CN111456729A - Mining method of steeply inclined thin ore body - Google Patents

Mining method of steeply inclined thin ore body Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111456729A
CN111456729A CN202010252821.XA CN202010252821A CN111456729A CN 111456729 A CN111456729 A CN 111456729A CN 202010252821 A CN202010252821 A CN 202010252821A CN 111456729 A CN111456729 A CN 111456729A
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China
Prior art keywords
ore
roadway
mining
stope
stoping
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CN202010252821.XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
侯俊
唐学义
张小瑞
程文文
闵忠鹏
严鹏
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Changchun Gold Research Institute
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Changchun Gold Research Institute
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Priority to CN202010252821.XA priority Critical patent/CN111456729A/en
Publication of CN111456729A publication Critical patent/CN111456729A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor

Abstract

The invention relates to a mining method of a steeply inclined thin ore body, and belongs to the technical field of underground mining of mines. Dividing an ore body into ore blocks, and excavating a vein-penetrating roadway at two ends of the ore blocks from an extravein transportation roadway to the direction vertical to the trend direction of the ore body; tunneling a pedestrian ore pass raise at the position of the vein-through roadway, and simultaneously tunneling an intra-vein scraper chamber and a sectional rock drilling roadway; after the tunneling of the subsection rock drilling roadway is completed, tunneling a central advanced raise; the stoping sequence of the ore blocks is stoping from top to bottom, the ore removal adopts a sectional ore removal mode, and after the stoping of the last section is finished, the stoping of the next section is finished. The invention has the advantages that sectional ore removal is adopted, the operation time of each section of the stope is reduced, the mixing of surrounding rocks is effectively controlled, and the dilution rate is reduced; and constructing a concrete cushion layer every 1-2 sections, so that the ground pressure display of the stope can be effectively controlled, the stope stability is improved, the ore dilution rate is reduced, the stope production efficiency is improved, and the safety of production operation is ensured.

Description

Mining method of steeply inclined thin ore body
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of underground mining of mines, in particular to a mining method suitable for a steeply inclined thin ore body.
Background
The method mainly applies a shallow hole shrinkage method, a wall cutting filling method and a segmental open stope method at present according to the experience of mining similar ore bodies at home and abroad, wherein the shallow hole shrinkage method is suitable for ore bodies with medium stability or higher and no cohesiveness, and has the problems of high ore depletion rate, high loss rate, poor operation safety, overstocked fund and the like in the application process; the wall cutting filling method is suitable for ore bodies with the thickness of not more than 1.2m, and has the problems of small production capacity, high labor intensity, complex production process and the like in the application process; the existing segmental open-field method for the mine is only suitable for ore bodies with the thickness of about 4m and stable surrounding rocks, and has the problems of high loss rate, high dilution rate, large earth pressure activity and the like in the application process.
However, as the mine production gradually develops to the deep part, the ground pressure activity gradually appears, and meanwhile, the manual labor force of the mine gradually lacks, so that the existing mining method becomes incapable when mine enterprises face complex ore bodies like steeply inclined broken thin ore veins.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a mining method for a steeply inclined thin ore body, and aims to provide a safe and efficient mining method which is safe, efficient and low in lean loss and is suitable for the steeply inclined thin ore body.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention is that the method comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps of firstly, dividing an ore body into ore blocks, wherein the length of each ore block is 40-100 m, the height of each ore block is 20-100 m, only a small amount of pillars are left in each ore block, and each section of the ore blocks is internally segmented and has the height of 6-10 m;
secondly, excavating a vein-penetrating roadway at two ends of the ore block from the vein-outside transportation roadway to the direction vertical to the trend direction of the ore body; tunneling a pedestrian ore pass raise at the position of the vein-through roadway, and simultaneously tunneling an intra-vein scraper chamber and a sectional rock drilling roadway; after the tunneling of the subsection rock drilling roadway is completed, tunneling a central advanced raise;
thirdly, carrying out stoping from top to bottom in the stoping sequence of the ore blocks, taking a central advanced raise as a free surface, and carrying out stoping from the center to two ends; during sectional stoping, upward blast holes are constructed in a sectional rock drilling roadway, and blasted and collapsed ores are raked to a corresponding drop shaft part by a scraper and are discharged by a drop shaft ore drawing hopper;
fourthly, ore removal is carried out in a sectional ore removal mode, and after the last sectional mining is finished, the next sectional mining is carried out; and constructing an artificial concrete cushion layer in the sectional rock drilling roadway at intervals of 1-2 sections according to surrounding rock conditions of the stope and stress distribution conditions of the stope.
