CN111619485A - Working method of fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device - Google Patents

Working method of fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111619485A
CN111619485A CN202010494118.XA CN202010494118A CN111619485A CN 111619485 A CN111619485 A CN 111619485A CN 202010494118 A CN202010494118 A CN 202010494118A CN 111619485 A CN111619485 A CN 111619485A
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energy absorption
absorption area
fluid
folding
collision
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CN202010494118.XA
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CN111619485B (en
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刘鑫
龚敏
刘祥
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Changsha University of Science and Technology
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Changsha University of Science and Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R19/00Wheel guards; Radiator guards, e.g. grilles; Obstruction removers; Fittings damping bouncing force in collisions
    • B60R19/02Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R19/00Wheel guards; Radiator guards, e.g. grilles; Obstruction removers; Fittings damping bouncing force in collisions
    • B60R19/02Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects
    • B60R19/023Details
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R19/00Wheel guards; Radiator guards, e.g. grilles; Obstruction removers; Fittings damping bouncing force in collisions
    • B60R19/02Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects
    • B60R19/04Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects formed from more than one section in a side-by-side arrangement
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R19/00Wheel guards; Radiator guards, e.g. grilles; Obstruction removers; Fittings damping bouncing force in collisions
    • B60R19/02Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects
    • B60R19/24Arrangements for mounting bumpers on vehicles
    • B60R19/26Arrangements for mounting bumpers on vehicles comprising yieldable mounting means
    • B60R19/34Arrangements for mounting bumpers on vehicles comprising yieldable mounting means destroyed upon impact, e.g. one-shot type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R19/00Wheel guards; Radiator guards, e.g. grilles; Obstruction removers; Fittings damping bouncing force in collisions
    • B60R19/02Bumpers, i.e. impact receiving or absorbing members for protecting vehicles or fending off blows from other vehicles or objects
    • B60R2019/026Buffers, i.e. bumpers of limited extent

Abstract

The invention discloses a working method of a fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device, wherein the collision energy absorption device is composed of a three-dimensional energy absorption area, a folding energy absorption area and a fluid energy absorption area which are arranged in a mode of crossing from top to bottom; the folding energy absorption area forms rotary folding concave angles which are arranged circumferentially by crease lines and combining a rotary folding mode; the fluid energy absorption area consists of a cover plate, a support plate, a cylinder body, an inlet valve, a pressure release valve and a pressure plate; in the collision process, the fluid energy absorption area is compressed in advance to realize first-stage buffering; the energy absorption area is folded and then compressed and deformed, so that secondary buffering is realized; the three-dimensional energy absorption area is compressed and deformed to realize three-level buffering; the new thin-wall energy absorption area formed after the fluid energy absorption area is compressed is finally compressed and deformed, and four-stage buffering is realized. The multistage buffering method of the energy absorption device can effectively reduce the initial peak force generated in the collision process and ensure that the energy absorption device has higher energy absorption rate.

Description

Working method of fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of automobile collision safety, in particular to a working method of a fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device.
Background
When a collision accident occurs, the collision energy absorption device is of great importance to guarantee the safety of articles and passengers in the automobile. At present, people usually install collision energy absorption devices with different structural forms at parts, such as automobiles, where collision is easy to happen, so as to effectively absorb huge impact energy generated in the collision process. The thin-wall structure is a collision energy absorption device with high energy absorption rate and low cost, and is widely applied to automobiles to absorb kinetic energy generated when the automobiles are in collision accidents.
In the actual collision process, the energy absorption effect of the existing collision energy absorption device is limited, and the following problems exist:
1. the conventional collision energy absorption device usually adopts a common thin-wall structure or a multi-cell thin-wall structure, but the collision energy absorption device with the structure can generate a large initial peak force. In order to reduce the initial peak force of the collision energy absorption device, a small part of the prior art uses a technical scheme of introducing crease lines, for example, a patent with the publication number of CN101638076A and the name of "a crease type collision energy absorption box", the technical scheme is as follows: a thin-wall pipe is divided into a plurality of modules along the axial direction, and a diamond-shaped concave angle is arranged at each corner area of each module at a certain distance along the axial direction. However, under the influence of geometric defects, sharp corners in the diamond reentrant angles are sensitive to the defects, and the problem of structural stability exists.
