control valve 5 and is connected with a throttling orifice plate 6 in series, and the aperture of the throttling orifice plate 6 on each branch is different.
The low-temperature fuel and the low-temperature oxidant enter the precooling device through the orifice plate group 6 at the tail end of each annular pipeline and then enter each annular pipeline through the inlet of each annular pipeline. And the control valves of different branch circuits at the tail end of the annular pipeline are opened or closed in different working modes, so that the low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline system has multi-working-condition precooling and adjusting capacity. For example, under the condition of larger heat leakage, a control valve connected with a large-aperture throttling orifice plate in series is opened, the flow of a precooling propellant in an annular pipeline is increased, and the precooling of the engine or a unit thereof can be quickly controlled by a low-temperature attitude; under the environment of small heat leakage, a control valve connected with the small-aperture throttling orifice plate in series is opened, the flow of the precooling propellant in the annular pipeline is reduced, the consumption of the precooling propellant can be reduced, and the service life of the propulsion system is prolonged.
The low-temperature fuel control valve 41 communicates with the low-temperature fuel annular line 1 above the low-temperature attitude control engine 4 through the fuel branch line 11, and the low-temperature oxidizer control valve 42 communicates with the low-temperature oxidizer annular line 2 above the low-temperature attitude control engine 4 through the oxidizer branch line 21. The low-temperature propellant (low-temperature fuel and low-temperature oxidant) enters the corresponding engine head from the upper part through the pipeline, and bubbles in the connecting pipe can swim upwards to enter the annular pipeline in the precooling process, so that the formation of air pockets at the inlet of the engine is avoided, and the normal ignition work of the engine is influenced.
Example 2
Example 2 is a preferred example of example 1:
in example 2, the surfaces of the low-temperature fuel annular pipe 1 and the low-temperature oxidizing agent annular pipe 2 are coated with the foam material 8 and the multi-layer heat insulating material 9. The foam material 8 may be a polyurethane foam or an aerogel foam, and the multi-layer thermal insulation material 9 is generally formed by alternately laying a high-reflectivity material (generally a double-sided aluminum-plated film) and a polyester net.
Low temperature heat-insulating support 3 comprises the part that adopts different materials, including pipeline fixed part 31 and assembly connecting portion 32, pipeline fixed part 31 is the waist shape structure that the centre was equipped with the through-hole, pipeline fixed part 31 adopts low temperature resistant material to make, assembly connecting portion 32 is the I-shaped structure that the middle part was equipped with vertical waist type hole, assembly connecting portion 32's bottom and propulsion system assembly structural connection are fixed, assembly connecting portion 32 adopts the material that has higher strength and low coefficient of heat conductivity to make, assembly connecting portion 32's top be equipped with pipeline fixed part 31 shape complex recess, pipeline fixed part 31 passes behind the annular tube way and fixes in the recess at assembly connecting portion 32 top through strap 7, the radian at recess and pipeline fixed part 31 both ends is unanimous. The specially-made low-temperature heat insulation support is fixedly connected with the propulsion system assembly frame, so that the heat exchange quantity between the low-temperature propellant conveying pipeline and the system frame can be further reduced on the basis of ensuring the structural strength of the heat insulation support.
The number n of the low-temperature attitude control engines 4 can be adjusted according to the actual system use requirement, and the number n is generally 1 to 6. The low-temperature fuel annular pipeline 1 and the low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline 2 are both provided with a plurality of low-temperature heat insulation supports 3.
The working principle of the low-temperature attitude control propulsion system provided by the invention is as follows:
since the fuel path is in a similar flow direction to the oxygen path, the fuel path is taken as an example in this case. When the low-temperature attitude control engine or the unit thereof works, low-temperature fuel is supplied by an upstream fuel conveying pipeline, enters the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline 1, passes through the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline 1, and then enters the plurality of low-temperature attitude control engines 4. In the process of precooling the pipeline, a propellant control valve at the head of the engine is in a closed state, and low-temperature fuel cannot enter the engine. The tail end of the low-temperature fuel annular pipeline 1 is provided with a plurality of branched pipelines, and the control valves 5 of different branched branches can be opened according to different working condition requirements, so that the low-temperature fuel flows through the throttle orifice plates 6 with different apertures, and the purpose of controlling the precooling flow under different working conditions is achieved. After precooling is finished, the control valves 5 at the tail ends of the annular pipelines are all closed, then the propellant control valves of the engine 4 are controlled in corresponding postures according to system control instructions, and low-temperature fuel and low-temperature oxidant enter the combustion chamber of the engine to be combusted to form high-temperature fuel gas to be sprayed out of the spray pipe so as to generate thrust.
The low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline system can solve the problems that the low-temperature propellant has large heat leakage in the pipeline conveying process, the low-temperature attitude control engine inlet condition is controlled, and the propellant precooling consumption is adjusted under the multi-working-condition, thereby reducing the propellant loss and prolonging the service life of the engine. The method is suitable for a low-temperature plug-in type engine system, in particular to a plug-in type attitude control engine with small thrust.
In the description of the present application, it is to be understood that the terms "upper", "lower", "front", "rear", "left", "right", "vertical", "horizontal", "top", "bottom", "inner", "outer", and the like indicate orientations or positional relationships based on those shown in the drawings, and are only for convenience in describing the present application and simplifying the description, but do not indicate or imply that the referred device or element must have a specific orientation, be constructed in a specific orientation, and be operated, and thus, should not be construed as limiting the present application.
The foregoing description of specific embodiments of the present invention has been presented. It is to be understood that the present invention is not limited to the specific embodiments described above, and that various changes or modifications may be made by one skilled in the art within the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit of the invention. The embodiments and features of the embodiments of the present application may be combined with each other arbitrarily without conflict.

