CN111439974B - Concrete material for 3D printing and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Concrete material for 3D printing and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111439974B
CN111439974B CN201811631557.XA CN201811631557A CN111439974B CN 111439974 B CN111439974 B CN 111439974B CN 201811631557 A CN201811631557 A CN 201811631557A CN 111439974 B CN111439974 B CN 111439974B
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percent
water reducing
reducing agent
cement
printing
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CN111439974A (en
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白明科
赵健
李海宏
胡元元
马慧
兰栋
杨国开
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Yaobai Special Cement Technology Development Co ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B28/00Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements
    • C04B28/02Compositions of mortars, concrete or artificial stone, containing inorganic binders or the reaction product of an inorganic and an organic binder, e.g. polycarboxylate cements containing hydraulic cements other than calcium sulfates
    • C04B28/06Aluminous cements
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B33ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY
    • B33YADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, i.e. MANUFACTURING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL [3-D] OBJECTS BY ADDITIVE DEPOSITION, ADDITIVE AGGLOMERATION OR ADDITIVE LAYERING, e.g. BY 3-D PRINTING, STEREOLITHOGRAPHY OR SELECTIVE LASER SINTERING
    • B33Y70/00Materials specially adapted for additive manufacturing
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2111/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone or mixtures to prepare them, characterised by specific function, property or use
    • C04B2111/00034Physico-chemical characteristics of the mixtures
    • C04B2111/00181Mixtures specially adapted for three-dimensional printing (3DP), stereo-lithography or prototyping
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2201/00Mortars, concrete or artificial stone characterised by specific physical values
    • C04B2201/50Mortars, concrete or artificial stone characterised by specific physical values for the mechanical strength

Abstract

The invention discloses a concrete material for 3D printing, which relates to the field of building materials and comprises the following components: 20 to 40 percent of cement, 40 to 60 percent of sandstone, 1 to 8 percent of quartz powder, 2 to 8 percent of silica fume, 10 to 20 percent of water, 0.01 to 0.15 percent of water reducing agent, 0.1 to 0.8 percent of fiber, 0.1 to 0.8 percent of retarder, 0.02 to 0.2 percent of additive and 0.1 to 2 percent of composite stabilizer. The preparation method of the concrete material comprises the steps of mixing powder materials such as cement, sand stone, quartz powder, silica fume, a retarder, an additive, a composite stabilizer and the like, adding fibers, and stirring uniformly to obtain a powder mixture A; preparing a water reducing agent aqueous solution; and uniformly mixing the powder mixture and the water reducing agent aqueous solution to prepare the concrete material for 3D printing. The material prepared by the embodiment of the invention has proper fluidity, shorter setting time and higher initial hardness.

Description

Concrete material for 3D printing and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of building materials, in particular to a concrete material for 3D printing and a preparation method thereof.
Background
With the continuous improvement of the technological level, the 3D technology makes obvious progress, small articles can be printed, and the technology can also thoroughly subvert the traditional building industry. In the construction industry, the "contour process" of 3D printing technology is mainly applied, where a nozzle extrudes construction material at a designated location according to the instructions of a design drawing, and an object is constructed by layer-by-layer printing. At present, raw materials are important reasons limiting the development of 3D printing industrialization. Although many building materials are available in the construction industry, the number of building materials suitable for 3D printing technology is very large.
In the field of 3D printing buildings, concrete printing materials are mostly applied and combined with a profile process, but at present, more problems still exist. One is that the structural properties of the printing material used are relatively low. 3D printing technique needs to pass through pipeline with the printing material and through printing shower nozzle blowout could print the shaping, consequently, has higher requirement to the plasticity and the mobility of printing material, if mobility is too big, then can lead to printing the unable pile up of in-process material at 3D, if mobility undersize, then can lead to the jam of 3D printing shower nozzle. Secondly, the solidification and hardening speed of the printing material is slow, and the time consumption is long. At present, the existing concrete material has long bonding time, the initial setting time usually reaches six to ten hours, and the final setting time is about twenty-four hours, so that for 3D printing buildings, the material needs to be quickly set in a short time to effectively perform subsequent work. Thirdly, the initial hardness of the printed material is low. The 3D printing technology requires that the printing material has high pressure resistance and fracture resistance at the initial stage of preparation, and the existing 3D printing concrete material for buildings is still lack of strength.
