CN111590161A - Automatic welding method for urban rail tubular cross beam and plate-shaped part - Google Patents

Automatic welding method for urban rail tubular cross beam and plate-shaped part Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111590161A
CN111590161A CN202010264533.6A CN202010264533A CN111590161A CN 111590161 A CN111590161 A CN 111590161A CN 202010264533 A CN202010264533 A CN 202010264533A CN 111590161 A CN111590161 A CN 111590161A
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China
Prior art keywords
welding
tubular
plate
shaped
workpiece
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CN202010264533.6A
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Inventor
刘伟鑫
矫培海
马征征
田仁勇
刘建树
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CRRC Qingdao Sifang Co Ltd
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CRRC Qingdao Sifang Co Ltd
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Priority to CN202010264533.6A priority Critical patent/CN111590161A/en
Publication of CN111590161A publication Critical patent/CN111590161A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K33/00Specially-profiled edge portions of workpieces for making soldering or welding connections; Filling the seams formed thereby
    • B23K33/004Filling of continuous seams
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/235Preliminary treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/24Features related to electrodes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23KSOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING; WELDING; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING; WORKING BY LASER BEAM
    • B23K9/00Arc welding or cutting
    • B23K9/32Accessories

Abstract

The invention discloses an automatic welding method of urban rail tubular beams and plate-shaped parts, which comprises the following steps: s1, manufacturing a single-side V-shaped groove at the welding end of the plate-shaped piece; s2, collecting and searching a characteristic point P1 on a plane of the plate-shaped piece parallel to the axis of the tubular cross beam and collecting and searching a characteristic point P2 at a V-shaped groove on the plate-shaped piece by the welding manipulator respectively; at least collecting searching characteristic points P3, P4 and P5 at different positions on the tube wall of the tubular cross beam along the circumferential direction of the tube wall; s3, determining the position of the welding seam by the welding manipulator according to the searched characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5; and S4, the welding manipulator determines that the welding seam starts to weld. According to the invention, the welding manipulator is used for searching, positioning and welding, so that the problems of high defect rate, low welding efficiency and the like in the process of manually welding the unilateral V-shaped groove circumferential weld are solved, and the quality and the production efficiency of the weld are obviously improved. Meanwhile, the method for searching the welding line has the characteristics of simple operation and high precision.

Description

Automatic welding method for urban rail tubular cross beam and plate-shaped part
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of welding, and particularly relates to an automatic welding method for tubular beams and plate-shaped parts of urban rails.
Background
The welding seams of a cross beam traction pull rod seat, a gear box hanging seat and the like of a welding framework of an urban rail vehicle are tube plate insertion type annular welding seams, manual welding is adopted at present, the diameter of a cross beam steel tube is small, the manual welding track is a small-diameter circumference, the angle of a welding gun needs to be changed continuously during welding, the difficulty of one-step continuous forming of the welding seams in the welding process is high, and welding joints are caused by welding interruption. The welding joint is a part with concentrated welding defects, and if the joint is not thoroughly cleaned, the defects of poor welding line fusion, slag inclusion and the like can be caused, the repair workload of the welding line is increased, and the quality of the welding line is influenced.
The Chinese patent with the application number of 201711072273.7 discloses a rail vehicle beam double-machine cooperation automatic welding method which comprises the following steps of completing beam structure simulation through a welding sample plate, determining the specific form of a sample plate welding line according to a welding angle and a welding line position, wherein the sample plate welding line comprises a pretreatment layer, a filling layer and a cover surface layer which are welded from inside to outside; the overall welding follows the welding sequence of ship-shaped position symmetrical welding, welding the filling layer first and then welding the cover surface layer, and adopts the welding sequence of front welding-back welding-front welding-vertical welding; respectively determining the welding current, voltage, welding speed and wire feeding speed of the pretreatment layer, the filling layer and the cover layer; and controlling the welding bead compression joint quality and controlling the quality of a surfacing joint.
Although the problem of manual welding's joint clearance thoroughly has been solved to above-mentioned patent, can lead to defects such as welding seam fusion is bad, double-layered sediment, but has the welding machines hand to look for and confirm that the welding seam position is accurate inadequately, and welding track effect is poor scheduling problem.