2. In order to overcome the defects of large rigidity and high peak value force of a mechanical collision energy absorption device, a small part of the prior art adopts a flexible collision energy absorption device, for example, a patent with the publication number of CN102501875A and the name of 'a step type multistage gas compression energy absorption rolling stock collision resistance device', at least more than two cylinder body compression cylinder-piston pairs and additional gas cylinders are arranged in series, and rupture membranes are arranged on each piston to realize the step-by-step conversion and release of collision impact energy. The patent only uses the method of storing energy by compressed gas and releasing energy by blasting compressed gas to have the defect of low energy absorption rate, and the device needs to be ensured to have good sealing property for achieving higher energy absorption, thereby increasing the difficulty and the cost of manufacturing the device.
3. In order to overcome the defect that the deformation mode of the collision energy absorption device is unstable, a small part of the prior art achieves the purpose by increasing constraint conditions, such as a patent with the publication number of CN102700618A and the name of a thin-wall energy absorption tube reinforced by diaphragm plates, wherein the diaphragm plates for reinforcing are arranged at certain intervals in the thin-wall tube. By increasing constraint conditions, the non-compact deformation mode of the thin-walled tube is restrained, so that the thin-walled structure generates a gradual stable deformation mode under axial impact compression. The thin-wall energy absorption tube is additionally provided with an additional built-in structure and is precisely connected with the thin-wall tube, so that the processing technology is difficult.
4. In the actual collision process, a complex load working condition can occur, and the existing collision energy absorption box structure has the defect of weak defect resistance, so that the complex collision load cannot be responded.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the problems, the invention provides a working method of a fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device, which simultaneously solves the problems.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for solving the technical problems is as follows: a working method of a fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device comprises the following steps that the collision energy absorption device consists of a three-dimensional energy absorption area, a folding energy absorption area and a fluid energy absorption area; the three-dimensional energy absorption area, the folding energy absorption area and the fluid energy absorption area are arranged in a mode of up-down cross arrangement; the three-dimensional energy absorption area is a thin-wall pipe with a polygonal section; the folding energy absorption area forms rotary folding concave angles which are arranged circumferentially by crease lines and combining a rotary folding mode; the fluid energy absorption area comprises a cover plate, a supporting plate, a cylinder body, an air valve and a pressing plate. The fluid energy absorption area comprises a cover plate, a support plate, a cylinder body, an inlet valve, a pressure release valve and a pressure plate. A cavity is formed between the cylinder and the pressing plate; gas or hydraulic oil is filled in the cavity; an inlet valve and a pressure release valve are arranged on the cylinder body; the supporting plate is connected with the pressing plate and the cover plate;
the working steps are as follows: firstly, filling gas or hydraulic oil into a cavity of a fluid energy absorption area of a collision energy absorption device before the collision energy absorption device is installed on an automobile, and setting a threshold value of pressure relief pressure of a pressure relief valve to be smaller than a value of pressure required by folding reentrant angle deformation of a folding energy absorption area; step two, in the collision process, under the action of a load, a support plate of the fluid energy absorption area pushes a pressure plate to compress gas or hydraulic oil in a cavity, when the internal pressure of the cavity is higher than a set threshold value for pressure relief of a pressure relief valve, a valve of the pressure relief valve is opened, the fluid energy absorption area relieves pressure to the outside, collision energy is released until a cover plate of the fluid energy absorption area covers a cylinder body, and a new thin-wall energy absorption area consisting of the cylinder body, the support plate and the cover plate is finally formed, so that primary buffering is realized; step three, in the collision process, after a cover plate of the fluid energy absorption area covers the cylinder body, gas or hydraulic oil in a cavity of the fluid energy absorption area stops compressing and outwards releases pressure, rotary folding concave angles arranged on the periphery of the folding energy absorption area start to be compressed and deformed, and the restraint effect of a diaphragm is formed, so that secondary buffering is realized; in the collision process, after the folding energy absorption area is compressed and deformed, the three-dimensional energy absorption area is compressed and deformed again, so that three-stage buffering is realized; and step five, in the collision process, after the three-dimensional energy absorption area is compressed and deformed, a new thin-wall energy absorption area formed by compressing the fluid energy absorption area and consisting of a cylinder body, a support plate and a cover plate is finally compressed and deformed, and four-stage buffering is realized.