Therefore, those skilled in the art are devoted to develop a method for preparing a concrete material for 3D printing, so that the prepared concrete material has appropriate fluidity, higher plasticity, shorter setting time and higher initial hardness, and can solve the problems of difficult molding of the printing material, too long setting waiting time, collapse, distortion and deformation of the printing material after the printing material is placed and the like existing in the existing 3D printing building concrete material.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above defects in the prior art, the technical problem to be solved by the present invention is to provide a method for preparing a concrete material for 3D printing, so that the prepared concrete material has suitable fluidity, high plasticity, short setting time and high initial hardness, and can solve the problems of difficult molding of the printed material, long setting waiting time, collapse, distortion and deformation of the printed material after the printed material is dropped, and the like existing in the existing 3D printing building concrete material.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a concrete material for 3D printing, wherein the concrete material comprises: 20 to 40 percent of cement, 40 to 60 percent of sandstone, 1 to 8 percent of quartz powder, 2 to 8 percent of silica fume, 10 to 20 percent of water, 0.01 to 0.15 percent of water reducing agent, 0.1 to 0.8 percent of fiber, 0.1 to 0.8 percent of retarder, 0.02 to 0.2 percent of additive and 0.1 to 2 percent of composite stabilizer.
The invention also provides a preparation method of the concrete material for 3D printing, which comprises the following steps:
s100, mixing powder materials such as cement, sand stone, quartz powder, silica fume, a retarder, an additive, a composite stabilizer and the like, adding fibers, and stirring uniformly to obtain a powder mixture;
s200, mixing water and a water reducing agent in corresponding formula amount to obtain a water reducing agent aqueous solution;
s300, uniformly mixing the powder mixture and a water reducing agent aqueous solution to obtain a concrete material for 3D printing;
s400, performing performance test on the concrete material.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1) the silica fume and the quartz powder used in the embodiment of the invention can increase the viscosity of the powder mixture, can effectively reduce the fluidity of the material, and ensure that the concrete material has adequate fluidity and sufficient strength;
2) the fiber used in the embodiment of the invention has good tensile strength, can effectively inhibit the phenomena of shrinkage and cracking of concrete caused by surface moisture evaporation on one hand, and improves the tensile strength of the concrete material on the other hand;
3) in the process of preparing the concrete material for 3D printing, the components in the raw material formula are matched with each other, the synergistic effect is realized, the traditional additive is not limited, and a new thought is provided for the selection of the building material in specific building engineering.
The conception, the specific structure and the technical effects of the present invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings to fully understand the objects, the features and the effects of the present invention.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a flow chart of a method of making a preferred embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical contents of the preferred embodiments of the present invention will be more clearly and easily understood by referring to the drawings attached to the specification. The present invention may be embodied in many different forms of embodiments and the scope of the invention is not limited to the embodiments set forth herein.
According to the concrete raw material for preparing the concrete for 3D printing, provided by the invention, silicate cement and sulphoaluminate cement are used as a cementing material, sand stone is used as an aggregate, silica fume and quartz powder are added to increase the viscosity of the cementing material and reduce the fluidity of the material, and meanwhile, according to the particle size distribution of the silica fume and the quartz powder, the porosity of powder is reduced, and the compactness and the strength of the cementing material are improved. The fibers are added after uniform stirring, so that the phenomena of shrinkage, cracking and the like of the material caused by surface moisture evaporation can be inhibited, and the tensile strength of the material can be enhanced. And then, the additive and the composite stabilizer are added, so that the whole material is more exquisite and smooth, the drying shrinkage of the material is overcome, and the cracking and the penetration of the material are prevented. And adding the water reducing agent aqueous solution with the corresponding formula amount into the material, and uniformly stirring to obtain the concrete material.