The present invention has been made in view of this situation.
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem to be solved by the invention is to overcome the defects of the prior art, and provide an automatic welding method for tubular beams and plate-shaped parts of urban rails, which solves the problems of high defect rate, low welding efficiency and the like in the process of manually welding single-side V-shaped groove circumferential welds by searching, positioning and welding through a welding manipulator, and obviously improves the welding quality and the production efficiency. Meanwhile, the method for searching the welding line has the characteristics of simple operation and high precision.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: an automatic welding method for urban rail tubular cross beams and plate-shaped parts comprises the following steps:
s1, manufacturing a single-side V-shaped groove at the welding end of the plate-shaped piece;
s2, collecting and searching a characteristic point P1 on a plane of the plate-shaped piece parallel to the axis of the tubular cross beam and collecting and searching a characteristic point P2 at a V-shaped groove on the plate-shaped piece by the welding manipulator respectively; at least collecting searching characteristic points P3, P4 and P5 at different positions on the tube wall of the tubular cross beam along the circumferential direction of the tube wall;
s3, determining the position of the welding seam by the welding manipulator according to the searched characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5;
and S4, the welding manipulator determines that the welding seam starts to weld.
Further, the step between the step S1 and the step S2 further includes the steps of:
s1-1, welding the reference welding seam of the reference tubular beam workpiece and the reference plate-shaped workpiece by using a welding manipulator, and storing the position of the reference welding seam; the welding robot collects the reference searching characteristic points P1 ', P2 ', P3 ', P4 ' and P5 ' on the reference tubular beam workpiece and the reference plate-shaped workpiece according to the collection mode of the searching characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5, and determines the position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the reference tubular beam workpiece according to the reference searching characteristic points.
Further, in step S3, the method for determining the weld position by the welding manipulator according to the searched feature points P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 includes:
the welding robot determines the position of the plate-shaped piece to be welded relative to the tubular beam according to the found characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5, calculates the offset of the position of the plate-shaped piece to be welded relative to the tubular beam and the position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the reference tubular beam workpiece, and determines the weld position according to the offset and the reference weld position.
Further, the method for determining the position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the reference tubular beam workpiece according to the reference finding feature points comprises the following steps:
setting three-dimensional coordinate system with central axis of reference tubular workpiece as Y axis in welding manipulator, determining three-dimensional coordinates P ' (X ', Y ', Z '), P ' (X ', Y ', Z ') and Z ') of reference tubular beam by the welding manipulator, determining radius R ' of reference tubular beam by finding characteristic points P ' (X ', Y ', Z '), P ' (X ', Y ', Z ') and Z ');
substituting P1 '(X1', Y1 ', Z1'), P2 '(X2', Y2 ', Z2'), P3 '(X3', Y3 ', Z3') into the formula And B ' Y2 ' -Y3 ' determines the position of the reference plate-like workpiece relative to the reference tubular beam workpiece.
Further, the method of calculating the amount of deviation of the position of the plate-like member to be welded with respect to the tubular beam and the position of the reference plate-like workpiece with respect to the reference tubular beam workpiece is:
obtaining three-dimensional coordinates P1(X1, Y1 and Z1), P2(X2, Y2 and Z2), P3(X3, Y3 and Z3), P4(X4, Y4 and Z4) and P5(X5, Y5 and Z5) of a three-dimensional coordinate system in which feature points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 are found, and determining the radius R of the reference tubular beam by finding the feature points P3(X3, Y3, Z3), P3(X3, Y3 and Z3) and P3(X3, Y3 and Z3);
p1(X1, Y1, Z1), P2(X2, Y2, Z2) P3(X3, Y3, Z3) were substituted into the following equations:
and B ═ Y2-Y3;
and calculating an offset amount of a position of the plate-like member to be welded with respect to the tubular beam and a position of the reference plate-like workpiece with respect to the reference tubular beam workpiece.
Further, the method for collecting and searching the characteristic points by the welding manipulator comprises the following steps:
the end part of the welding manipulator is provided with a welding nozzle, a contact sensor is arranged on the welding nozzle, and the welding manipulator controls the contact sensor on the welding nozzle to touch the characteristic position of the welding workpiece so as to collect and search characteristic points.
