CN111621657A - Method for simultaneously improving strength plasticity and wear resistance of copper-tin alloy - Google Patents

Method for simultaneously improving strength plasticity and wear resistance of copper-tin alloy Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111621657A
CN111621657A CN202010421581.1A CN202010421581A CN111621657A CN 111621657 A CN111621657 A CN 111621657A CN 202010421581 A CN202010421581 A CN 202010421581A CN 111621657 A CN111621657 A CN 111621657A
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rich phase
alloy
copper
melt
wear resistance
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CN111621657B (en
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李永坤
周荣锋
伍星
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Kunming University of Science and Technology
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Kunming University of Science and Technology
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C1/00Making alloys
    • C22C1/02Making alloys by melting
    • C22C1/03Making alloys by melting using master alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C9/00Alloys based on copper
    • C22C9/02Alloys based on copper with tin as the next major constituent

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for simultaneously improving the strength plasticity and the wear resistance of a copper-tin alloy, belonging to the technical field of material preparation; the method comprises the following steps of: 8-15%, Fe: 1-8%, P: 0.8-1.2 percent of Cu, and the balance of Cu, placing the raw materials in a medium-frequency induction heating furnace for heating and smelting, then treating the melt by adopting a rapid cooling method, regulating and controlling the proportion of a nanoscale iron-rich phase and an intercrystalline micron-sized iron-rich phase in a primary phase by controlling the cooling rate and the supercooling degree of the melt, improving the wear resistance of the alloy by utilizing the strong plasticity of the nanoscale iron-rich phase reinforced alloy and the intercrystalline micron-sized iron-rich phase, and obtaining the copper-tin alloy with high strength, high plasticity and high wear resistance by controlling the proportion of the nanoscale iron-rich phase and the micron-sized iron-rich phase. The alloy has the advantages of simple components, short preparation process flow, low cost and excellent casting performance, is suitable for the fields of high-speed rails, heavy trucks, aerospace and the like, and has good application prospect.