The concrete raw material for 3D printing comprises 20-40% of cement, 40-60% of sand, 1-8% of quartz powder, 2-8% of silica fume, 10-20% of water, 0.01-0.15% of water reducing agent, 0.1-0.8% of fiber, 0.1-0.8% of retarder, 0.02-0.2% of additive and 0.1-2% of composite stabilizer, wherein the fiber comprises organic fiber and basalt fiber; the cement comprises one or two combinations of Portland cement and sulphoaluminate cement which are both 42.5-grade in label; the specific surface area of the silica fume is 14000m2/kg-19000m2/kg,SiO2The content of (1) is 90-95%, and the activity index is 110-119; the specific surface area of the quartz powder is 300m2/kg-550m2Per kg, density 2.35m3/kg-3.05m3Per kg; the sand stone is well-graded, and the particle size range of the sand stone is 1mm-3 mm; the retarder is one or a combination of more of citric acid, tartaric acid, sodium gluconate and borax; the water reducing agent is a polycarboxylic acid type water reducing agent, the solid content of the water reducing agent is 20-40%, and the water reducing rate is 35-50%.
As shown in fig. 1, a flow chart of a manufacturing method according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention includes the following steps:
s100, mixing powder materials such as cement, sand stone, quartz powder, silica fume, retarder, additive, composite stabilizer and the like, adding fibers, and stirring uniformly to obtain a powder mixture
The powder material and the fiber are added in two times, the powder material is uniformly mixed, and the fiber is added for stirring to reduce the agglomeration phenomenon of the material; the composite stabilizer is one or a combination of more of materials such as high molecular polymer, cellulose ether thixotropic agent and the like, and the powder mixture comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 20% -40%, sandstone: 40% -60%, quartz powder: 1% -8%, silica fume: 2% -8%, fiber: 0.1% -0.8%, retarder: 0.1% -0.8%, additive: 0.02% -0.2%, composite stabilizer: 0.1% -2%;
s200, mixing water and a water reducing agent with corresponding formula amount to obtain a water reducing agent aqueous solution
Wherein, the water reducing agent water solution is added in two times to improve the workability of the concrete material; the water reducing agent water solution comprises the following components in percentage by mass: 10% -20% of water reducing agent: 0.01% -0.15%;
s300, uniformly mixing the powder mixture and the water reducing agent aqueous solution to obtain the concrete material for 3D printing
S400, carrying out performance test on the concrete material
The test comprises the steps of testing the setting time of the material of the embodiment according to the national standard 'standard of testing methods for the performance of common concrete mixtures' (GB/T50080-2002), testing the compressive strength and the bending strength of the material of the embodiment according to the standard of testing methods for the mechanical performance of common concrete '(GB/T50081-2002), and testing the fluidity of the material of the embodiment according to the national standard' method for measuring the fluidity of cement mortar '(GB _ T2419-2005) and testing the standard of testing methods for the long-term performance and the durability of common concrete' (GB/T50082-2009) to perform the shrinkage test of the embodiment.
The following examples are intended to specifically illustrate the embodiments and effects of the present invention.
