CN111578416A - Spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal condenser and operation method - Google Patents

Spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal condenser and operation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111578416A
CN111578416A CN202010453021.4A CN202010453021A CN111578416A CN 111578416 A CN111578416 A CN 111578416A CN 202010453021 A CN202010453021 A CN 202010453021A CN 111578416 A CN111578416 A CN 111578416A
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China
Prior art keywords
air
pvt
condensing coil
water
fan
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CN202010453021.4A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
范满
徐建伟
杨华
刘联胜
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Hebei University of Technology
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Hebei University of Technology
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Priority to CN202010453021.4A priority Critical patent/CN111578416A/en
Publication of CN111578416A publication Critical patent/CN111578416A/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F5/00Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater
    • F24F5/0046Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater using natural energy, e.g. solar energy, energy from the ground
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F13/00Details common to, or for air-conditioning, air-humidification, ventilation or use of air currents for screening
    • F24F13/30Arrangement or mounting of heat-exchangers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F5/00Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater
    • F24F5/0007Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater cooling apparatus specially adapted for use in air-conditioning
    • F24F5/0035Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater cooling apparatus specially adapted for use in air-conditioning using evaporation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S10/00Solar heat collectors using working fluids
    • F24S10/70Solar heat collectors using working fluids the working fluids being conveyed through tubular absorbing conduits
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B27/00Machines, plant, or systems, using particular sources of energy
    • F25B27/002Machines, plant, or systems, using particular sources of energy using solar energy
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B39/00Evaporators; Condensers
    • F25B39/04Condensers
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02SGENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY CONVERSION OF INFRA-RED RADIATION, VISIBLE LIGHT OR ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, e.g. USING PHOTOVOLTAIC [PV] MODULES
    • H02S40/00Components or accessories in combination with PV modules, not provided for in groups H02S10/00 - H02S30/00
    • H02S40/40Thermal components
    • H02S40/42Cooling means
    • H02S40/425Cooling means using a gaseous or a liquid coolant, e.g. air flow ventilation, water circulation
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02SGENERATION OF ELECTRIC POWER BY CONVERSION OF INFRA-RED RADIATION, VISIBLE LIGHT OR ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, e.g. USING PHOTOVOLTAIC [PV] MODULES
    • H02S40/00Components or accessories in combination with PV modules, not provided for in groups H02S10/00 - H02S30/00
    • H02S40/40Thermal components
    • H02S40/44Means to utilise heat energy, e.g. hybrid systems producing warm water and electricity at the same time
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F5/00Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater
    • F24F5/0046Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater using natural energy, e.g. solar energy, energy from the ground
    • F24F2005/0064Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater using natural energy, e.g. solar energy, energy from the ground using solar energy
    • F24F2005/0067Air-conditioning systems or apparatus not covered by F24F1/00 or F24F3/00, e.g. using solar heat or combined with household units such as an oven or water heater using natural energy, e.g. solar energy, energy from the ground using solar energy with photovoltaic panels
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/44Heat exchange systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/60Thermal-PV hybrids

Abstract

The invention relates to a spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal condenser and an operation method thereof. The spray cooling technology is applied to the PVT air-cooled condenser, and the inlet air temperature of the condenser is reduced by water atomization and evaporation, so that the working temperature of the photovoltaic panel is reduced, and the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic panel and the refrigeration performance of the air conditioning unit are improved. The problem of low night utilization rate of the PVT system is solved, the defect that a conventional PVT condenser can only refrigerate at night or in rainy days is overcome, and all-weather refrigeration is realized. And the system can not generate toxic and harmful substances during operation, a large amount of air heat energy, sky long-wave radiant energy and solar energy are used for combined cooling, heating and power, and the whole production process is clean, cheap and pollution-free.

Description

Spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal condenser and operation method
Technical Field
The invention applies the spray cooling technology to a solar photovoltaic photo-thermal (PVT) air-cooled condenser, and reduces the inlet air temperature of the condenser by utilizing water atomization and evaporation, thereby reducing the working temperature of the photovoltaic panel, and improving the generating efficiency of the photovoltaic panel and the refrigerating performance of the air conditioning unit.
Background
In recent years, due to the continuous deterioration of the atmospheric environment and the improvement of awareness of energy conservation and emission reduction of people, more and more researches on energy conservation of air conditioning systems are carried out. The spray cooling technology has the advantages of simple operation and easy maintenance, and combines spray cooling and an air-cooled condenser, so that the condensation temperature can be greatly reduced, and the refrigeration performance of the air conditioning unit is improved.
The solar photovoltaic photo-thermal (PVT) condenser consists of a photovoltaic cell (PV) assembly and a condensing coil, and is an important component of a PVT air-conditioning combined cooling and power system. Under the working conditions of weak solar radiation illumination such as night or rainy days, the component can perform long-wave radiation heat exchange with low-temperature sky, so that the air conditioning unit has a refrigeration effect. And when solar radiation is strong in daytime, the PV assembly generates electricity to increase the temperature of the PV assembly, so that the condensation temperature is increased, and the refrigerating performance of the air conditioning unit is reduced or even the refrigerating effect is not achieved.