Furthermore, the length of the middle column in the first step is 2-4 m, the pedestrian sliding shaft is shared by two stopes, so that the middle column is reserved to protect the pedestrian sliding shaft when the first stope is used for stoping, and the middle column is recovered after the stope of the second stope is finished.
Further, in the second step, the width of the sectional rock drilling roadway is 1.2-2 m, and the height of the sectional rock drilling roadway is 2-2.5 m.
And further, in the second step, the surrounding rocks of the upper and lower trays of the sectional rock drilling roadway are supported by using a steel bar mesh and an anchor rod in a combined manner.
Furthermore, in the second step, the size of the central advanced raise is 1.8m × 1.8.8 m-3 m × 3 m.
Further, in the second step, the manway ore pass raise comprises: the intravenal humping part and the extravenal manhole part.
Furthermore, in the fourth step, the thickness of the artificial concrete cushion layer is 0.5-1 m, the cushion layer is composed of reinforcing steel bars and concrete, the main reinforcement is made of round steel with the diameter of 15-20 mm, the auxiliary reinforcement is made of round steel with the diameter of 10-15 mm, the strength of the concrete is designed according to C15-C20, and the concrete is of the type PO 42.5.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
the method is suitable for mining the steeply inclined broken thin ore body, and adopts sectional ore removal, so that the operation time of each section of a stope is reduced, the mixing of surrounding rocks is effectively controlled, and the dilution rate is reduced; constructing a concrete cushion layer every 1-2 sections, effectively controlling the appearance of stope ground pressure, and simultaneously ensuring the mixing of surrounding rocks in an upper section dead zone when a lower section is mined, so that the stope stability is improved, the ore dilution rate is reduced, a man-and-walk dual-purpose well is used in the mining preparation process, and a large amount of extra-vein mining preparation projects are saved; the stoping mode of the medium-length hole is adopted, so that the production efficiency of a stope is greatly improved; the sectional rock drilling roadway is supported, so that personnel can be ensured not to operate in a dead zone or a stope without support, and the safety of production operation is ensured.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a front view of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a view in the direction A of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a view from the direction B of FIG. 1;
in the figure: the mining underground mining construction comprises an extravein transportation roadway 1, a scraper chamber 2, a drift-through roadway 3, a central advanced raise 4, a manway orepass 5, a segmented rock drilling roadway 6, an ore body 7, a goaf 8, a concrete cushion 9, a blast hole 10, a caving ore 11, a scraper 12 and a stud 13.