Further, the step between the step S1-1 and the step S2 further comprises the steps of:
s1-2, performing tack welding on the plate-shaped piece and the tubular cross beam, wherein the gap between the plate-shaped piece and the tubular cross beam is 0-1.5 mm.
Preferably, the tack welds are tack welds using a length of no less than 1/2 of the weld length.
Further, the step between the step S1-2 and the step S2 further comprises the steps of:
and S1-3, polishing and cleaning the welding seam position and the two sides of the welding seam within the range of at least 20mm, and manually backing and welding the welding seam position.
Preferably, after manual backing welding, the arc starting point and the arc stopping point are polished and removed.
Further, step S4, the welding manipulator starts welding along the determined weld joint, including:
the welding form of the welding seam is as follows: the welding seam includes from the slope bottom of V type groove to the groove in proper order at least: 1 pretreatment layer, 4 filling layers and 4 sealing layers.
Furthermore, the welding manipulator comprises a welding nozzle, and in the process of welding the filling layer and the surface covering layer by the welding manipulator, the angle between the welding nozzle and the tubular beam is correspondingly adjusted along with the increase of the layer channels, and the angle range is 43.5-56 degrees;
preferably, the welding manipulator adopts a Z-shaped bar conveying mode to carry out welding.
After the technical scheme is adopted, compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects.
1. According to the invention, the welding manipulator is used for searching, positioning and welding, so that the problems of high defect rate, low welding efficiency and the like in the process of manually welding the unilateral V-shaped groove circumferential weld are solved, and the quality and the production efficiency of the weld are obviously improved.
2. The method for determining the position of the welding seam by searching the characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 has the characteristics of simple operation and high precision.
3. The welding bead distribution of the welding seam adopts a welding bead distribution form of 6 layers and 9 welding beads, wherein 1 welding bead is manual backing welding, 2-5 welding beads are filling welding, and 6-9 welding beads are front welding, so that the distribution of multilayer and multi-welding bead distribution is optimized.
The following describes embodiments of the present invention in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the invention, are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate embodiments of the invention and together with the description serve to explain the invention without limiting the invention to the right. It is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments, and that for a person skilled in the art, other drawings can be derived from them without inventive effort. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of an automated welding process for a tubular beam and a plate of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the finding characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 on the tubular beam and the plate of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the course distribution of the weld of the tubular beam and the plate of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the welding parameters of the weld of the tubular beam and the plate of the present invention.
In the figure: 1. a plate-like member; 2. a tubular cross-beam; 3. finding a characteristic point P1; 4. and searching for characteristic points.
It should be noted that the drawings and the description are not intended to limit the scope of the inventive concept in any way, but to illustrate it by a person skilled in the art with reference to specific embodiments.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the embodiments of the present invention clearer, the technical solutions in the embodiments will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and the following embodiments are used for illustrating the present invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that the terms "upper", "lower", "front", "rear", "left", "right", "vertical", "inner", "outer", etc., indicate orientations or positional relationships based on the orientations or positional relationships shown in the drawings, and are only for convenience of description and simplicity of description, but do not indicate or imply that the device or element being referred to must have a particular orientation, be constructed and operated in a particular orientation, and thus, should not be construed as limiting the present invention.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that, unless otherwise explicitly specified or limited, the terms "mounted," "connected," and "connected" are to be construed broadly, e.g., as meaning either a fixed connection, a removable connection, or an integral connection; can be mechanically or electrically connected; may be directly connected or indirectly connected through an intermediate. The specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood in specific cases to those skilled in the art.
As shown in fig. 1 to 2, the invention discloses an automatic welding method of an urban rail tubular beam 2 and a plate-shaped member 1, which comprises the following steps:
s1, manufacturing a single-side V-shaped groove at the welding end of the plate-shaped piece 1;
s2, collecting and searching a characteristic point P1 on a plane parallel to the axis of the tubular cross beam 2 on the plate-shaped piece 1 and collecting and searching a characteristic point P2 at a V-shaped groove on the plate-shaped piece 1 by a welding manipulator respectively; at least collecting searching characteristic points P3, P4 and P5 at different positions on the tube wall of the tubular cross beam 2 along the circumferential direction;
s3, determining the position of the welding seam by the welding manipulator according to the searched characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5;
and S4, the welding manipulator determines that the welding seam starts to weld.