Description

Method for simultaneously improving strength plasticity and wear resistance of copper-tin alloy
Technical Field
The invention relates to a method for simultaneously improving strength plasticity and wear resistance of a copper-tin alloy, belonging to the technical field of material preparation.
Background
Cast tin bronze has the advantages of high strength, low friction coefficient, good wear resistance and corrosion resistance and the like, is commonly used for manufacturing parts such as bushings, shaft sleeves and the like used under the working condition of rolling wear, but the parts need to bear heavy load, high speed and strong friction, so that the parts are easy to break when working, and how to improve the strong plasticity and wear resistance of the parts is always a research and application hotspot. However, with the rapid development of technologies in the fields of high-speed rails, ships and the like, the traditional tin bronze cannot meet increasingly strict working condition requirements, and the service life is not long due to the fact that parts are prone to surface fatigue failure or fracture caused by element segregation. Therefore, the method has high scientific research and industrial application values for meeting the requirements of parts such as the bushing, the shaft sleeve and the like under high-speed and heavy-load working conditions such as high-speed rails, ships and the like, improving element segregation, disclosing a strengthening and toughening mechanism and developing high-strength, high-toughness and wear-resistant cast tin bronze.
The copper-tin alloy is one of typical solidification segregation alloys, and is easy to generate intergranular segregation and inverse segregation in the solidification process, and the segregation phenomenon is widely generated in series tin bronze continuous casting billets and cast ingots containing 4.7-15% (wt%) tin. As the tin content increases, the degree of segregation of intergranular segregation and inverse segregation also gradually increases. In the solidification process of the copper-tin alloy, because the diffusion speed of tin atoms is obviously faster than that of copper atoms, the solubility of tin elements in the primary alpha-Cu phase is gradually reduced along with the reduction of the temperature, the tin elements are diffused from the primary alpha-Cu phase to a liquid phase, so that the tin elements in the liquid phase are enriched, a low-melting-point phase with high tin content is formed at room temperature, the theoretical tin content of the phase is 32.6% (wt%), and the average value of the tin content in the primary alpha-Cu phase at room temperature is between 1-3% (wt%), so that serious intergranular segregation is formed. Because the temperature difference between the inside and the outside of the casting wall is large, static pressure is generated on the central liquid phase during solidification and shrinkage, and under the combined action of capillary suction force generated by inter-granular tiny pores in a surface shell, the tin-rich liquid phase moves to the surface layer of the casting blank along an inter-dendritic channel to generate inverse segregation.
The tensile strength, plasticity and elongation of the CuSn10P1 alloy in sand casting and metal casting are respectively only 220MPa and 310MPa, 3 percent and 2 percent, 80HBW and 90 HBW.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for simultaneously improving the strength plasticity and the wear resistance of a copper-tin alloy, which has the advantages of simple alloy components, short preparation process flow, low cost and excellent casting performance, is suitable for the fields of high-speed rails, heavy trucks, aerospace and the like, has good application prospect, and specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) according to the Sn: 8-15%, Fe: 1-8%, P: weighing raw materials in a proportion of 0.8-1.2% and the balance of Cu (the raw materials are selected according to the mass percentage, such as pure copper, copper-tin intermediate alloy, copper-iron intermediate alloy or pure iron, copper-phosphorus intermediate alloy, and the burning loss content is added), placing the raw materials in a medium-frequency induction heating furnace for heating and smelting, preserving heat for 2-20 min within the range of 1300-1400 ℃, refining, removing slag and standing for 0-5 min when the temperature is reduced to 20-100 ℃ above the liquidus.
(2) And then processing the melt by adopting a rapid cooling method (such as cooling plate processing, stirring processing, ultrasonic processing, gas chilling and the like), regulating and controlling the proportion of the nanoscale iron-rich phase and the intercrystalline micron-sized iron-rich phase in the primary phase by controlling the cooling rate and the supercooling degree of the melt, improving the wear resistance of the alloy by utilizing the strong plasticity of the nanoscale iron-rich phase reinforced alloy and the intercrystalline micron-sized iron-rich phase, and obtaining the copper-tin alloy with high strength, high plasticity and high wear resistance by controlling the proportion of the nanoscale iron-rich phase and the micron-sized iron-rich phase.
Preferably, in the step (2) of the invention, the cooling rate of the melt for rapid cooling is 200-2000 ℃/s, and the supercooling degree of the melt is 20-150 ℃.
Preferably, the nano iron-rich phase is enriched in the primary phase to play a role in strengthening the strong plasticity of the alloy, and the nano iron-rich phase occupies the following area ratio in the microstructure: 0.6-5%; the micron-sized iron-rich phase is mainly distributed among the crystal grains and plays a role in improving the wear resistance of the alloy, and the micron-sized iron-rich phase occupies the following area ratio in a microstructure: 0.4 to 4 percent.
The invention adopts a rapid cooling method (such as cooling plate treatment, centrifugal casting and the like) to treat the melt, regulates and controls the proportion of a nano-scale iron-rich phase and an intercrystalline micron-scale iron-rich phase in a primary phase by controlling the cooling rate and the supercooling degree of the melt, improves the wear resistance of the alloy by utilizing the strong plasticity of the nano-scale iron-rich phase reinforced alloy and the intercrystalline micron-scale iron-rich phase, and obtains the copper-tin alloy with high strength, high plasticity and high wear resistance by controlling the proportion of the nano-scale iron-rich phase and the micron-scale iron-rich phase.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) the method can effectively refine the microstructure of the alloy and is beneficial to improving the strength and the plasticity of the alloy.
