CN111699840A - Corn stalk top-removing cutting and crushing integrated header and device - Google Patents

Corn stalk top-removing cutting and crushing integrated header and device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111699840A
CN111699840A CN202010716213.XA CN202010716213A CN111699840A CN 111699840 A CN111699840 A CN 111699840A CN 202010716213 A CN202010716213 A CN 202010716213A CN 111699840 A CN111699840 A CN 111699840A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
spiral body
stalk
corn
cutting
stalks
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
CN202010716213.XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN111699840B (en
Inventor
张翼飞
杨克军
赵良琦
单元杰
于崧
李颖超
刘含超
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Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University
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Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University
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Priority to CN202010716213.XA priority Critical patent/CN111699840B/en
Publication of CN111699840A publication Critical patent/CN111699840A/en
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN111699840B publication Critical patent/CN111699840B/en
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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D47/00Headers for topping of plants, e.g. stalks with ears
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D57/00Delivering mechanisms for harvesters or mowers
    • A01D57/01Devices for leading crops to the mowing apparatus
    • A01D57/02Devices for leading crops to the mowing apparatus using reels
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G3/00Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes; Delimbing standing trees
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G3/00Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes; Delimbing standing trees
    • A01G3/002Cutting implements specially adapted for horticultural purposes; Delimbing standing trees for comminuting plant waste

Abstract

The invention relates to a corn stalk top-removing cutting and crushing integrated header and a device, which comprises a bracket, a main shaft vertically arranged on the bracket, a spiral body rotationally arranged on the main shaft and a cutting knife rotationally arranged at the lower end of the spiral body; a reel plate is arranged at the upper end of the spiral body; the spiral body drives the cutting knife and the straw shifting board needle to rotate in the same direction; a guide plate is arranged on the bracket and envelops the reel plate, the spiral body and the cutting knife therein; the invention has reasonable design, compact structure and convenient use.