According to the invention, the welding manipulator is used for searching, positioning and welding, so that the problems of high defect rate, low welding efficiency and the like in the process of manually welding the unilateral V-shaped groove circumferential weld are solved, and the quality and the production efficiency of the weld are obviously improved. Meanwhile, the method for searching the welding line has the characteristics of simple operation and high precision.
Further, the step between the step S1 and the step S2 further includes the steps of:
s1-1, welding the reference welding seam of the reference tubular beam 2 workpiece and the reference plate-shaped workpiece by using a welding manipulator, and storing the position of the reference welding seam; the welding robot collects the reference searching characteristic points P1 ', P2 ', P3 ', P4 ' and P5 ' on the reference tubular beam 2 workpiece and the reference plate-shaped workpiece according to the collection mode of the searching characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5, and determines the position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the reference tubular beam 2 workpiece according to the reference searching characteristic points. The welding manipulator welds a reference welding seam (namely a sample plate welding seam) of a reference tubular beam 2 workpiece (namely the sample plate tubular beam 2) and a reference plate-shaped workpiece (namely the sample plate-shaped workpiece), selects the reference welding seam with the best welding seam quality, stores the position of the reference welding seam and other welding parameters in the welding manipulator, and applies the position of the reference welding seam and the welding parameters to the actual welding of the tubular beam 2 and the plate-shaped workpiece 1. The position of the reference plate-like workpiece relative to the reference tubular beam 2 workpiece is locked by finding the characteristic points P1 ', P2 ', P3 ', P4 ', P5 '.
Specifically, in step S3, the method for determining the weld position by the welding robot according to the search feature points P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 includes:
the welding robot determines the position of the plate-like member 1 to be welded with respect to the tubular beam 2 based on the found characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, calculates the offset amount of the position of the plate-like member 1 to be welded with respect to the tubular beam 2 and the position of the reference plate-like workpiece with respect to the reference tubular beam 2, and determines the weld position based on the offset amount and the reference weld position. The welding manipulator can determine the position of the reference welding seam by determining the position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the workpiece of the reference tubular cross beam 2, and the offset of the position of the plate-shaped workpiece to be welded 1 relative to the tubular cross beam 2 and the position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the workpiece of the reference tubular cross beam 2 is the offset of the position of the reference welding seam, namely the welding seam position can be determined by the offset and the position of the reference welding seam.
In one embodiment, the method for determining the position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the reference tubular beam 2 workpiece according to the reference finding feature points is as follows:
the welding manipulator is internally provided with a three-dimensional coordinate system taking the central axis of the reference tubular workpiece as a Y axis, the welding manipulator determines three-dimensional coordinates P ' (X ', Y ', Z '), Y ', Z ', P ' (X ', Y ', Z '), P ' (X ', Y ', Z ') and the radius R ' of the reference tubular beam 2 by finding the characteristic points P ' (X ', Y ', Z '), P ' (X ', Y ' and Z ');
substituting P1 '(X1', Y1 ', Z1'), P2 '(X2', Y2 ', Z2'), P3 '(X3', Y3 ', Z3') into the formula And B ' Y2 ' -Y3 ' determines the position of the reference plate-like workpiece with respect to the reference tubular beam 2 workpiece. That is, a search group I ' is established by searching for characteristic points P1 ' (X1 ', Y1 ', Z1 '), P2 ' (X2 ', Y2 ' and Z2 '), a search group II ' is established by searching for characteristic points P3 ' (X3 ', Y3 ', Z3 '), P4 ' (X4 ', Y4 ', Z4 '), P5 ' (X5 ', Y5 ', Z5 '), a position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece in a direction parallel to and perpendicular to the reference tubular beam 2 is determined by searching for the group I ', and a circular arc welding position between the reference plate-shaped workpiece and the reference tubular beam 2 is determined by searching for the group IIAnd recording the five searched characteristic points into the manipulator equipment, namely establishing a spatial position relation between the searched characteristic points and the welding seam, and establishing a formula according to coordinates of the searched points, so that the welding starting position is accurately locked, and the optimization of the welding track of each workpiece to be welded is realized. Finding the distance from the characteristic point P1 '(X1', Y1 ', Z1') to the center of the reference tubular beam 2A' is a programmed locking value, and the directional position relation of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the reference tubular cross beam 2X, Z is locked; the reference plate-like workpiece and the reference tubular beam 2Y are programmed to be locked at a B ' -Y2 ' -Y3 ' to lock the positional relationship of the reference plate-like workpiece with respect to the reference tubular beam 2Y; and thereby the spatial position of the reference plate-like workpiece with respect to the reference tubular beam 2.