(2) The method can obtain the nano iron-rich phase enriched in the primary phase and the micron iron-rich phase distributed among the microstructure crystal grains, and respectively play roles in strengthening the strong plasticity of the alloy and improving the wear resistance.
(3) The alloy and the method have the advantages of simple components, short preparation process flow, low cost and excellent casting performance, are suitable for the fields of high-speed rails, heavy trucks, aerospace and the like, and have good application prospects.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the structure regulation for improving the strong plasticity and the wear resistance of the copper-tin alloy.
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a melt-confined flow induced nucleation apparatus for rapid cooling according to an embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a treated microstructure of the CuSn10P1 and CuSn10Fe2P1 alloys of example 1.
Detailed Description
The invention will be described in more detail with reference to the following figures and examples, but the scope of the invention is not limited thereto.
Example 1
The material composition in this embodiment is CuSn10Fe2P1 (wt.%), and the preparation method specifically includes:
(1) weighing about 5kg of pure copper, copper-tin intermediate alloy, copper-iron intermediate alloy and copper-phosphorus intermediate alloy, rapidly heating the alloy to 1350 ℃ by adopting an intermediate frequency induction heating furnace, preserving heat for 10min, then performing air cooling to 1080 ℃ (liquidus to 1028 ℃) to perform degassing and deslagging, and standing for 3min to homogenize the internal temperature field of the alloy melt.
(2) The angle of the melt constrained flow induced nucleation device is adjusted to 60 degrees, the length of the melt constrained channel is 400mm, the flow rate of the up-and-down circulating cooling water is 500L/h, the crucible is collected and preheated to 990 ℃, the cooling rate of the melt in the melt treatment is about 400 ℃/s, and the supercooling degree is about 20 ℃.
(3) And pouring the melt with the homogenized temperature field into a constraint cooling channel for treatment, collecting the semi-solid slurry obtained by treatment by a collection crucible, and then quickly pouring into a wedge-shaped metal mold to obtain a casting. As a comparative sample, CuSn10P1 alloy was processed according to the same procedure and poured into a wedge metal mold to obtain a casting.
The area of the nano iron-rich phase in the microstructure prepared by the method of the embodiment is about 1.2%, and the area ratio of the micron iron-rich phase in the microstructure is about 0.8%, as shown in fig. 3. The nanoscale iron-rich phase is beneficial to improving the segregation and grain refinement of tin element, thereby being beneficial to improving the strong plasticity of the alloy; the micron-sized iron-rich phase is distributed among the grains as a hard phase, so that the hardness and the wear resistance of the alloy are improved.
The mechanical properties of the castings prepared by the method in the embodiment are shown in table 1, and it can be seen from table 1 that the strength, plasticity and hardness of the CuSn10Fe2P1 prepared by the embodiment are obviously improved.
TABLE 1
Tensile strength/Mpa Elongation/percent hardness/HBW
CuSn10P1 396 9.53 106
CuSn10Fe2P1 458 12.68 132
Example 2
The material component described in this embodiment is cus8fe1p0.8 (wt.%), and the specific preparation method is as follows:
(1) weighing about 6kg of pure copper, copper-tin intermediate alloy, copper-iron intermediate alloy and copper-phosphorus intermediate alloy, rapidly heating the alloy to 1380 ℃ by adopting an intermediate frequency induction heating furnace, preserving heat for 20min, then air-cooling to 1100 ℃ (liquidus to 1028 ℃) to remove gas and slag, and standing for 5min to homogenize the internal temperature field of the alloy melt.
(2) The angle of the melt constrained flow induced nucleation device is adjusted to be 45 degrees, the length of the melt constrained channel is 300mm, the flow rate of the up-and-down circulating cooling water is 600L/h, the crucible is collected and preheated to 980 ℃, the cooling rate of the melt in the melt treatment is about 2000 ℃/s and the supercooling degree is about 50 ℃.
(3) And pouring the melt with the homogenized temperature field into a constraint cooling channel for treatment, collecting the semi-solid slurry obtained by treatment by a collection crucible, and then quickly pouring into a wedge-shaped metal mold to obtain a casting. As a comparison sample, CuSn8P0.8 alloy is processed according to the same steps and poured into a wedge-shaped metal mold to obtain a casting. Obtaining the high-strength and high-toughness copper-tin alloy with the performance cooperatively regulated by the nanoscale iron-rich phase and the micron-sized iron-rich phase.
The mechanical properties of the castings prepared by the method in the embodiment are shown in table 2, and it can be seen from table 2 that the strength, plasticity and hardness of the cus8fe1p0.8 prepared by the embodiment are obviously improved.
TABLE 2
Tensile strength/MPa elongation/% hardness/HBW
CuSn8P0.83686.8108
CuSn8Fe1P0.842910.5126
Example 3
The component of the material in this example is cusn14fe6p1.2 (wt.%), and the specific implementation steps are as follows:
(1) weighing about 8kg of pure copper, copper-tin intermediate alloy, copper-iron intermediate alloy and copper-phosphorus intermediate alloy, rapidly heating the alloy to 1300 ℃ by adopting an intermediate frequency induction heating furnace, preserving heat for 3min, then air-cooling to 1050 ℃ (liquidus 1028 ℃) for degassing and deslagging, and standing for 1min to homogenize the internal temperature field of the alloy melt;
(2) the angle of the melt constrained flow induced nucleation device is adjusted to be 50 degrees, the length of the melt constrained channel is 350mm, the flow rate of the up-and-down circulating cooling water is 550L/h, the crucible is collected and preheated to 970 ℃, the cooling rate of the melt in the melt treatment is about 800 ℃/s, and the supercooling degree is about 100 ℃.
(3) And pouring the melt with the homogenized temperature field into a constraint cooling channel for treatment, collecting the semi-solid slurry obtained by treatment by a collection crucible, and then quickly pouring into a wedge-shaped metal mold to obtain a casting. As a comparative sample, a cusn14p1.2 alloy was processed according to the same procedure to obtain a centrifugal cast article.
The mechanical properties of the castings prepared by the method in the embodiment are shown in Table 3, and the CuSn14Fe6P1.2 prepared by the embodiment has obviously improved strength, plasticity and hardness as shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3
Tensile strength/Mpa Elongation/percent hardness/HBW
CuSn14P1.2 394 8.5 117
CuSn14Fe6P1.2 482 13.8 153