Preferably, the polygonal section of the three-dimensional energy absorption area is a quadrangle, a pentagon, a hexagon or an octagon.
Preferably, the crease lines forming the folding reentrant corners on the folding energy absorption area are of a symmetrical structure and are composed of two right trapezoid shapes and an isosceles triangle shape; the short side and the oblique side of the right trapezoid are valley creases; the right-angle sides and the long sides of the right trapezoid, and the middle lines and the bottom sides of the isosceles triangles are peak creases.
Preferably, the rotation direction of the rotary folding reentrant corner of the folding energy absorption area is clockwise or anticlockwise.
Preferably, the fold concave angles of the fold energy absorption areas are of different types, including different shapes, different sizes or different inclination angles.
Preferably, the cross section of the support plate of the fluid energy absorption area is a cross section, an I-shaped section, a quadrilateral section, a pentagonal section, a hexagonal section or an octagonal section.
Preferably, an inlet valve is arranged at the front and the rear of the cylinder respectively, and a plurality of pressure release valves are arranged at the left and the right of the cylinder respectively.
Preferably, the distance from the pressure plate of the fluid energy absorption area to the bottom of the cylinder body is greater than or equal to the distance from the cover plate to the upper end face of the cylinder body.
Preferably, the height of the single three-dimensional energy absorption area is equal to or different from the height of the single folding energy absorption area.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. aiming at the point 1 proposed by the background technology, the invention adopts the following method: the collision energy-absorbing device consists of a three-dimensional energy-absorbing area, a fluid energy-absorbing area and a folding energy-absorbing area. Before the collision energy absorption device is installed on an automobile, gas or hydraulic oil is filled into a cavity of a fluid energy absorption area of the collision energy absorption device, and a threshold value of pressure relief pressure of a pressure relief valve is set to be smaller than a value of pressure required by folding concave angle deformation of a folding energy absorption area. Therefore, in the collision process, the fluid energy absorption area is firstly compressed under the action of load, and primary buffering is realized; the rotary folding concave angle of the folding energy absorption area is compressed and deformed to realize secondary buffering; the three-dimensional energy absorption area is compressed and deformed in the folding energy absorption area, so that three-level buffering is realized; the fluid energy absorption area is compressed to form a new thin-wall energy absorption area which is composed of a cylinder body, a supporting plate and a cover plate, and finally the thin-wall energy absorption area is compressed and deformed to realize four-stage buffering. The initial peak force generated in the collision process can be effectively reduced through the multistage buffering of the collision energy-absorbing device, and the collision energy-absorbing device can be ensured to have higher energy absorption rate.
2. To address the background of the invention at point 2, the present invention addresses this problem by coupling a rigid structure with a flexible fluid compression structure. The rigid structure and the flexible fluid compression structure are coupled to realize the gradual absorption of collision impact energy and realize higher energy absorption rate, so that the safety of articles and passengers in the automobile is ensured.
3. Aiming at the 3 rd point proposed by the background technology, the invention adopts the following method: the folding energy absorption area of the collision energy absorption device is formed by circularly arranged rotary folding concave angles formed by crease lines. The rotary folding concave angles of the folding energy absorption area are compressed and deformed before the three-dimensional energy absorption area under the action of load, and form a restraint action similar to that of the diaphragm plate, so that the collision energy absorption device generates a gradual and stable deformation mode.
4. Aiming at the 4 th point provided by the background technology, the invention adopts the rotary folding reentrant corner of the folding energy absorption area to solve the problem. The circumferential arrangement of the rotary folding concave angles enables the crash box to cope with complex loads in the crash process, so that the defect resistance of the crash box is improved.
Note: the foregoing designs are not sequential, each of which provides a distinct and significant advance in the present invention over the prior art.
Drawings
The invention is further illustrated with reference to the following figures and examples.