The air-cooled condenser can utilize a fan to enhance air disturbance and enhance the heat dissipation effect, although the heat dissipation mode is single, the stable work of the unit can be ensured during daytime and night refrigeration, the heat dissipation effect can be enhanced by utilizing long-wave radiation at night by the PVT condenser, the power generation effect is achieved during daytime, the forced convection heat dissipation effect of the fan is not achieved, meanwhile, heat generated by photovoltaic power generation and building cold load during daytime need to be discharged to the external environment through the PVT assembly, the system operation parameters are easy to fluctuate irregularly and greatly along with solar radiation, and even the shutdown condition of the unit can be caused by exceeding the system safety range. The condensation temperature can be greatly reduced by spray evaporation cooling, the refrigeration performance of the air conditioning unit is improved, but an independent nozzle is generally needed, although an atomization device in the patent CN201810506246.4 can be combined with a fan, the introduced water is cut into water mist by utilizing the centrifugal force generated by the rotation of the fan, the environment temperature is reduced by the evaporation of the water mist, and the refrigeration efficiency is improved. But no device for organically combining air cooling, spray evaporative cooling and PV modules is available.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the technical problems to be solved by the invention are as follows: the spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal (PVT) air-cooled condenser is characterized in that a spray cooling technology is applied to the PVT air-cooled condenser, and the inlet air temperature of the condenser is reduced by water atomization evaporation, so that the working temperature of a photovoltaic panel is reduced, and the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic panel and the refrigerating performance of an air conditioning unit are improved.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for solving the technical problems is as follows: provides a spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal (PVT) condenser, which comprises a PVT condensing coil branch, an air-cooled condensing coil branch, a photovoltaic plate, fins, a fan, a water coil, a water guide pipe, an atomizing device, a heat exchange plate and a shell, and is characterized in that,
the shell is in a right-angle triangular prism shape, one side surface of a right-angle side is fixed on a roof or an installation plane of an object to be installed, a heat exchange plate is installed on the oblique side surface, the oblique side surface is installed in the south direction, and a photovoltaic plate is fixed on the upper surface of the heat exchange plate; an air-cooled condensing coil branch is arranged in the right-angle triangular prism and parallel to the oblique side surface, an atomizing device and a fan are arranged in the space between the air-cooled condensing coil branch and the adjacent side surface of the shell, and the fan is positioned on the air inlet side of the spray evaporation type PVT condenser;
the air-cooled condensing coil branch is composed of two layers of pipelines connected in series, each layer of pipeline is provided with fins, and the two layers of pipelines are arranged in the shell in parallel to the heat exchange plate; the refrigerant inlet is positioned on the air-cooled condensing coil branch circuit connected with the upper fin, and the refrigerant outlet is positioned on the air-cooled condensing coil branch circuit connected with the lower fin;
PVT condensing coil branches and water coils are laid on the lower surface of the heat exchange plate, and are arranged at intervals on the lower surface of the heat exchange plate;
the water guide pipe is connected with an indoor condensed water outlet, penetrates through the heat exchange plate, extends into the atomizing device, is not in contact with an inlet of the atomizing device, and is connected with the central disc of the fan, so that the motor of the fan drives the fan to rotate and atomize the atomizing device.