Claims (4)

1. A method for simultaneously improving strength plasticity and wear resistance of a copper-tin alloy is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) according to the Sn: 8-15%, Fe: 1-8%, P: weighing 0.8-1.2% of raw materials and the balance of Cu, and putting the raw materials into a medium-frequency induction heating furnace for heating and smelting to obtain a melt;
(2) and then treating the melt by adopting a rapid cooling method, and regulating and controlling the proportion of the nanoscale iron-rich phase in the primary phase and the intergranular micron-sized iron-rich phase by controlling the cooling rate and the supercooling degree of the melt.
2. The method for simultaneously improving the strength plasticity and the wear resistance of the copper-tin alloy according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: the conditions of heating and smelting in the medium-frequency induction heating furnace in the step (1) are as follows: keeping the temperature within 1300-1400 ℃ for 2-20 min, refining, removing slag and standing for 0-5 min when the temperature is reduced to 20-100 ℃ above the liquidus.
3. The method for simultaneously improving the strength plasticity and the wear resistance of the copper-tin alloy according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: in the step (2), the cooling rate of the melt for rapidly cooling is 200-2000 ℃/s, and the supercooling degree of the melt is 20-150 ℃.
4. The method for simultaneously improving the strength plasticity and the wear resistance of the copper-tin alloy according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: the occupied area ratio of the nano iron-rich phase in the microstructure is as follows: 0.6-5%; the area ratio of the micron-sized iron-rich phase in the microstructure is as follows: 0.4 to 4 percent.
CN202010421581.1A 2020-05-18 2020-05-18 Method for simultaneously improving strength plasticity and wear resistance of copper-tin alloy Active CN111621657B (en)

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Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4116686A (en) * 1976-05-13 1978-09-26 Olin Corporation Copper base alloys possessing improved processability
JPS63266049A (en) * 1987-04-24 1988-11-02 Furukawa Electric Co Ltd:The Production of high tensile copper based alloy
CN102257170A (en) * 2008-12-19 2011-11-23 古河电气工业株式会社 Copper alloy material for electrical/electronic components, and method for producing same
JP2012097327A (en) * 2010-11-02 2012-05-24 Hitachi Cable Ltd Copper alloy improved in hot and cold workability, method for production thereof, and copper alloy strip or alloy foil obtained from copper alloy
JP2013199699A (en) * 2012-03-26 2013-10-03 Furukawa Electric Co Ltd:The Nonlead free-cutting phosphor bronze wrought product, copper alloy part, and method of manufacturing nonlead free-cutting phosphor bronze wrought product
CN109926564A (en) * 2019-03-14 2019-06-25 昆明理工大学 A kind of moulding integrated device and method of slurrying of ZCuSn10P1 alloy semi-solid slurry
CN110000344A (en) * 2019-03-14 2019-07-12 昆明理工大学 A kind of device and method for continuously preparing semi solid slurry inhibiting ZCuSn10P1 alloy tin element segregation
CN110218902A (en) * 2019-06-24 2019-09-10 北京科技大学 A method of decrease even is eliminated at copper alloy grain boundaries and is segregated

Patent Citations (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4116686A (en) * 1976-05-13 1978-09-26 Olin Corporation Copper base alloys possessing improved processability
JPS63266049A (en) * 1987-04-24 1988-11-02 Furukawa Electric Co Ltd:The Production of high tensile copper based alloy
CN102257170A (en) * 2008-12-19 2011-11-23 古河电气工业株式会社 Copper alloy material for electrical/electronic components, and method for producing same
JP2012097327A (en) * 2010-11-02 2012-05-24 Hitachi Cable Ltd Copper alloy improved in hot and cold workability, method for production thereof, and copper alloy strip or alloy foil obtained from copper alloy
JP2013199699A (en) * 2012-03-26 2013-10-03 Furukawa Electric Co Ltd:The Nonlead free-cutting phosphor bronze wrought product, copper alloy part, and method of manufacturing nonlead free-cutting phosphor bronze wrought product
CN109926564A (en) * 2019-03-14 2019-06-25 昆明理工大学 A kind of moulding integrated device and method of slurrying of ZCuSn10P1 alloy semi-solid slurry
CN110000344A (en) * 2019-03-14 2019-07-12 昆明理工大学 A kind of device and method for continuously preparing semi solid slurry inhibiting ZCuSn10P1 alloy tin element segregation
CN110218902A (en) * 2019-06-24 2019-09-10 北京科技大学 A method of decrease even is eliminated at copper alloy grain boundaries and is segregated

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