Detailed Description
Example 1
Comprises the following steps:
firstly, dividing an ore body 7 into ore blocks, wherein the length of each ore block is 40m, the height of each ore block is 20m, only a small number of studs 13 are left in each ore block, and the heights of each section in each ore block are 6m, 7m and 7 m;
secondly, excavating a vein-penetrating roadway 3 at two ends of the ore block from an extravein transportation roadway 1 in a direction perpendicular to the trend direction of the ore body; tunneling a pedestrian ore pass raise 5 at the position of the vein-through roadway, and simultaneously tunneling an intra-vein scraper chamber 2 and a sectional rock drilling roadway 6; after the tunneling of the subsection rock drilling roadway is finished, tunneling a central advanced raise 4;
thirdly, the mining sequence of the ore blocks is from top to bottom, the central advanced raise 4 is taken as a free surface, and mining is carried out from the center to two ends; during sectional mining, upward blast holes 10 are constructed in a sectional rock drilling roadway 6, and blasting caving ores 11 are raked to a corresponding drop shaft part 501 by a scraper 12 and are discharged by a drop shaft ore drawing hopper;
fourthly, ore removal is carried out in a sectional ore removal mode, and after the last sectional mining is finished, the next sectional mining is carried out; constructing an artificial concrete cushion 9 on a segmented rock drilling roadway at intervals of 1-2 segments according to stope surrounding rock conditions and stope stress distribution conditions;
furthermore, the length of the middle column in the first step is 2m, as the pedestrian ore pass is shared by two stopes, a middle column is reserved to protect the pedestrian ore pass raise when the first stope is required to carry out stoping, and the middle column is recovered after the stope of the second stope is finished;
further, in the second step, the width of the sectional rock drilling roadway 6 is 1.2m, and the height is 2 m;
further, in the second step, the upper and lower surrounding rocks of the subsection rock drilling roadway 6 are supported by using a steel bar mesh and an anchor rod in a combined manner;
further, in the second step, the size of the central forecour 4 is 1.8m × 1.8.8 m;
further, in the second step, the manway ore pass raise 5 comprises: an intravenal trunk section 501 and an extravenal trunk section 502.
Furthermore, in the third step, the arrangement mode of the blast holes is related to the thickness of the ore body, the thickness of the ore body is 0.8-1.5 m, the blast holes are arranged in a zigzag manner, the thickness of the ore body is 1.2-2 m, the blast holes are arranged in a quincunx manner, the thickness of the ore body is more than 2m, and the arrangement mode of the blast holes is determined according to the actual situation on site;
furthermore, in the fourth step, the thickness of the artificial concrete cushion layer is 0.1m, the cushion layer is composed of reinforcing steel bars and concrete, the main reinforcement is made of round steel with the diameter of 15mm, the auxiliary reinforcement is made of round steel with the diameter of 10mm, the strength of the concrete is designed according to C15-C20, and the concrete is of the type PO 42.5.
Example 2
Comprises the following steps:
firstly, dividing an ore body 7 into ore blocks, wherein the length of each ore block is 70m, the height of each ore block is 80m, only a small number of studs 13 are left in each ore block, and each section of each ore block is internally segmented and has the height of 8 m;
secondly, excavating a vein-penetrating roadway 3 at two ends of the ore block from an extravein transportation roadway 1 in a direction perpendicular to the trend direction of the ore body; tunneling a pedestrian ore pass raise 5 at the position of the vein-through roadway, and simultaneously tunneling an intra-vein scraper chamber 2 and a sectional rock drilling roadway 6; after the tunneling of the subsection rock drilling roadway is finished, tunneling a central advanced raise 4;
thirdly, the mining sequence of the ore blocks is from top to bottom, the central advanced raise 4 is taken as a free surface, and mining is carried out from the center to two ends; during sectional mining, upward blast holes 10 are constructed in a sectional rock drilling roadway 6, and blasting caving ores 11 are raked to a corresponding drop shaft part 501 by a scraper 12 and are discharged by a drop shaft ore drawing hopper;
fourthly, ore removal is carried out in a sectional ore removal mode, and after the last sectional mining is finished, the next sectional mining is carried out; and constructing an artificial concrete cushion 9 on the segmented rock drilling roadway at intervals of 1-2 segments according to surrounding rock conditions of the stope and stress distribution conditions of the stope.