Further, the method of calculating the offset of the position of the plate-like member 1 to be welded with respect to the tubular beam 2 and the position of the reference plate-like workpiece with respect to the reference tubular beam 2 workpiece is:
obtaining three-dimensional coordinates P1(X1, Y1, Z1), P2(X2, Y2, Z2), P3(X3, Y3, Z3), P4(X4, Y4, Z4), P5(X5, Y5, Z5) of a three-dimensional coordinate system in which feature points P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 are found, and determining a radius R of the reference tubular beam 2 by finding feature points P3(X3, Y3, Z3), P3(X3, Y3, Z3) and P3(X3, Y3, Z3);
p1(X1, Y1, Z1), P2(X2, Y2, Z2) P3(X3, Y3, Z3) were substituted into the following equations:
and B ═ Y2-Y3;
and M-B' calculating the offset of the position of the plate-like piece 1 to be welded with respect to the tubular beam 2 and the position of the reference plate-like workpiece with respect to the reference tubular beam 2 workpiece. Namely, a searching group is established by searching characteristic points P1(X1, Y1, Z1) and P2(X2, Y2, Z2)I, establishing a searching group II by searching characteristic points P3(X3, Y3 and Z3), P4(X4, Y4 and Z4) and P5(X5, Y5 and Z5), determining the positions of the plate-shaped member 1 and the tubular cross beam 2 in the parallel direction and the vertical direction by searching the group I, determining the arc welding track between the plate-shaped member 1 and the tubular cross beam 2 by searching the group II, recording the five searched characteristic points into a manipulator device, namely establishing the relation between the searched characteristic points and the spatial position of a welding line, and establishing a formula according to the coordinates of the searched points, thereby accurately locking the welding arc starting position and realizing the optimization of the welding track of each workpiece to be welded. Substituting formula for searching characteristic point P1 and coordinate value of characteristic point P3 for different workpieces in batch productionThe actual distance value A is calculated, and the direction offset of the welding arcing position X, Z can be calculated to beAnd substituting coordinate values of the searched characteristic points P2(X2, Y2 and Z2) and the searched characteristic points P3(X3, Y3 and Z3) into a formula B which is Y2-Y3 to calculate an actual distance value B, namely calculating the offset of the welding starting position in the Y direction, and correspondingly adjusting the welding seam position according to the P, M value obtained by calculation.
Specifically, the end of the welding manipulator is provided with a welding nozzle, a contact sensor is arranged on the welding nozzle, and the welding manipulator controls the contact sensor on the welding nozzle to touch the characteristic position of the welding workpiece so as to collect and search characteristic points. It should be explained that the acquisition mode for finding the feature point P1 is as follows: the welding nozzle, in vertical contact with a plane parallel to the axis of the tubular beam 2 on the plate-like element 1, acquires the spatial three-dimensional coordinate P1(X1, Y1, Z1) of the sought characteristic point P1. The acquisition mode for searching the characteristic point P1 is as follows: the characteristic point P2 collected and searched at the V-shaped groove on the plate-shaped piece 1 is a position close to the V-shaped groove on the outer wall surface of the plate-shaped piece 1, and the spatial three-dimensional coordinate P2(X2, Y2 and Z2) of the characteristic point P2 is collected and searched at the position, parallel to the axis of the crossbeam steel pipe, of the welding nozzle and the position close to the V-shaped groove on the outer wall surface of the plate-shaped piece 1.