Example 1 preparation of concrete Material for 3D printing without addition of retarder
In the embodiment, ordinary portland cement, sulphoaluminate cement, gravel, quartz powder, silica fume, water, a water reducing agent, fibers, an additive and a composite stabilizer are uniformly mixed according to a certain proportion, wherein the ordinary portland cement is 28.7 percent, the sulphoaluminate cement is 4.3 percent, the gravel is 46.6 percent, the quartz powder is 3.5 percent, the silica fume is 3.5 percent, the water is 12.4 percent, the water reducing agent is 0.1 percent, the fibers are 0.4 percent, the additive is 0.1 percent and the composite stabilizer is 0.6 percent; wherein, the Portland cement and the sulphoaluminate cement are both in 42.5 strength grades; wherein the silica fume specific surface area is 17000m2Per kg, 92.5% SiO2, activity index of 114; wherein the specific surface area of the quartz powder is 350m2/kg, 99.5% SiO 2; wherein the sand is well-graded sand, and the particle size range of the sand is 0mm-3 mm; wherein the solid content of the water reducing agent is 20-40%, and the water reducing rate is 35-50%; wherein the organic fiber has a length of 6mm, a diameter of 15.1 μm, and a density of 1.29g/cm3The tensile strength is 1830MPa, the technical requirements of GB/T21120-2007 standard are met, the length of the basalt fiber is 9mm, the diameter is 17.4 mu m, the tensile strength is 2180MPa, and the technical requirements of GB/T25045-2010 standard are met; in this embodiment, the portland cement, the sulphoaluminate cement, the gravel, the silica fume, the quartz powder, the admixture and the fiber in the formula amount are stirred to obtain a powder mixture, and then the water reducing agent aqueous solution in the formula amount is added to the powder mixture, and the mixture is uniformly mixed and stirred to obtain the concrete material.
Example 2 addition of retarder to prepare concrete Material for 3D printing
In the embodiment, ordinary portland cement, sulphoaluminate cement, gravel, quartz powder, silica fume, a retarder, water, a water reducing agent, fibers, an additive and a composite stabilizer are uniformly mixed according to a certain proportion, wherein the ordinary portland cement is 25.5 percent, the sulphoaluminate cement is 7.7 percent, the gravel is 46.4 percent, the quartz powder is 3.5 percent, the silica fume is 3.5 percent, the retarder is 0.1 percent, the water is 12.4 percent, the water reducing agent is 0.1 percent, the fibers are 0.4 percent, the additive is 0.1 percent and the composite stabilizer is 0.6 percent; wherein, the Portland cement and the sulphoaluminate cement are both in 42.5 strength grades; wherein the silica fume specific surface area is 17000m2Per kg, 92.5% SiO2, activity index of 114; wherein the specific surface area of the quartz powder is 350m2/kg, 99.5% SiO 2; wherein the sand is well-graded sand, and the particle size range of the sand is 0mm-3 mm; wherein the solid content of the water reducing agent is 20-40%, and the water reducing rate is 35-50%; wherein the organic fiber has a length of 6mm, a diameter of 15.1 μm, and a density of 1.29g/cm3The tensile strength is 1830MPa, the technical requirements of GB/T21120-2007 standard are met, the length of the basalt fiber is 9mm, the diameter is 17.4 mu m, the tensile strength is 2180MPa, and the technical requirements of GB/T25045-2010 standard are met; in the embodiment, the Portland cement, the sulphoaluminate cement, the sandstone, the silica fume, the quartz powder, the retarder, the admixture and the fibers in the formula are stirred to obtain a powder mixture, and then the water reducing agent aqueous solution in the formula is added to be mixed and stirred uniformly to obtain the concrete material.