The invention also discloses an operation method of the spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal (PVT) condenser, wherein a fan, an air-cooled condensing coil branch and an atomizing device are arranged in a shell of the spray evaporation type PVT condenser, a photovoltaic panel is arranged on the surface of the shell, and a water coil and a PVT condensing coil branch are arranged on the lower surface of the photovoltaic panel; the operation method comprises the following processes:
1) photovoltaic board long wave radiation heat dissipation + PVT condensing coil branch road refrigeration: when no solar radiation exists, the photovoltaic panel which cannot realize the power generation function carries out long-wave radiation heat exchange to low-temperature sky to reduce the temperature of the photovoltaic panel, at the moment, the water coil is closed, and a PVT condensing coil branch is started to realize refrigeration; the operation conditions of the fan and the atomizing device are determined according to the refrigeration effect, when the PVT condensing coil branch refrigeration effect meets the household cold demand, the fan and the atomizing device do not operate, and when the PVT condensing coil branch refrigeration effect cannot meet the household cold demand, the fan and the atomizing device are started to enhance the convection heat exchange effect of the air-cooled condensing coil branch and air, reduce the ambient air temperature by water mist evaporation and improve the heat exchange efficiency;
2) air-cooled condensation heat dissipation + air-cooled condensing coil pipe branch road refrigeration: when solar radiation exists but the intensity is weak, the power generation performance of the photovoltaic panel and the refrigeration effect of the PVT condensing coil branch are not ideal, and refrigeration is realized by the air-cooled condensing coil branch; when the fan is operated to enhance the convection heat transfer between the air-cooled condensing coil branch and air, the atomizing device is started together, the water atomization evaporation reduces the inlet air temperature of the equipment, and the refrigeration effect of the air-cooled condensing coil branch is improved;
3) photovoltaic panel power generation + water coil hot water supply + air-cooled condensation heat dissipation + air-cooled condensation coil branch road refrigeration: when solar radiation is sufficient in the daytime and after the photovoltaic panel is started, the water coil is started to take away part of heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel, but the heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel is too much due to strong illumination radiation, and the temperature of the photovoltaic panel cannot meet the refrigeration requirement of the PVT condensation coil branch, the PVT condensation coil branch losing the refrigeration capacity is closed, and the air-cooled condensation coil branch, the fan and the atomizing device are started to enhance the heat convection between the air-cooled condensation coil branch and air, reduce the ambient air temperature by water mist evaporation and provide cold energy guarantee, so that the function of combined cooling, heating and power generation is realized;
4) photovoltaic panel power generation and water coil hot water supply: when refrigeration is not needed, if solar radiation is sufficient in the daytime, the water coil pipe is only used for absorbing heat generated in the photovoltaic panel power generation process and supplying hot water for production and living, and the function of system cogeneration is realized; when the solar radiation illumination is weak, the photovoltaic panel cannot meet the operation requirement of the spray evaporation type PVT condenser, and the storage battery or the power grid supplies power to meet the operation requirement of equipment.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
1) the condenser of the present invention organically combines air-cooled cooling, spray evaporative cooling, and PV modules. On the basis of improving the arrangement of a conventional PVT condenser coil (namely, double coils, a water coil 6 is responsible for absorbing heat of a photovoltaic panel when the temperature of the photovoltaic panel is higher, and a refrigerant PVT condensing coil branch 1 is responsible for refrigerating when the temperature of the photovoltaic panel is lower), an air-cooled condenser (a fan 5, a fin 4 and an air-cooled condensing coil branch 2) and an evaporative cooling part (an atomizing device 8) are added, so that the spray evaporation type PVT condenser in the application can refrigerate in all weather. Air-cooled condensing coil pipe branch road 2 links to each other with fin 4 and constitutes fin heat exchanger and installs inside the condenser, fan 5 installs in the condenser air inlet side with atomizing device 8, at the two coil pipes of heat transfer board 9 lower surface design of laminating with photovoltaic board 3, wherein water coil pipe 6 is the same with conventional PVT device effect in daytime, when photovoltaic board 3 when the temperature rose in the power generation process, water coil pipe 6 absorbs a part of heat that photovoltaic board 3 generated and makes photovoltaic board 3 temperature reduce, simultaneously because atomizing device 8 spray evaporative cooling and fan 5 operation reinforce convection current heat transfer make photovoltaic board 3 temperature and the inside air temperature of PVT condenser further reduce, the generating capacity of photovoltaic board 3 has been improved, and at this moment air-cooled condensing coil pipe branch road 2's refrigerating capacity also can improve.
2) The condensing coil branches 1 and the water coils 6 are arranged on the lower surface of the heat exchange plate 9 at intervals, and when the building does not need cooling, the water coils 6 can only be operated to absorb heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel 3, so that the cogeneration function of the system is realized; when the building needs the cooling, can operate water coil 6 and absorb the heat that 3 power generation in-process of photovoltaic board produced, open fan 5 and atomizing device 8 simultaneously, the refrigeration is realized to selectivity operation condensing coil branch road 1 and/or air-cooled condensing coil branch road 2, and the operation is adjusted in a flexible way.
3) Various parts of this application reach on PVT condenser shell and inside arrange rationally, photovoltaic board 3, atomizing device 8, the air cooled condenser three integrates well together, make full use of PVT condenser shell 10 inside space, high integration, when not influencing photovoltaic board 3 and sky and carry out long wave radiation heat transfer and electricity generation, do not influence the heat dissipation of condenser coil branch road 1 and air cooled condenser coil branch road 2 again and the operation of other parts, each part integrates well together, compare with the mode of separately arranging each part, the area is saved.
4) In the operation method, the operation of the atomization device 8 and the fan 5 is controlled, so that the temperature of the photovoltaic panel 3 is stabilized in a certain range, and the operation stability of the unit under all working conditions is guaranteed. The operation method is reasonable, the problem that the generating efficiency of the photovoltaic panel 3 can be reduced due to the higher condensation temperature of the spray evaporation type PVT condenser is avoided, and meanwhile, the heat generated by photovoltaic power generation can influence the heat dissipation of the condenser, so that the performance of a unit is reduced, and even the unit can not work normally is solved.