Furthermore, the length of the middle column in the first step is 3m, as the pedestrian sliding shaft is shared by two stopes, a reserved column is reserved to protect the pedestrian sliding shaft when the first stope is required to carry out stoping, and the column is recovered after the stope of the second stope is finished;
further, in the second step, the width of the sectional rock drilling roadway 6 is 1.6m, and the height of the sectional rock drilling roadway is 2.2 m;
further, in the second step, the upper and lower surrounding rocks of the subsection rock drilling roadway 6 are supported by using a steel bar mesh and an anchor rod in a combined manner;
further, in the second step, the size of the central forecour 4 is 2.4m × 2.4.4 m;
further, in the second step, the manway ore pass raise 5 comprises: an intravenal ore pass portion 501 and an extravenal human well portion 502;
furthermore, in the third step, the arrangement mode of the blast holes is related to the thickness of the ore body, the thickness of the ore body is 0.8-1.5 m, the blast holes are arranged in a zigzag manner, the thickness of the ore body is 1.2-2 m, the blast holes are arranged in a quincunx manner, the thickness of the ore body is more than 2m, and the arrangement mode of the blast holes is determined according to the actual situation on site;
furthermore, in the fourth step, the thickness of the artificial concrete cushion layer is 0.8m, the cushion layer is composed of reinforcing steel bars and concrete, the main reinforcement is made of round steel with the diameter of 18mm, the auxiliary reinforcement is made of round steel with the diameter of 12mm, the strength of the concrete is designed according to C15-C20, and the concrete is of the type PO 42.5.
Example 3
Comprises the following steps:
firstly, dividing an ore body 7 into ore blocks, wherein the length of each ore block is 100m, the height of each ore block is 100m, only a small number of studs 13 are left in each ore block, and each section of each ore block is internally segmented and has the height of 10 m;
secondly, excavating a vein-penetrating roadway 3 at two ends of the ore block from an extravein transportation roadway 1 in a direction perpendicular to the trend direction of the ore body; tunneling a pedestrian ore pass raise 5 at the position of the vein-through roadway, and simultaneously tunneling an intra-vein scraper chamber 2 and a sectional rock drilling roadway 6; after the tunneling of the subsection rock drilling roadway is finished, tunneling a central advanced raise 4;
thirdly, the mining sequence of the ore blocks is from top to bottom, the central advanced raise 4 is taken as a free surface, and mining is carried out from the center to two ends; during sectional mining, upward blast holes 10 are constructed in a sectional rock drilling roadway 6, and blasting caving ores 11 are raked to a corresponding drop shaft part 501 by a scraper 12 and are discharged by a drop shaft ore drawing hopper;
fourthly, ore removal is carried out in a sectional ore removal mode, and after the last sectional mining is finished, the next sectional mining is carried out; constructing an artificial concrete cushion 9 on a segmented rock drilling roadway at intervals of 1-2 segments according to stope surrounding rock conditions and stope stress distribution conditions;
furthermore, the length of the middle column in the first step is 2m, as the pedestrian ore pass is shared by two stopes, a middle column is reserved to protect the pedestrian ore pass raise when the first stope is required to carry out stoping, and the middle column is recovered after the stope of the second stope is finished;
further, in the second step, the width of the sectional rock drilling roadway 6 is 1.6m, and the height of the sectional rock drilling roadway is 2.2 m;
further, in the second step, the upper and lower surrounding rocks of the subsection rock drilling roadway 6 are supported by using a steel bar mesh and an anchor rod in a combined manner;
further, in the second step, the size of the central forecourt 4 is 3m × 3 m;
further, in the second step, the manway ore pass raise 5 comprises: an intravenal trunk section 501 and an extravenal trunk section 502.
Further, in the third step, the arrangement mode of the blast holes is related to the thickness of the ore body, the thickness of the ore body is 0.8-1.5 m, the blast holes are arranged in a zigzag manner, the thickness of the ore body is 1.2-2 m, the blast holes are arranged in a quincunx manner, the thickness of the ore body is larger than 2m, and the arrangement mode of the blast holes is determined according to the actual situation of the site.