FIG. 1 is a schematic three-dimensional structure diagram of a fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device in example 1;
FIG. 2 is an overall cross-sectional view of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a plan view of the energy absorbing region in a deployed configuration;
FIG. 4 is a schematic three-dimensional structure of a fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy-absorbing device in embodiment 2;
FIG. 5 is an overall cross-sectional view of FIG. 4;
in the figures, the reference numerals are as follows:
1. the energy absorption device comprises a three-dimensional energy absorption area 2, a folding energy absorption area 3, a fluid energy absorption area 4, a folding concave angle 5, a cover plate 6, a cross-shaped support plate 7, a cylinder body 8, a pressure release valve 9, a pressure plate 10, an inlet valve 11, valley creases 12, peak creases 13 and an I-shaped support plate
Detailed Description
Example 1
The invention relates to a working method of a fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device, which has a structure shown in figure 1 and consists of a three-dimensional energy absorption area 1, a folding energy absorption area 2 and a fluid energy absorption area 3. The three-dimensional energy absorption area 1, the folding energy absorption area 2 and the fluid energy absorption area 3 are arranged in a mode of cross arrangement from top to bottom. The collision energy absorption devices with different heights can be obtained by axially superposing a plurality of three-dimensional energy absorption areas 1, folding energy absorption areas 2 and fluid energy absorption areas 3. In this embodiment, the three-dimensional energy absorption region 1 is a thin-walled tube having a quadrangular cross section. The folding energy absorption area 2 forms rotary folding concave angles 4 which are arranged circumferentially by crease lines and combining a rotary folding mode. In this embodiment, the crash energy absorption device is provided with two folding energy absorption areas 2, and the turning directions of the folding concave angles 4 of the two folding energy absorption areas 2 are clockwise.
In this embodiment, the fluid energy absorption zone 3 comprises a cover plate 5, a cross-shaped support plate 6, a cylinder 7, a pressure relief valve 8, an inlet valve 10 and a pressure plate 9. The support plate of the fluid energy absorption area 3 is a cross-shaped support plate 6. Fig. 2 is an overall sectional view of the impact energy absorbing device of this embodiment. As shown in fig. 1 and 2, a chamber is formed between the cylinder 7 and the pressure plate 9, and the chamber is filled with gas or hydraulic oil through an inlet valve 10; the barrel 7 is provided with a pressure release valve 8 and an inlet valve 10, the front and the back of the barrel are respectively provided with one inlet valve 10, and the left and the right of the barrel are respectively provided with three pressure release valves; a cross-shaped support plate 6 connects the pressure plate 9 and the cover plate 5. The fluid energy absorption area 3 pushes the pressure plate 9 to compress the gas in the gas chamber through the cross-shaped support plate 6 and releases the pressure to the outside through the pressure release valve 8 until the cover plate 5 covers the cylinder 7, and finally a new thin-wall energy absorption area consisting of the cylinder 7, the cross-shaped support plate 6 and the cover plate 5 is formed.
As shown in the figure: the working steps are as follows: firstly, before the collision energy absorption device is installed on an automobile, filling gas or hydraulic oil into a cavity of a fluid energy absorption area 3 of the collision energy absorption device, and setting a pressure relief pressure threshold value of a pressure relief valve 8 to be smaller than a pressure value required by deformation of a folding reentrant corner 4 in a folding energy absorption area 2; step two, in the collision process, under the action of a load, the cross-shaped support plate 6 of the fluid energy absorption area 3 pushes the pressure plate 9 to compress gas or hydraulic oil in the cavity, when the internal pressure of the cavity is higher than a set threshold value for pressure relief of the pressure relief valve 8, the valve of the pressure relief valve 8 is opened, the fluid energy absorption area 3 is relieved to the outside, collision energy is released until the cover plate 5 of the fluid energy absorption area 3 covers the cylinder 7, and a new thin-wall energy absorption area consisting of the cylinder 7, the cross-shaped support plate 6 and the cover plate 5 is finally formed, so that primary buffering is realized; step three, in the collision process, after the cover plate 5 of the fluid energy absorption area 3 covers the cylinder body 7, the gas or hydraulic oil in the cavity of the fluid energy absorption area 3 stops compressing and outwards releasing pressure, the rotary folding concave angles 4 arranged on the circumference of the folding energy absorption area 2 start to be compressed and deformed, and the restraint effect of the diaphragm is formed, so that secondary buffering is realized; step four, in the collision process, after the folding energy absorption area 2 is compressed and deformed, the three-dimensional energy absorption area 1 is compressed and deformed again, and three-level buffering is realized; and step five, in the collision process, after the three-dimensional energy absorption area 1 is compressed and deformed, a new thin-wall energy absorption area formed by the fluid energy absorption area 3 after being compressed and composed of the cylinder 7, the cross-shaped support plate 6 and the cover plate 5 is finally compressed and deformed due to the strengthening effect of the cross-shaped support plate 6, and four-stage buffering is realized.