5) Compared with other cooling measures, the spray evaporation cooling is adopted, so that the energy consumption is low, the initial investment is low, the maintenance cost is low, and the operation is simple. When the solar radiation is strong, the power generation amount of the photovoltaic panel 3 can be used for supplying the system to operate, and compared with a conventional air conditioner, the energy consumption of the system operation is reduced. Air cooling is adopted to ensure air circulation, so that air with low external temperature is accelerated to enter the PVT condenser, and air with high internal temperature in the PVT condenser is rapidly discharged, so that the air with low temperature can fully exchange heat with the PVT condensing coil branch 1 and the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2, and the refrigeration efficiency is improved. The water smoke that atomizing device produced can evaporate the heat absorption and reduce the air temperature, further improves the heat exchange efficiency of PVT condensing coil branch road 1 and air-cooled condensing coil branch road 2, when the water smoke flow increase that atomizing device spouted, still has certain deashing effect. The water coil 6 can take away a part of heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel 3 and is used for supplying hot water for buildings and other production lives, and the cooling effect of the atomizing device 8 and the reinforced convection effect of the fan 5 enable the power generation temperature of the photovoltaic panel 3 in the daytime not to be too high, so that the shutdown phenomenon caused by the fact that the system operation parameters exceed the safety range is prevented. The motor of the fan 5 drives the fan 5 and the atomizing device 8 to operate simultaneously, the equipment is integrated, the motor does not need to be additionally arranged to drive the atomizing device 8 to atomize, and the consumption of electric energy is saved while the space is saved.
6) Because the photovoltaic panel 3 can also carry out long wave radiation heat transfer to the low temperature sky night, make photovoltaic panel 3 to the heat dissipation of surrounding environment be higher than conventional air-cooled radiator, further improve refrigeration efficiency under the combined action of water smoke evaporation heat absorption, fan 5 reinforcing vortex simultaneously, photovoltaic panel 3 and the inside air temperature of condenser are all very low to reduce the condensing temperature, saved the power consumption of compressor, practiced thrift the electric energy.
7) At night and in rainy days, the photovoltaic panel 3 can perform radiation heat exchange towards low-temperature sky, and the refrigeration capacity of the spray evaporation type PVT condenser is further improved due to the effects of air cooling and spray evaporation cooling, the photovoltaic panel 3 can have the functions of power generation and refrigeration when solar radiation is strong, the refrigeration performance of the system when solar radiation is weak can be improved, and the temperature of the photovoltaic panel 3 is reduced due to the combined effect of air cooling and spray evaporation cooling, so that the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic panel 3 is improved, and the power generation and refrigeration performance of the unit are improved. The operation modes of the condensing coil branch 1 and the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 can be flexibly adjusted according to the requirement of a building on cooling capacity, the system is convenient to operate and adjust, and the problem of unmatched supply and demand is avoided, so that the energy is saved.
In conclusion, the spray evaporation type photovoltaic photo-thermal (PVT) condenser disclosed by the invention has the advantages that the refrigerating capacity is improved at night and in rainy days, and the refrigerating capacity is higher in the daytime with stronger solar radiation. The problem of low night utilization rate of the PVT system is solved, the defect that a conventional PVT condenser can only refrigerate at night or in rainy days is overcome, and all-weather refrigeration is realized. And the system can not generate toxic and harmful substances during operation, a large amount of air heat energy, sky long-wave radiant energy and solar energy are used for combined cooling, heating and power, and the whole production process is clean, cheap and pollution-free.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is an isometric view of a spray evaporative solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) condenser.
Fig. 2 is a front view of a spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic thermal (PVT) condenser.
FIG. 3 is a diagram showing the positional relationship between the fan and the atomizing device.
Fig. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of a branch 2 of the air-cooled condensing coil.
Figure 5 a schematic view of the structure of the PVT condenser casing 10.
In the figure, a PVT condensing coil branch 1, an air-cooled condensing coil branch 2, a photovoltaic panel 3, fins 4, a fan 5, a water coil 6, a water conduit 7, an atomizing device 8, a heat exchange plate 9 and a shell 10.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further explained with reference to the following examples and drawings, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto.
The invention relates to a spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal (PVT) condenser, which comprises a PVT condensing coil pipe branch 1, an air cooling condensing coil pipe branch 2, a photovoltaic plate 3, fins 4, a fan 5, a water coil pipe 6, a water guide pipe 7, an atomizing device 8, a heat exchange plate 9 and a shell 10.