Furthermore, in the fourth step, the thickness of the artificial concrete cushion layer is 0.5-1 m, the cushion layer is composed of reinforcing steel bars and concrete, the main reinforcement is made of round steel with the diameter of 15-20 mm, the auxiliary reinforcement is made of round steel with the diameter of 10-15 mm, the strength of the concrete is designed according to C15-C20, and the concrete is of the type PO 42.5.
The present invention is further illustrated by the following specific experimental examples.
The mineral body of the inner Mongolia gold pottery limited company generally takes a steeply inclined thin mineral body as a main part, surrounding rocks of the mineral body are broken, the average thickness of the mineral body is 0.8-2 m, the surrounding rocks of the mineral body are broken, the mineral has cohesiveness, a wall cutting filling method adopted by mines all the time is used for production, the production capacity is low, the manual labor intensity is high, the production cost is high, and meanwhile, ground pressure is often shown in stopes, and great potential safety hazards exist. By adopting the mining method for the steeply inclined crushed thin ore body, the production capacity of a stope reaches 57t/d, the labor intensity of workers is reduced, and the operation safety of the stope is greatly improved.
As shown in fig. 1, the specific implementation steps are as follows:
stope structure parameters: the ore body is divided into ore blocks, the height of each ore block is 50m, the length of each ore block is 50m, only a small number of studs 13 are left in each ore block, and the height of each ore block is 8 m.
The mining and cutting process comprises the steps of excavating a vein penetrating roadway 3 at two ends of an ore block in a direction perpendicular to the trend direction of an ore body through an extravein conveying roadway 1, excavating a manway ore pass raise 5 at the vein of the vein penetrating roadway 3, excavating an intra-vein scraper chamber 2 and a segmented rock drilling roadway 6 at the same time, wherein the section of the segmented rock drilling roadway 6 is 1.5m wide and 2m high, excavating a central advanced raise 4 after the tunneling of the segmented rock drilling roadway 6 is finished, and the section of the central advanced raise 4 is 2m × 2 m.
Ore recovery: the stoping sequence of the ore blocks is from top to bottom, the central advanced raise 4 is taken as a free surface, and stoping is carried out from the center to two ends; when the sublevel mining is carried out, upward blast holes 10 are constructed in a sublevel rock drilling roadway 6, and 3-4 rows of holes are blasted each time; the ore 11 is raked to the corresponding ore pass 5 by a scraper 12 and is discharged from an ore-drawing funnel of the ore pass. And ore removal adopts a sectional ore removal mode, and after the last sectional stoping is finished, the next sectional is stoped. According to stope surrounding rock conditions and stope stress distribution conditions, constructing an artificial concrete cushion 9 in a subsection rock drilling roadway at intervals of 1-2 subsections, wherein the thickness of the artificial concrete cushion is 0.5m, the cushion is composed of reinforcing steel bars and concrete, main reinforcing steel bars are made of round steel with the diameter of 16mm, auxiliary reinforcing steel bars are made of round steel with the diameter of 12mm, and the concrete strength is designed according to C15 and is a cement variety PO 42.5.

Claims (7)

1. A method of mining a steeply dipping thin ore body, comprising the steps of:
the method comprises the following steps of firstly, dividing an ore body into ore blocks, wherein the length of each ore block is 40-100 m, the height of each ore block is 20-100 m, only a small amount of pillars are left in each ore block, and each section of the ore blocks is internally segmented and has the height of 6-10 m;
secondly, excavating a vein-penetrating roadway at two ends of the ore block from the vein-outside transportation roadway to the direction vertical to the trend direction of the ore body; tunneling a pedestrian ore pass raise at the position of the vein-through roadway, and simultaneously tunneling an intra-vein scraper chamber and a sectional rock drilling roadway; after the tunneling of the subsection rock drilling roadway is completed, tunneling a central advanced raise;
thirdly, carrying out stoping from top to bottom in the stoping sequence of the ore blocks, taking a central advanced raise as a free surface, and carrying out stoping from the center to two ends; during sectional stoping, upward blast holes are constructed in a sectional rock drilling roadway, and blasted and collapsed ores are raked to a corresponding drop shaft part by a scraper and are discharged by a drop shaft ore drawing hopper;
fourthly, ore removal is carried out in a sectional ore removal mode, and after the last sectional mining is finished, the next sectional mining is carried out; and constructing an artificial concrete cushion layer in the sectional rock drilling roadway at intervals of 1-2 sections according to surrounding rock conditions of the stope and stress distribution conditions of the stope.