FIG. 3 shows the expanded shapes of the three-dimensional energy absorbing region and the folded energy absorbing region of the impact energy absorbing device of the embodiment. The folds in fig. 3 are indicated by dashed and solid lines on the plane, wherein the dashed lines indicate valley folds 11 and the solid lines indicate peak folds 12. If the folding is performed according to a fold on a plane, the folding energy absorption area 2 of the impact energy absorption device shown in fig. 1 can be finally obtained.
Example 2
The invention relates to a working method of a fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device, which has a structure shown in figure 1 and consists of a three-dimensional energy absorption area 1, a folding energy absorption area 2 and a fluid energy absorption area 3. The three-dimensional energy absorption area 1, the folding energy absorption area 2 and the fluid energy absorption area 3 are arranged in a mode of cross arrangement from top to bottom. In this embodiment the support plate in the fluid energy absorption zone 3 is an i-shaped support plate 13. Fig. 5 is an overall sectional view of the impact energy absorbing device of this embodiment. As shown in fig. 4 and 5, the fluid energy absorption region 3 comprises a cover plate 5, an i-shaped support plate 13, a cylinder 7, an air valve 8 and a pressure plate 9. A cavity is formed between the cylinder 7 and the pressure plate 9, and gas or hydraulic oil is filled in the cavity through an inlet valve 10; the barrel 7 is provided with a pressure release valve 8 and an inlet valve 10, the front and the back of the barrel are respectively provided with one inlet valve 10, and the left and the right of the barrel are respectively provided with three pressure release valves; a cross-shaped support plate 6 connects the pressure plate 9 and the cover plate 5. The fluid energy absorption area 3 pushes the pressure plate 9 to compress the gas in the gas chamber through the I-shaped supporting plate 13 and exhausts the gas outwards through the pressure relief valve 8 until the cover plate 5 covers the cylinder 7, and finally a new thin-wall energy absorption area consisting of the cylinder 7, the I-shaped supporting plate 13 and the cover plate 5 is formed.
As shown in the figure: the working steps are as follows: firstly, before the collision energy absorption device is installed on an automobile, filling gas or hydraulic oil into a cavity of a fluid energy absorption area 3 of the collision energy absorption device, and setting a pressure relief pressure threshold value of a pressure relief valve 8 to be smaller than a pressure value required by deformation of a folding reentrant corner 4 in a folding energy absorption area 2; step two, in the collision process, under the action of a load, the I-shaped supporting plate 13 of the fluid energy absorption area 3 pushes the pressing plate 9 to compress gas or hydraulic oil in the cavity, when the internal pressure of the cavity is higher than a set threshold value for pressure relief of the pressure relief valve 8, the valve of the pressure relief valve 8 is opened, the fluid energy absorption area 3 is relieved to the outside, collision energy is released until the cover plate 5 of the fluid energy absorption area 3 covers the cylinder 7, and a new thin-wall energy absorption area consisting of the cylinder 7, the I-shaped supporting plate 13 and the cover plate 5 is finally formed, so that primary buffering is realized; step three, in the collision process, after the cover plate 5 of the fluid energy absorption area 3 covers the cylinder body 7, the gas or hydraulic oil in the cavity of the fluid energy absorption area 3 stops compressing and outwards releasing pressure, the rotary folding concave angles 4 arranged on the circumference of the folding energy absorption area 2 start to be compressed and deformed, and the restraint effect of the diaphragm is formed, so that secondary buffering is realized; step four, in the collision process, after the folding energy absorption area 2 is compressed and deformed, the three-dimensional energy absorption area 1 is compressed and deformed again, and three-level buffering is realized; and step five, in the collision process, after the three-dimensional energy absorption region 1 is compressed and deformed, a new thin-wall energy absorption region formed by the fluid energy absorption region 3 after being compressed and composed of the cylinder 7, the I-shaped support plate 13 and the cover plate 5 is finally compressed and deformed due to the strengthening effect of the I-shaped support plate 13, and four-stage buffering is realized.