The shell 10 is in a right-angle triangular prism shape, one side surface of a right-angle side is fixed on a roof or an installation plane of an object to be installed, the heat exchange plate 9 is installed on the oblique side surface, the oblique side surface is installed in the south direction, and the photovoltaic plate 3 is fixed on the upper surface of the heat exchange plate 9; an air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 is arranged in a right-angle triangular prism in parallel to an oblique side surface, a certain distance is reserved between the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 and the adjacent side surface of the shell, an atomizing device 8 and a fan 5 can be arranged, the atomizing device is positioned in a space among the fan 5, the PVT condensing coil branch 1 and the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2, and the fan 5 is positioned on the air inlet side of the spray evaporation type PVT condenser;
the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 is connected with fins 4 to form a fin type heat exchanger, the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 is formed by two layers of pipelines which are connected in series, each layer of pipeline is provided with the fins 4, and the two layers of pipelines are arranged inside the shell 10 in parallel to the heat exchange plate 9; a refrigerant inlet is positioned on the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 connected with the upper fin 4, and a refrigerant outlet is positioned on the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 connected with the lower fin 4;
PVT condensing coil branch circuits 1 and water coil pipes 6 are laid on the lower surface of the heat exchange plate 9, and the PVT condensing coil branch circuits 1 and the water coil pipes 6 are arranged on the lower surface of the heat exchange plate 9 at intervals;
the water conduit 7 is connected with an indoor condensed water outlet, penetrates through the heat exchange plate 9, extends into the atomizing device 8, is not in contact with the inlet of the atomizing device 8, and is connected with the central disc of the fan 5, so that the motor of the fan 5 drives the fan 5 and the atomizing device 8 to operate simultaneously.
The PVT condensing coil branch 1, the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2, the fins 4, the water coil 6 and the heat exchange plate 9 can be made of stainless steel or aluminum alloy with good heat conductivity. The heat exchange plate 9 is bonded with the photovoltaic plate 3 by using EVA, and the photovoltaic plate 3 and the low-temperature sky perform long-wave radiation heat exchange, so that the refrigerating performance of the system at night is improved; the air-cooled condensing coil pipe branch 2 is connected with the fins 4 to form a fin type heat exchanger, and the fan 5 is arranged to strengthen the heat convection between the heat exchanger and the air, so that the spray evaporation type PVT condenser can work normally even when the solar radiation is strong in the daytime. In addition, the PVT condensing coil branch circuits 1 and the water coil 6 are arranged at intervals on the lower surface of the heat exchange plate 9, when the building does not need cooling, the water coil 6 can be operated to absorb heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic plate 3, and the function of system cogeneration is realized; when the building needs to supply cold, the water coil 6 can be operated to absorb heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel 3, the PVT condensing coil branch 1 or/and the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 can be selectively operated at the same time, the refrigerating capacities of the two branches are different under different weather conditions, the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 is a component of the air-cooled condenser part, and the PVT condensing coil branch 1 is a component of the PVT condenser part, so that the combined cooling, heating and power functions of the system are realized, and the energy cascade utilization efficiency is improved.
Water enters the atomizing device 8 through the water conduit 7, and the atomizing device 8 is connected with the central disc of the fan 5, so that the motor of the fan 5 simultaneously drives the fan 5 to rotate and atomize the atomizing device 8. The atomizing device 8 is arranged between the fan 5, the PVT condensing coil branch 1 and the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2, so that water mist can be fully dispersed into the spray evaporation type PVT condenser to evaporate and absorb heat, and the air temperature around the PVT condensing coil branch 1 and the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 is reduced. And because the air temperature around PVT condensing coil branch road 1 and the air-cooled condensing coil branch road 2 is higher, can promote the evaporation heat absorption of water smoke to the radiating efficiency of PVT condensing coil branch road 1 and air-cooled condensing coil branch road 2 has been improved again.
The operation method of the spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal (PVT) condenser comprises the following steps:
1) photovoltaic board 3 long wave radiation heat dissipation + PVT condensing coil branch road 1 refrigeration: when no solar radiation exists (such as at night or in rainy days), the photovoltaic panel 3 which cannot realize the power generation function can perform long-wave radiation heat exchange to the low-temperature sky to reduce the temperature of the photovoltaic panel 3, at this time, the water coil 6 can be closed, and the PVT condensation coil branch 1 is started to realize refrigeration. Fan 5 and atomizing device 8's operation condition is decided according to refrigeration effect, and when PVT condenser coil branch road 1 refrigeration effect is better, fan 5 and atomizing device 8 can not be operated, and when PVT condenser coil branch road 1 refrigeration effect is not good, can open fan 5 and atomizing device 8 to reinforcing heat exchanger and air convection heat transfer effect, and utilizing water smoke evaporation to reduce ambient air temperature, improve heat exchange efficiency.
2) Air-cooled condensation heat dissipation + air-cooled condensing coil pipe branch road 2 refrigerates: when solar radiation exists but the intensity is weak (such as cloudy days and cloudy days), the power generation performance of the photovoltaic panel 3 and the refrigeration effect of the PVT condensing coil branch 1 are not ideal, and refrigeration is realized by the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2. When the fan 5 is operated to strengthen the heat exchange between the finned heat exchanger and the air convection, the atomizing device 8 is started together, the water atomization evaporation reduces the inlet air temperature of the equipment, and the refrigeration effect of the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 is improved. Because solar radiation's existence makes photovoltaic board 3 can produce certain heat at the power generation in-process, PVT condensing coil branch road 1 passes through heat transfer board 9 and contacts with the photovoltaic board 3 that the temperature is higher, because the refrigerating capacity of the higher PVT condensing coil branch road 1 of temperature is not good, utilizes air-cooled condensing coil branch road 2 to refrigerate this moment.