The step between the step S1-1 and the step S2 further comprises the steps of:
s1-2, performing tack welding on the plate-shaped member 1 and the tubular cross beam 2, wherein the gap between the plate-shaped member 1 and the tubular cross beam 2 is 0-1.5 mm. Specifically, the tack welding is fixed welding by using a section welding with the length not less than the length 1/2 of the welding seam. So as to complete the assembly of the plate-shaped member 1 and the tubular cross beam 2 and facilitate the subsequent automatic welding of the plate-shaped member 1 and the tubular cross beam 2 by a welding manipulator.
The step between the step S1-2 and the step S2 further comprises the steps of:
and S1-3, polishing and cleaning the welding seam position and the two sides of the welding seam within the range of at least 20mm, and manually backing and welding the welding seam position. Preferably, after manual backing welding, the arc starting point and the arc stopping point are polished and removed. Prevent angular deformation or prevent the welding manipulator from burning through when automatic welding.
Meanwhile, the invention also optimizes the distribution of the multilayer and multi-pass welding beads of the welding seam.
As shown in fig. 3, the layer channels of the weld are distributed into 6 layers and 9 layers, wherein the 1 st layer is an artificial bottom layer, the 2-5 layers are filling layers, the 6-9 layers are sealing layers, and the 10 layers are polishing auxiliary layers, the angles of the welding guns (the welding guns are the welding nozzles mentioned above) and the beam steel pipe are correspondingly adjusted along with the increase of the layer channels (specifically, the angles of the welding guns and the beam steel pipe of each layer channel of the weld are shown in the following table), and the angle range is 43.5-56 °. Namely, the welding parameters in the robot welding process are shown in the following table:
further, the welding manipulator adopts a Z-shaped strip conveying mode to carry out welding, the overall welding direction is from bottom to top, the arc is started from the root of the side bevel of the steel plate piece close to the tubular cross beam 2, and the circumferential welding is formed for one time. Therefore, the problems of frequent interruption of manual welding and more defects at arc starting and closing positions are fundamentally solved, and the production efficiency is improved while the appearance forming quality of the welding seam is remarkably improved.
As shown in FIG. 4, the groove form of the single-side V-shaped groove of the plate-shaped member is a single-side V-shaped groove with a truncated edge, the groove depth is 12mm, and the weld leg size is z 15.
Although the present invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment, it should be understood that various changes, substitutions and alterations can be made herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. An automatic welding method for urban rail tubular cross beams and plate-shaped parts is characterized by comprising the following steps:
s1, manufacturing a single-side V-shaped groove at the welding end of the plate-shaped piece;
s2, collecting and searching a characteristic point P1 on a plane of the plate-shaped piece parallel to the axis of the tubular cross beam and collecting and searching a characteristic point P2 at a V-shaped groove on the plate-shaped piece by the welding manipulator respectively; at least collecting searching characteristic points P3, P4 and P5 at different positions on the tube wall of the tubular cross beam along the circumferential direction of the tube wall;
s3, determining the position of the welding seam by the welding manipulator according to the searched characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5;
and S4, the welding manipulator determines that the welding seam starts to weld.
2. The automatic welding method for urban rail tubular beams and plate-shaped members according to claim 1, characterized in that between the step S1 and the step S2, the method further comprises the steps of:
s1-1, welding the reference welding seam of the reference tubular beam workpiece and the reference plate-shaped workpiece by using a welding manipulator, and storing the position of the reference welding seam; the welding robot collects the reference searching characteristic points P1 ', P2 ', P3 ', P4 ' and P5 ' on the reference tubular beam workpiece and the reference plate-shaped workpiece according to the collection mode of the searching characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5, and determines the position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the reference tubular beam workpiece according to the reference searching characteristic points.
3. The automatic welding method for urban rail tubular beams and plate-shaped pieces according to claim 2, wherein in step S3, the method for determining the position of the welding seam by the welding manipulator according to the searched characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 is as follows:
the welding robot determines the position of the plate-shaped piece to be welded relative to the tubular beam according to the found characteristic points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5, calculates the offset of the position of the plate-shaped piece to be welded relative to the tubular beam and the position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the reference tubular beam workpiece, and determines the weld position according to the offset and the reference weld position.