Claims (9)

1. A working method of a fluid-solid coupling four-stage collision energy absorption device comprises the following steps that the collision energy absorption device consists of a three-dimensional energy absorption area, a folding energy absorption area and a fluid energy absorption area; the three-dimensional energy absorption area, the folding energy absorption area and the fluid energy absorption area are arranged in a mode of up-down cross arrangement; the three-dimensional energy absorption area is a thin-wall pipe with a polygonal section; the folding energy absorption area forms rotary folding concave angles which are arranged circumferentially by crease lines and combining a rotary folding mode; the fluid energy absorption area consists of a cover plate, a support plate, a cylinder body, an inlet valve, a pressure release valve and a pressure plate; a cavity is formed between the cylinder and the pressing plate; gas or hydraulic oil is filled in the cavity; an inlet valve and a pressure release valve are arranged on the cylinder body; the supporting plate is connected with the pressing plate and the cover plate;
the method is characterized by comprising the following working steps:
firstly, filling gas or hydraulic oil into a cavity of a fluid energy absorption area of a collision energy absorption device before the collision energy absorption device is installed on an automobile, and setting a threshold value of pressure relief pressure of a pressure relief valve to be smaller than a value of pressure required by folding reentrant angle deformation of a folding energy absorption area;
step two, in the collision process, under the action of a load, a support plate of the fluid energy absorption area pushes a pressure plate to compress gas or hydraulic oil in a cavity, when the internal pressure of the cavity is higher than a set threshold value for pressure relief of a pressure relief valve, a valve of the pressure relief valve is opened, the fluid energy absorption area relieves pressure to the outside, collision energy is released until a cover plate of the fluid energy absorption area covers a cylinder body, and a new thin-wall energy absorption area consisting of the cylinder body, the support plate and the cover plate is finally formed, so that primary buffering is realized;
step three, in the collision process, after a cover plate of the fluid energy absorption area covers the cylinder body, gas or hydraulic oil in a cavity of the fluid energy absorption area stops compressing and outwards releases pressure, rotary folding concave angles arranged on the periphery of the folding energy absorption area start to be compressed and deformed, and the restraint effect of a diaphragm is formed, so that secondary buffering is realized;
in the collision process, after the folding energy absorption area is compressed and deformed, the three-dimensional energy absorption area is compressed and deformed again, so that three-stage buffering is realized;
and step five, in the collision process, after the three-dimensional energy absorption area is compressed and deformed, a new thin-wall energy absorption area formed by compressing the fluid energy absorption area and consisting of a cylinder body, a support plate and a cover plate is finally compressed and deformed, and four-stage buffering is realized.
2. The fluid-solid coupled four-stage collision energy absorption device as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the polygonal section of the three-dimensional energy absorption area is a quadrangle, a pentagon, a hexagon or an octagon.
3. The fluid-solid coupled four-stage collision energy absorption device as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the folding lines forming the folding concave angles on the folding energy absorption area are of a symmetrical structure and are formed by two right-angled trapezoids and an isosceles triangle; the short side and the oblique side of the right trapezoid are valley creases; the right-angle sides and the long sides of the right trapezoid, and the middle lines and the bottom sides of the isosceles triangles are peak creases.
4. The fluid-solid coupled four-stage collision energy absorption device as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the rotating direction of the folding concave angle of the folding energy absorption area rotary type is clockwise or anticlockwise.
5. The fluid-solid coupled four-stage collision energy absorption device as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the folding concave angle of the folding energy absorption area has different types, including different shapes, different sizes and different inclination angles.
6. The fluid-solid coupled four-stage collision energy absorption device as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the cross section of the support plate of the fluid energy absorption area is a cross section, an I-shaped section, a quadrilateral section, a pentagonal section, a hexagonal section or an octagonal section.
7. The fluid-solid coupled four-stage collision energy absorption device as claimed in claim 1, wherein: an inlet valve is arranged at the front and the back of the cylinder body respectively, and a plurality of pressure release valves are arranged at the left and the right of the cylinder body respectively.
8. The fluid-solid coupled four-stage collision energy absorption device as claimed in claim 1, wherein: and the distance from the pressure plate of the fluid energy absorption area to the bottom of the cylinder body is equal to the distance from the cover plate to the upper end surface of the cylinder body.
9. The fluid-solid coupled four-stage collision energy absorption device as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the height of the single three-dimensional energy absorption area is equal to or unequal to that of the single folding energy absorption area.
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