Description

Corn stalk top-removing cutting and crushing integrated header and device
Technical Field
The invention relates to a corn stalk top-removing cutting and crushing integrated header and a device, belongs to a mechanical device applied to a corn top-removing technology, and can be used for cutting stalks above ear positions and crushing the cut stalks to return to the field in the processes of silking and pollination of corn to the mature period and implementation of top-removing operation.
Background
The direct mechanical harvesting of the seeds in the field is a key link for mechanized harvesting of corns and realization of whole-process mechanization in China, and is an important direction for mode conversion of corn production in future. At present, under the mode of close planting and high yield cultivation of corn in China, particularly in high latitude areas in northeast, the dehydration of grains is slow in the later growth and development period, the risk of sprouting and mildew on ears in fields is increased, and the moisture content of the grains is higher during harvesting, so that the crushing rate, impurity rate and loss rate of the grains are higher in the direct harvesting process of the grains, and the stable improvement of the mechanical grain harvesting quality, safe storage and economic benefit of the corn is restricted. The improvement of the ventilation and light transmittance in the field in the later stage of corn growth under the condition of close planting and the group photosynthetic efficiency are vital to the promotion of high yield and high-efficiency dehydration of corn seeds, and therefore, the corn top removing machine can be used for producing the corn seeds. However, the topping machine applied in the current production is mainly a corn emasculation machine, and although the reduction of stalks above the corn ear position can be realized, a large amount of complete stalks reduced are scattered in a corn group in a disordered way, so that the leaves remained on a corn plant are obstructed to be efficiently intercepted and captured, the function of a photosynthetic system is sharply reduced, the accumulation of photosynthetic products in the later period of the leaves and the transfer and distribution efficiency to the corn ears are reduced, and the high yield is not facilitated finally; in addition, the header has larger size, larger overall weight and single purpose, and can not meet the requirement of simplifying the cultivation production of the corn.
The cutting device of the existing corn stalk topping machine has poor specialty and low efficiency.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the technical problem of providing a corn stalk top-removing, cutting and crushing integrated header and a device. Based on the method, the continuous operation of stem leaf cutting, crushing and throwing can be realized, the problem of disordered distribution of the reduced stems in the group is solved, the corn straw returning quality is effectively improved, the problem of corn straw burning is relieved, and the efficient, green and sustainable development of the corn industry is assisted. The invention can crush and scatter the cut stem parts in the field. The header has the characteristics of small size, small overall weight and suitability for walking in field operation.
In order to solve the problems, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
a corn stalk top-removing cutting and crushing integrated header comprises a bracket, a main shaft vertically arranged on the bracket, a spiral body rotatably arranged on the main shaft and a cutting knife rotatably arranged at the lower end of the spiral body; a reel plate is arranged at the upper end of the spiral body; the spiral body drives the cutting knife and the straw shifting board needle to rotate in the same direction;
the bracket is provided with a guide plate which envelops the reel plate, the spiral body and the cutting knife.
As a further improvement of the above technical solution:
the guide plates are obliquely arranged towards two outer sides and form a bell mouth.
A friction plate 2 is arranged between the upper end of the spiral body 3 and the driving part of the reel plate 1 and is used for enabling the spiral body 3 and the reel plate 1 to be in a half-clutch state in a transmission chain.
A transmission belt is arranged between the belt pulley at the lower end of the reel plate and the belt pulley at the upper end of the spiral body.
A boosting wheel with the shaft axis obliquely crossed with the shaft axis of the spiral body is arranged beside the spiral body; the boosting wheel is contacted with the corn stalks at the corn stalk crushing position C.
The push-aid wheel and the downward component force of the spiral body push the stalks towards the direction of the cutting knife together, and the spiral body stops the push-aid wheel from moving transversely to divide the stalks;
the reel plate is positioned in the guide plate package, a stalk feeding channel is formed among the reel plate, the guide plate and the cutter, and the stalk feeding channel is provided with a stalk inlet A which is gradually narrowed; under the push of the reel, the corn stalks are fed into the stalk inlet A;
under the guide of the spiral body downward spiral conveying and guiding plate, a stalk cutting part B is arranged in the stalk feeding channel, corn stalks are cut off by a cutting knife at the stalk cutting part B and are continuously pushed downward to a corn stalk crushing part C, and the corn stalks which continuously and downwards move are continuously cut off by the cutting knife;
after reaching the corn stalk crushing position C, the stalks move downwards under the combined action of the spiral body and the boosting wheel and are cut off by the cutting knife.
The friction plate is arranged between the upper end of the spiral body and the reel plate driving belt pulley device or the gear part;
the cutter is a disc with multiple blades, and the blades are in a sawtooth shape;
the main shaft is arranged on the bracket by bolts, the cutting knife and the spiral body are connected together by bolts to form a whole, and the top end and the lower end in the spiral body are respectively embedded with a sealing bearing and sleeved on the main shaft to ensure that the spiral body rotates on the main shaft;
the reel plate shaft is arranged in the shaft sleeve and coated with lubricating oil, an A-shaped belt pulley is arranged at the lower end of the reel plate shaft, and the A-shaped belt pulley is connected with the reel plate driving belt pulley at the upper end of the spiral body in a speed reduction manner through an A-shaped belt.