Claims (5)

1. A propellant supply pipeline system of a low-temperature attitude control engine is characterized by comprising a low-temperature fuel annular pipeline (1), a low-temperature oxidant annular pipeline (2), a low-temperature heat insulation support (3), a low-temperature attitude control engine (4), a control valve (5) and a throttling orifice plate (6); low temperature fuel ring line (1) and low temperature oxidant ring line (2) all are connected fixedly through low temperature thermal-insulated support (3) and propulsion system assembly structure, the top of low temperature attitude control engine (4) through low temperature fuel control valve (41) with low temperature fuel ring line (1) is connected, through low temperature oxidant control valve (42) with low temperature oxidant ring line (2) are connected, the end of low temperature fuel ring line (1) and low temperature oxidant ring line (2) all is equipped with the branching branch road, the branching sets up on the branch road control valve 5, control valve (5) rear series connection orifice plate (6).
2. A low temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipe system according to claim 1, wherein the surfaces of the low temperature fuel annular pipe (1) and the low temperature oxidizer annular pipe (2) are coated with foam material (8) and multi-layer heat insulating material (9).
3. The propellant supply pipeline system of the low-temperature attitude control engine according to claim 1, wherein the low-temperature heat insulation support (3) comprises a pipeline fixing part (31) and a general assembly connecting part (32), the bottom of the general assembly connecting part (32) is fixedly connected with the general assembly structure of the propulsion system, the top of the general assembly connecting part (32) is provided with a groove matched with the pipeline fixing part (31) in shape, and the pipeline fixing part (31) penetrates through the annular pipeline and is fixed in the groove at the top of the general assembly connecting part (32) through a hoop (7).
4. A low temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipe system according to claim 3, wherein said pipe fixing portion (31) is made of a low temperature resistant material, and said assembly attaching portion (32) is made of a material having high strength and low thermal conductivity.
5. A low temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipe system according to claim 1, wherein the low temperature fuel control valve (41) communicates with a low temperature fuel annular pipe (1) above the low temperature attitude control engine (4) through a fuel branch (11), and the low temperature oxidizer control valve (42) communicates with a low temperature oxidizer annular pipe (2) above the low temperature attitude control engine (4) through an oxidizer branch (21).
CN202010491591.2A 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 Low-temperature attitude control engine propellant supply pipeline system Active CN111749815B (en)

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CN110487346A (en) * 2019-08-12 2019-11-22 西安航天动力试验技术研究所 A kind of big flow cryogenic propellant supply line rectification orifice plate and its design method
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
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CN104329187A (en) * 2014-09-05 2015-02-04 西北工业大学 Variable working condition type primary rocket system of rocket based combined cycle engine
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CN110487346A (en) * 2019-08-12 2019-11-22 西安航天动力试验技术研究所 A kind of big flow cryogenic propellant supply line rectification orifice plate and its design method
CN110715173A (en) * 2019-09-29 2020-01-21 西安交通大学 Quick precooling transmission pipeline structure of low-temperature propellant

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