4. The automatic welding method for urban rail tubular cross beams and plate-shaped pieces according to claim 3, wherein the method for determining the position of the reference plate-shaped workpiece relative to the reference tubular cross beam workpiece according to the reference finding characteristic points comprises the following steps:
setting three-dimensional coordinate system with central axis of reference tubular workpiece as Y axis in welding manipulator, determining three-dimensional coordinates P ' (X ', Y ', Z '), P ' (X ', Y ', Z ') and Z ') of reference tubular beam by the welding manipulator, determining radius R ' of reference tubular beam by finding characteristic points P ' (X ', Y ', Z '), P ' (X ', Y ', Z ') and Z ');
substituting P1 '(X1', Y1 ', Z1'), P2 '(X2', Y2 ', Z2'), P3 '(X3', Y3 ', Z3') into the formula And B ' Y2 ' -Y3 ' determines the position of the reference plate-like workpiece relative to the reference tubular beam workpiece.
5. The automatic welding method of urban rail tubular beams and plate-like pieces according to claim 4, characterized in that the method of calculating the offset of the position of the plate-like piece to be welded with respect to the tubular beam and the position of the reference plate-like workpiece with respect to the reference tubular beam workpiece is:
obtaining three-dimensional coordinates P1(X1, Y1 and Z1), P2(X2, Y2 and Z2), P3(X3, Y3 and Z3), P4(X4, Y4 and Z4) and P5(X5, Y5 and Z5) of a three-dimensional coordinate system in which feature points P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 are found, and determining the radius R of the reference tubular beam by finding the feature points P3(X3, Y3, Z3), P3(X3, Y3 and Z3) and P3(X3, Y3 and Z3);
p1(X1, Y1, Z1), P2(X2, Y2, Z2) P3(X3, Y3, Z3) were substituted into the following equations:
and B ═ Y2-Y3;
and calculating an offset amount of a position of the plate-like member to be welded with respect to the tubular beam and a position of the reference plate-like workpiece with respect to the reference tubular beam workpiece.
6. The automatic welding method for urban rail tubular cross beams and plate-shaped parts according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the method for collecting and searching characteristic points by a welding manipulator is as follows:
the end part of the welding manipulator is provided with a welding nozzle, a contact sensor is arranged on the welding nozzle, and the welding manipulator controls the contact sensor on the welding nozzle to touch the characteristic position of the welding workpiece so as to collect and search characteristic points.
7. The automatic welding method for urban rail tubular beams and plate-shaped members according to claim 2, characterized in that between the step S1-1 and the step S2, the method further comprises the steps of:
s1-2, performing tack welding on the plate-shaped part and the tubular cross beam, wherein the gap between the plate-shaped part and the tubular cross beam is 0-1.5 mm;
preferably, the tack welds are tack welds using a length of no less than 1/2 of the weld length.
8. The automatic welding method for urban rail tubular beams and plate-shaped members according to claim 7, characterized in that between the step S1-2 and the step S2, the method further comprises the steps of:
s1-3, polishing and cleaning the weld joint position and the range of at least 20mm of the two sides of the weld joint position, and manually backing and welding the weld joint position;
preferably, after manual backing welding, the arc starting point and the arc stopping point are polished and removed.
9. The automatic welding method for urban rail tubular beams and plate-shaped members according to any one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the step S4, the welding manipulator starts welding along the determined welding line, comprises:
the welding form of the welding seam is as follows: the welding seam includes from the slope bottom of V type groove to the groove in proper order at least: 1 pretreatment layer, 4 filling layers and 4 sealing layers.
10. The automatic welding method for the tubular beams and the plate-shaped members of the urban rail according to claim 9, wherein the welding manipulator comprises a welding nozzle, and in the process of welding the filling layer and the covering layer by the welding manipulator, the angle between the welding nozzle and the tubular beams is correspondingly adjusted along with the increase of the layer channels, and the angle ranges from 43.5 degrees to 56 degrees;
preferably, the welding manipulator adopts a Z-shaped bar conveying mode to carry out welding.
CN202010264533.6A 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 Automatic welding method for urban rail tubular cross beam and plate-shaped part Pending CN111590161A (en)

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