3) Photovoltaic board 3 electricity generation + 6 hot water supply of water coil pipe + air-cooled condensation heat dissipation + air-cooled condensation coil pipe branch road 2 refrigeration: when solar radiation is sufficient in the daytime, after the photovoltaic panel 3 is started, the water coil pipe 6 is started to take away partial heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel 3, but the illumination radiation is strong, the heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel 3 is more, the temperature of the photovoltaic panel 3 is possibly still higher, the refrigeration requirement of the PVT condensing coil pipe branch 1 cannot be met by the temperature of the photovoltaic panel 3 at the moment, the PVT condensing coil pipe branch 1 losing the refrigeration capacity can be closed, the air-cooled condensing coil pipe branch 2 is started, the fan 5 and the atomizing device 8 are started, the heat exchanger and air convection heat exchange is enhanced, the ambient air temperature is reduced by water mist evaporation, certain cold quantity guarantee is provided, and the function of combined cooling, heating and power generation is realized.
4) Photovoltaic panel 3 generates electricity and water is supplied by water coil 6: when refrigeration is not needed, if solar radiation is sufficient in the daytime, the water coil 6 is only used for absorbing heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel 3, and the function of cogeneration of the system is realized.
When solar radiation is sufficient in the daytime, the photovoltaic panel 3 generates electricity to supply the electricity to the air conditioning system for operation, so that the electric energy consumption is saved, and the residual electricity can be stored in a storage battery or supplied to other indoor equipment for use. When the solar radiation illumination is weak at night or in rainy days and the like, the photovoltaic panel 3 cannot meet the operation requirement of the air conditioning system through power generation, and power can be supplied by a storage battery or a power grid.
In order to realize the operation method, an automatic control module is installed in the air conditioning system, temperature sensors and pressure sensors are arranged on inlet and outlet sides of a PVT condensing coil branch 1, an air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 and a water coil 6, air temperature and humidity sensors are arranged on an air inlet side and an air outlet side of the PVT condenser, after signal parameters are collected by a data collecting device of the air conditioning system, the signal parameters are uniformly transmitted to a server of the air conditioning system, the refrigerating capacity of the air conditioning system is compared with the building cold load to determine the operation method of the condenser, and then the operation method acts on electric valve controllers on the inlet and outlet sides of the PVT condensing coil branch 1, the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 and the water coil 6 to realize the flexible switching; the motor and the variable frequency speed regulator acting on the fan 5 realize the start-stop and operation regulation of the fan 5 and the atomizing device 8.
Example 1
The spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal (PVT) condenser comprises a PVT condensing coil branch 1, an air-cooled condensing coil branch 2, a photovoltaic plate 3, fins 4, a fan 5, a water coil 6, a water conduit 7, an atomizing device 8, a heat exchange plate 9 and a PVT condenser shell 10. The mounting positions are as shown in fig. 1-3, the PVT condensing coil branch 1, the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2, the fins 4, the water coil 6 and the heat exchange plate 9 can be made of stainless steel or aluminum alloy with good heat conductivity, the condensing coil branch 1 and the water coil 6 are arranged on the lower surface of the heat exchange plate 9 at intervals (the arrangement is compact, the total area of the contact between the water coil 6 and the condensing coil 1 and the heat exchange plate 9 is increased), and the heat exchange plate 9 is bonded with the lower surface of the photovoltaic plate 3 through EVA. The air-cooled condensing coil pipe branch 2 is connected with the fins 4 to form a fin type heat exchanger, is positioned inside the spray evaporation type PVT condenser, and is provided with the fan 5 for strengthening the heat convection effect of the heat exchanger and air and ensuring that the spray evaporation type PVT condenser can normally work when solar radiation is strong in daytime.
Inlets of the PVT condensing coil branch 1 and the water coil 6 are arranged on the upper half part of the spray evaporation type PVT condenser, namely inlets of the condensing coil branch 1 and the water coil 6 are led out from the upper part of the shell, so that a refrigerant and water can enter the inlets respectively, and outlets of the condensing coil branch 1 and the water coil 6 are led out from the lower half part of the shell. The refrigerant inlet of the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 is positioned on the upper fin 4, and the refrigerant outlet is positioned on the lower fin 4.