A corn stalk top-removing, cutting and crushing integrated device is a header arranged on a frame of a corn top-removing machine, and the driving force of a rotating component of the header comes from an engine of the corn top-removing machine. Compared with the prior art, the straw crushing and returning device has the advantage that the function of crushing and returning the straws to the field is added. The prior art device only has a cutting function, and cut stalks are completely scattered in the field, which is not beneficial to the decomposition of the stalks. The technical device provided by the invention can crush and throw the cut stalks while cutting the stalks, thereby being beneficial to the decomposition of the stalks. Reducing the overall size and weight of the device over prior art devices. The cutter component of the prior art device has larger overall weight, particularly the reel component has large and heavy size, and the gravity center is far away from the suspension point and is higher. The technical device of the invention is that a reel of the prior art device is changed into a small reel plate, and the reel plate is connected with a cutter and a spiral body in series and is vertically placed to form a single-row cutting and crushing integrated header. The device has the advantages of compact structure, small size, short distance between the whole gravity center and the suspension point and the like.
The invention has the advantages of reasonable design, low cost, firmness, durability, safety, reliability, simple operation, time and labor saving, capital saving, compact structure and convenient use.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of the use structure of the invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic view of the overall structure of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is another perspective view of the present invention.
Detailed Description
Referring to fig. 1-4, the basic idea of the present invention is to remove the cutter of the prior art, replace it with a cutter 4 having the same function, remove the reel, replace it with a small reel plate 1, and cut the top of the corn stalk. A spiral body 3 component and a boosting wheel 7 component are added between the cutting knife 4 and the reel plate 1 and are used for crushing cut stalks so as to achieve the purpose of cutting and crushing. All functional components are integrated into a small single-row cutting and smashing integrated small-sized precise cutting table, and a plurality of single-row small-sized cutting tables can form a multi-row large cutting table.
Aiming at the application of the corn stalk topping technology, the device adopts a compact and precise structure. The header comprises a bracket 6, a main shaft 5 vertically arranged on the bracket 6 and a cutting knife 4 rotatably arranged at the lower end of the spiral body 3; the spiral body 3 is rotationally arranged on the main shaft 5; when the power is transmitted to the spiral body 3, the cutting knife 4 and the reel plate 1 are driven to rotate anticlockwise and in the same direction.
A reel plate 1 is arranged at the upper end of the spiral body 3;
a friction plate 2 is arranged between the upper end of the spiral body 3 and the driving part of the reel plate 1 and is used for enabling the spiral body 3 and the reel plate 1 to be in a half-clutch state in a transmission chain; avoiding overload operation.
A transmission belt is arranged between the belt pulley at the lower end of the reel plate 1 and the belt pulley at the upper end of the spiral body 3;
a guide plate 8 is fixed on the bracket 6, the guide plate 8 is obliquely arranged towards two outer sides and forms a bell mouth, and a boosting wheel 7 with a horizontal axial lead is arranged beside the spiral body 3;
the cutting knife 4 and the reel plate 1 rotate in the same direction, the reel plate 1 is positioned in the package of the guide plate 8, a stalk feeding channel is formed among the reel plate 1, the guide plate 8 and the cutting knife 4, and is provided with a stalk inlet A which gradually narrows; under the push of the reel 1, the corn stalks are fed into the stalk inlet A;
under the guide of the spiral body 3 and the downward spiral conveying and guiding plate 8, a stalk cutting part B is arranged in the stalk feeding channel, corn stalks are cut off by the cutting knife 4 at the stalk cutting part B and are continuously pushed downwards to a corn stalk crushing part C, and the corn stalks which continuously move downwards are continuously cut off by the cutting knife 4, so that the crushing purpose is achieved.
The corn moves counterclockwise and shows a downward trend. After reaching the corn stalk crushing position C, the stalks move downwards under the combined action of the spiral body 3 and the boosting wheel 7 and are cut off by the cutting knife 4. The boosting wheel 7 is contacted with the corn stalks at the corn stalk crushing position C;
the friction plate 2 is arranged between the upper end of the spiral body 3 and the driving belt pulley device or the gear part of the reel plate 1;
the cutting knife is a special shape with multiple disc blades and longer blade.
The boosting wheel 7 and the spiral body 3 are arranged separately, and the rotation directions of the boosting wheel and the spiral body are mutually vertical. (the spiral body 3 has the function that a part of component force pushes the stalks towards the cutting knife 4 and stops the transverse movement of the stalks when the boosting wheel 7 works.) the rotation direction of the boosting wheel 7 rotates clockwise towards the spiral body 3, and the stalks are stirred by the blades of the boosting wheel 7 and move towards the cutting knife 4 under the stopping of the spiral body 3 to the stalks.
The main shaft 5 is fixed on the bracket 6 by bolts, the cutting knife 4 and the spiral body 3 are connected together by bolts to form a whole, and the top end and the lower end in the spiral body 3 are respectively embedded with a sealing bearing and sleeved on the main shaft 5, so that the spiral body 3 rotates on the main shaft 5.
The reel plate 1 is arranged in a shaft sleeve and coated with lubricating oil, and the shaft sleeve is arranged at the top end of the main shaft 5. An A-shaped belt pulley is arranged at the lower end of the shaft of the reel 1 and is connected with a driving belt pulley of the reel 1 at the upper end of the spiral body 3 in a speed reducing way by an A-shaped belt.
The invention solves the problem that the stalks are wound by the spiral body, and the vertical corn stalks which are rich in elasticity and hardness and move along the direction A are cut off by the cutter 4 after reaching the point B. The cut stalks move along the guide plate 8 and the spiral body 3 in the counterclockwise direction and show a downward trend under the combined action of the spiral body 3 and the reel 1. After reaching the point C, the vertical stalks stop moving downwards, and the stalks move downwards under the combined action of the spiral body 3 and the boosting wheel 7 and are cut off by the cutting knife 4. The stalks which continuously move downwards are continuously cut off by the cutter 4, thereby achieving the purpose of crushing. Therefore, the stalks are always in parallel contact with the spiral body, and the winding problem is solved.