2. A method of mining a steeply dipping thin ore body according to claim 1, characterized in that: and in the step I, the length of the middle column is 2-4 m, the pedestrian sliding shaft is shared by two stopes, so that the middle column is reserved to protect the pedestrian sliding shaft when the first stope is required to perform stoping, and the middle column is recovered after the stoping of the second stope is finished.
3. A method of mining a steeply dipping thin ore body according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the second step, the width of the sectional rock drilling roadway is 1.2-2 m, and the height of the sectional rock drilling roadway is 2-2.5 m.
4. A method of mining a steeply dipping thin ore body according to claim 3, characterized in that: and in the second step, the surrounding rocks of the upper and lower walls of the sectional rock drilling roadway are supported by using a steel bar mesh and an anchor rod in a combined manner.
5. The mining method of the steeply dipping thin ore body according to claim 1, wherein in the second step, the size of the central forecourt is 1.8m × 1.8.8 m-3 m × 3 m.
6. A method of mining a steeply dipping thin ore body according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the second step, the manway ore pass raise comprises: the intravenal humping part and the extravenal manhole part.
7. A method of mining a steeply dipping thin ore body according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the fourth step, the thickness of the artificial concrete cushion layer is 0.5-1 m, the cushion layer is composed of reinforcing steel bars and concrete, the main reinforcements are made of round steel with the diameter of 15-20 mm, the auxiliary reinforcements are made of round steel with the diameter of 10-15 mm, the strength of the concrete is designed according to C15-C20, and the concrete is PO 42.5.
CN202010252821.XA 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 Mining method of steeply inclined thin ore body Pending CN111456729A (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU1016514A1 (en) * 1980-12-29 1983-05-07 Донецкий Научно-Исследовательский Угольный Институт Method of working thin gently-sloping gas-laden dust-hazardous coal bed
CN104453901A (en) * 2014-12-08 2015-03-25 广西大学 Sublevel open-stoping mining method with subsequent backfilling for long-hole caving in thin ore bodies
CN109322668A (en) * 2018-10-16 2019-02-12 长沙矿山研究院有限责任公司 Kerve method in high-dipping and pole unstable ore body
CN109900174A (en) * 2017-12-11 2019-06-18 南京梅山冶金发展有限公司 Quick bursting kerve method suitable for different heights of lift

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SU1016514A1 (en) * 1980-12-29 1983-05-07 Донецкий Научно-Исследовательский Угольный Институт Method of working thin gently-sloping gas-laden dust-hazardous coal bed
CN104453901A (en) * 2014-12-08 2015-03-25 广西大学 Sublevel open-stoping mining method with subsequent backfilling for long-hole caving in thin ore bodies
CN109900174A (en) * 2017-12-11 2019-06-18 南京梅山冶金发展有限公司 Quick bursting kerve method suitable for different heights of lift
CN109322668A (en) * 2018-10-16 2019-02-12 长沙矿山研究院有限责任公司 Kerve method in high-dipping and pole unstable ore body

Non-Patent Citations (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
唐学义等: ""混凝土垫层削壁充填法在急倾斜极薄矿脉中的应用"", 《现代矿业》 *
安龙: ""急倾斜薄矿脉开采矿岩移动规律与崩落控制研究"", 《中国博士学位论文全文数据库 工程科技I辑》 *

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