The water conduit 7 passes through the heat exchange plate 9 and feeds water to the atomizing device 8. The atomizing device 8 is located among the fan 5, the PVT condensing coil branch 1 and the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2, the fan 5 is located on the air inlet side of the spray evaporation type PVT condenser, and the atomizing device 8 is connected with the central disc of the fan 5, so that the motor of the fan 5 simultaneously drives the fan 5 to rotate and the atomizing device 8 to atomize (the atomizing device adopts an atomizing device in CN 201810506246.4). The water conduit 7 is not contacted with the water inlet of the atomizing device 8, and the side surface of the circular arc section of the atomizing device 8 is provided with a plurality of atomizing holes which can cut water into small water drops by utilizing the centrifugal force generated by the rotation of the fan 5, thereby achieving the atomizing effect.
When no solar radiation (like night or rainy day), photovoltaic board 3 that can't realize generating function can carry out the long wave radiation heat transfer to the low temperature sky in order to reduce the temperature of photovoltaic board 3, can close water coil 6 at this moment, starts PVT condensation coil branch road 1 and realizes refrigerating, and fan 5 and atomizing device 8's operational aspect are decided according to refrigeration effect and building refrigeration demand. When the refrigerating capacity of only operating the PVT condensing coil branch 1 can not meet the requirement of building refrigeration, the fan 5 and the atomizing device 8 can be started to enhance the heat exchange effect of the heat exchanger and air convection, reduce the temperature of ambient air by utilizing water mist evaporation and improve the heat exchange efficiency of the heat exchanger.
When solar radiation exists but the intensity is weak (such as cloudy days and cloudy days), the power generation performance of the photovoltaic panel 3 and the refrigeration effect of the PVT condensing coil branch 1 are not ideal, and refrigeration is realized by the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2. When the operation fan 5 strengthens the heat exchange of fin type heat exchanger and air convection, the atomizing device 8 is started together, the water atomization evaporation reduces the inlet air temperature of the equipment, and the refrigeration effect of the air-cooled condensing coil branch 2 is improved.
When solar radiation is stronger in daytime, after the photovoltaic panel 3 is started, the water coil pipe 6 is started to take away partial heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel 3, but because the solar radiation is stronger, the heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel 3 is more, the temperature of the photovoltaic panel 3 is possibly still higher, the refrigeration requirement of the PVT condensation coil pipe branch 1 cannot be met by the temperature of the photovoltaic panel 3 at the moment, the PVT condensation coil pipe branch 1 losing the refrigeration capacity can be closed, the air-cooled condensation coil pipe branch 2 is started, the fan 5 and the atomizing device 8 are started, the heat exchanger and the air convection heat exchange effect are enhanced, the ambient air temperature is reduced by water mist evaporation, certain cold energy is guaranteed, and the function of combined cooling, heating and power generation is realized.
When the building does not need cooling, if solar radiation is sufficient in the daytime, the water coil 6 can be operated to absorb heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel 3, and the solar water heater is used for supplying hot water for the building and other production and life, and the function of system cogeneration is realized.
In the embodiment, the photovoltaic panel 3 is a polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic panel, the power generation efficiency under the standard working condition is 15%, the size is 1310mm (length) × 990mm (width), the specification of the PVT condensation coil branch 1, the specification of the air-cooled condensation coil branch 2 and the specification of the water coil 6 are phi 12, the length is 6400mm, the center distance of the coils is 100mm, the thickness of fins of the fin heat exchanger is 0.15-0.2mm, the diameter of the atomizing device 8 is 110mm, the length is 80mm, the power of the fan 5 is 35W, the outdoor dry bulb temperature is 35 ℃, the wet bulb temperature is 24 ℃, the indoor dry bulb temperature is 27 ℃ and the wet bulb temperature is 19 ℃, the refrigerating capacity of an air conditioner when a common air-cooled condenser is used is 2678W, the power consumption of the air conditioner is 816W, the energy efficiency ratio of the refrigerating is 3.3, and the solar radiation illumination during the day is 800W/m through theoretical calculation2When the energy consumption is about 120W, the energy efficiency ratio of the air conditioner is improved by about 15%; when no solar radiation exists at night or in rainy days, the running energy consumption of the fan 5 can be saved while the refrigerating capacity of the air conditioner is increased, the energy efficiency ratio of the air conditioner is improved by about 10 percent, and the energy-saving effect is obvious.
Nothing in this specification is said to apply to the prior art.