The device is a header part of a corn topping machine, is arranged on overhead self-propelled mechanical equipment suitable for high-stalk corn crops, and provides power for the spiral body 3 and the boosting wheel 7 device.
The invention relates to cutting and crushing of the top of a corn stalk, which can directly and freely fall and throw the cut and crushed stalks (containing tassels, partial leaves and partial stalks) on the ground (mostly in furrows), and realize subsequent straw degradation, fermentation and other processes through a matched assembly.
The present invention has been described in sufficient detail for clarity of disclosure and is not exhaustive of the prior art.
Finally, it should be noted that: the above examples are only intended to illustrate the technical solution of the present invention, but not to limit it; although the present invention has been described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that: the technical solutions described in the foregoing embodiments may still be modified, or some technical features may be equivalently replaced; it is obvious as a person skilled in the art to combine several aspects of the invention. And such modifications or substitutions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the corresponding technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. The utility model provides a maize stalk removes top cutting and smashes integrative header which characterized in that: comprises a bracket, a main shaft vertically arranged on the bracket, a spiral body rotationally arranged on the main shaft and a cutting knife rotationally arranged at the lower end of the spiral body; a reel plate is arranged at the upper end of the spiral body; the spiral body drives the cutting knife and the straw shifting board needle to rotate in the same direction;
the bracket is provided with a guide plate which envelops the reel plate, the spiral body and the cutting knife.
2. The corn stalk topping, cutting and crushing integrated header as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the guide plates are obliquely arranged towards two outer sides and form a bell mouth.
3. The corn stalk topping, cutting and crushing integrated header as claimed in claim 1, wherein: a friction plate 2 is arranged between the upper end of the spiral body 3 and the driving part of the reel plate 1 and is used for enabling the spiral body 3 and the reel plate 1 to be in a half-clutch state in a transmission chain.
4. The corn stalk topping, cutting and crushing integrated header as claimed in claim 1, wherein: a transmission belt is arranged between the belt pulley at the lower end of the reel plate and the belt pulley at the upper end of the spiral body.
5. The corn stalk topping, cutting and crushing integrated header as claimed in claim 1, wherein: a boosting wheel with the shaft axis obliquely crossed with the shaft axis of the spiral body is arranged beside the spiral body; the boosting wheel is contacted with the corn stalks at the corn stalk crushing position C.
6. The corn stalk topping, cutting and crushing integrated header as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the push-aid wheel and the downward component force of the spiral body push the stalks towards the direction of the cutting knife together, and the spiral body stops the push-aid wheel from moving transversely to divide the stalks;
the reel plate is positioned in the guide plate package, a stalk feeding channel is formed among the reel plate, the guide plate and the cutter, and the stalk feeding channel is provided with a stalk inlet A which is gradually narrowed; under the push of the reel, the corn stalks are fed into the stalk inlet A;
under the guide of the spiral body downward spiral conveying and guiding plate, a stalk cutting part B is arranged in the stalk feeding channel, corn stalks are cut off by a cutting knife at the stalk cutting part B and are continuously pushed downward to a corn stalk crushing part C, and the corn stalks which continuously and downwards move are continuously cut off by the cutting knife;
after reaching the corn stalk crushing position C, the stalks move downwards under the combined action of the spiral body and the boosting wheel and are cut off by the cutting knife.
7. The corn stalk topping, cutting and crushing integrated header as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the friction plate is arranged between the upper end of the spiral body and the reel plate driving belt pulley device or the gear part;
the cutter is a disc with multiple blades, and the blades are in a sawtooth shape;
the main shaft is arranged on the bracket by bolts, the cutting knife and the spiral body are connected together by bolts to form a whole, and the top end and the lower end in the spiral body are respectively embedded with a sealing bearing and sleeved on the main shaft to ensure that the spiral body rotates on the main shaft;
the reel plate shaft is arranged in the shaft sleeve and coated with lubricating oil, an A-shaped belt pulley is arranged at the lower end of the reel plate shaft, and the A-shaped belt pulley is connected with the reel plate driving belt pulley at the upper end of the spiral body in a speed reduction manner through an A-shaped belt.
8. The utility model provides a maize stalk removes top cutting and smashes integrative device which characterized in that: the header of claim 1 mounted on a frame of a corn topping machine, the rotary member driving force from an engine of the corn topping machine.
CN202010716213.XA 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 Corn stalk top-removing cutting and crushing integrated header and device Active CN111699840B (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202010716213.XA CN111699840B (en) 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 Corn stalk top-removing cutting and crushing integrated header and device

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CN111699840A true CN111699840A (en) 2020-09-25
CN111699840B CN111699840B (en) 2022-03-04

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112154876A (en) * 2020-09-27 2021-01-01 黑龙江八一农垦大学 Canopy regulating and controlling method for improving mechanical corn grain harvesting quality and grain commodity quality

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112154876A (en) * 2020-09-27 2021-01-01 黑龙江八一农垦大学 Canopy regulating and controlling method for improving mechanical corn grain harvesting quality and grain commodity quality

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