Claims (4)

1. A spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal condenser comprises a PVT condensing coil branch, an air-cooled condensing coil branch, a photovoltaic panel, fins, a fan, a water coil, a water conduit, an atomizing device, a heat exchange plate and a shell,
the shell is in a right-angle triangular prism shape, one side surface of a right-angle side is fixed on a roof or an installation plane of an object to be installed, a heat exchange plate is installed on the oblique side surface, the oblique side surface is installed in the south direction, and a photovoltaic plate is fixed on the upper surface of the heat exchange plate; an air-cooled condensing coil branch is arranged in the right-angle triangular prism and parallel to the oblique side surface, an atomizing device and a fan are arranged in the space between the air-cooled condensing coil branch and the adjacent side surface of the shell, and the fan is positioned on the air inlet side of the spray evaporation type PVT condenser;
the air-cooled condensing coil branch is composed of two layers of pipelines connected in series, each layer of pipeline is provided with fins, and the two layers of pipelines are arranged in the shell in parallel to the heat exchange plate; the refrigerant inlet is positioned on the air-cooled condensing coil branch circuit connected with the upper fin, and the refrigerant outlet is positioned on the air-cooled condensing coil branch circuit connected with the lower fin;
PVT condensing coil branches and water coils are laid on the lower surface of the heat exchange plate, and are arranged at intervals on the lower surface of the heat exchange plate;
the water guide pipe is connected with an indoor condensed water outlet, penetrates through the heat exchange plate, extends into the atomizing device, is not in contact with an inlet of the atomizing device, and is connected with the central disc of the fan, so that the motor of the fan drives the fan to rotate and atomize the atomizing device.
2. The condenser of claim 1, wherein the atomizing device is located in a space between the fan, the PVT condensing coil leg, and the air-cooled condensing coil leg.
3. A condenser as claimed in claim 1, wherein the atomising means is 110mm in diameter and 80mm in length; the specification of the PVT condensing coil branch, the air-cooled condensing coil branch and the water coil is phi 12, the length is 6400mm, and the coil center distance is 100 mm.
4. The operation method of the spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal condenser is characterized in that a fan, an air-cooled condensing coil branch and an atomization device are installed in a shell of the spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal condenser, a photovoltaic plate is installed on the surface of the shell, and a water coil and a PVT condensing coil branch are installed on the lower surface of the photovoltaic plate; the operation method comprises the following processes:
1) photovoltaic board long wave radiation heat dissipation + PVT condensing coil branch road refrigeration: when no solar radiation exists, the photovoltaic panel which cannot realize the power generation function carries out long-wave radiation heat exchange to low-temperature sky to reduce the temperature of the photovoltaic panel, at the moment, the water coil is closed, and a PVT condensing coil branch is started to realize refrigeration; the operation conditions of the fan and the atomizing device are determined according to the refrigeration effect, when the PVT condensing coil branch refrigeration effect meets the household cold demand, the fan and the atomizing device do not operate, and when the PVT condensing coil branch refrigeration effect cannot meet the household cold demand, the fan and the atomizing device are started to enhance the convection heat exchange effect of the air-cooled condensing coil branch and air, reduce the ambient air temperature by water mist evaporation and improve the heat exchange efficiency;
2) air-cooled condensation heat dissipation + air-cooled condensing coil pipe branch road refrigeration: when solar radiation exists but the intensity is weak, the power generation performance of the photovoltaic panel and the refrigeration effect of the PVT condensing coil branch are not ideal, and refrigeration is realized by the air-cooled condensing coil branch; when the fan is operated to enhance the convection heat transfer between the air-cooled condensing coil branch and air, the atomizing device is started together, the water atomization evaporation reduces the inlet air temperature of the equipment, and the refrigeration effect of the air-cooled condensing coil branch is improved;
3) photovoltaic panel power generation + water coil hot water supply + air-cooled condensation heat dissipation + air-cooled condensation coil branch road refrigeration: when solar radiation is sufficient in the daytime and after the photovoltaic panel is started, the water coil is started to take away part of heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel, but the heat generated in the power generation process of the photovoltaic panel is too much due to strong illumination radiation, and the temperature of the photovoltaic panel cannot meet the refrigeration requirement of the PVT condensation coil branch, the PVT condensation coil branch losing the refrigeration capacity is closed, and the air-cooled condensation coil branch, the fan and the atomizing device are started to enhance the heat convection between the air-cooled condensation coil branch and air, reduce the ambient air temperature by water mist evaporation and provide cold energy guarantee, so that the function of combined cooling, heating and power generation is realized;
4) photovoltaic panel power generation and water coil hot water supply: when refrigeration is not needed, if solar radiation is sufficient in the daytime, the water coil pipe is only used for absorbing heat generated in the photovoltaic panel power generation process and supplying hot water for production and living, and the function of system cogeneration is realized; when the solar radiation illumination is weak, the photovoltaic panel cannot meet the operation requirement of the spray evaporation type PVT condenser, and the storage battery or the power grid supplies power to meet the operation requirement of equipment.
CN202010453021.4A 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 Spray evaporation type solar photovoltaic photo-thermal condenser and operation method Pending CN111578416A (en)

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CN107401855A (en) * 2017-08-03 2017-11-28 大连理工大学 A kind of PVT heat pumps that timesharing thermoelectricity cold supply round the clock is realized using solar radiation and sky cold emission
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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
EP0979801A1 (en) * 1998-08-11 2000-02-16 Communauté Européenne (CE) Sea water desalination system by condensing air moisture
KR20120022186A (en) * 2010-09-01 2012-03-12 엘지전자 주식회사 Air-conditioner with solor cell
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