Example 3 preparation of a concrete Material for 3D printing by compounding two kinds of cements without adding a retarder
In the embodiment, ordinary portland cement, sulphoaluminate cement, gravel, quartz powder, silica fume, water, a water reducing agent, fibers, an additive and a composite stabilizer are uniformly mixed according to a certain proportion, wherein the ordinary portland cement is 6.6 percent, the sulphoaluminate cement is 25.2 percent, the gravel is 46.3 percent, the quartz powder is 3.5 percent, the silica fume is 3.5 percent, the water is 12.7 percent, the water reducing agent is 0.1 percent, the fibers are 0.4 percent, the additive is 0.1 percent and the composite stabilizer is 0.6 percent; wherein, the Portland cement and the sulphoaluminate cement are both in 42.5 strength grade, and the materials are added after the two kinds of cement are compounded; wherein the silica fume specific surface area is 17000m2/kg,SiO2 is 92.5% and the activity index is 114; wherein the specific surface area of the quartz powder is 350m2/kg, 99.5% SiO 2; wherein the sand is well-graded sand, and the particle size range of the sand is 0mm-3 mm; wherein the solid content of the water reducing agent is 20-40%, and the water reducing rate is 35-50%; wherein the organic fiber has a length of 6mm, a diameter of 15.1 μm, and a density of 1.29g/cm3The tensile strength is 1830MPa, the technical requirements of GB/T21120-2007 standard are met, the length of the basalt fiber is 9mm, the diameter is 17.4 mu m, the tensile strength is 2180MPa, and the technical requirements of GB/T25045-2010 standard are met; in the embodiment, the concrete material is obtained by stirring the sandstone, the silica fume, the quartz powder, the additive, the fiber, the compounded portland cement and the sulphoaluminate cement according to the formula ratio to obtain a powder mixture, then adding the water reducing agent aqueous solution according to the formula ratio, and uniformly mixing and stirring the mixture.
Example 4 selection of sulphoaluminate cements as a Single Cement Source for the preparation of concrete Material for 3D printing
In the embodiment, sulphoaluminate cement, sandstone, quartz powder, silica fume, water, retarder, water reducer, fiber, additive and composite stabilizer are uniformly mixed according to a certain proportion, wherein the sulphoaluminate cement is 32.7 percent, the sandstone is 46.1 percent, the quartz powder is 3.5 percent, the silica fume is 3.5 percent, the water is 12.9 percent, the retarder is 0.2 percent, the water reducer is 0.1 percent, the fiber is 0.4 percent, the additive is 0.1 percent and the composite stabilizer is 0.6 percent; wherein the sulphoaluminate cement is 42.5 strength grade; wherein the silica fume specific surface area is 17000m2Per kg, 92.5% SiO2, activity index of 114; wherein the specific surface area of the quartz powder is 350m2/kg, 99.5% SiO 2; wherein the sand is well-graded sand, and the particle size range of the sand is 0mm-3 mm; wherein the solid content of the water reducing agent is 20-40%, and the water reducing rate is 35-50%; wherein the organic fiber has a length of 6mm, a diameter of 15.1 μm, and a density of 1.29g/cm3The tensile strength is 1830MPa, the technical requirements of GB/T21120-2007 standard are met, the length of the basalt fiber is 9mm, the diameter is 17.4 mu m, the tensile strength is 2180MPa, and the technical requirements of GB/T25045-2010 standard are met; in the embodiment, the sulphoaluminate cement, the sandstone, the silica fume, the quartz powder, the retarder, the admixture and the fiber with the formula amount are stirred to obtainAnd (3) adding the water reducing agent aqueous solution with the formula amount into the powder mixture, and uniformly mixing and stirring to obtain the concrete material.
The criteria and methods for measuring the relevant properties of the above examples 1-4 are: the material of the embodiment is subjected to a setting time test according to national standard ' standard of testing methods for the performance of common concrete mixtures ' (GB/T50080-2002), a compression strength test and a bending strength test according to standard of testing methods for the mechanical properties of common concrete ' (GB/T50081-2002), the fluidity of the material of the embodiment is tested according to national standard ' method for measuring fluidity of cement mortar ' (GB _ T2419-2005), and a shrinkage test is performed according to test specification ' standard of testing methods for the long-term performance and the durability of common concrete ' (GB/T50082-2009).
The results of performance testing and expansion and contraction performance testing of the concrete materials for 3D printing prepared in examples 1 to 4 are shown in tables 1 and 2:
table 1 concrete material performance test table for 3D printing
It can be seen from Table 1 that example 1 has a longer initial setting time and final setting time than those of examples 2 to 3 without addition of a retarder, i.e., the retarder can relatively shorten the initial setting time and the final setting time; example 2 is higher in compressive strength and flexural strength than the other examples; the materials prepared in examples 1-4 all exhibited better flowability from the standpoint of fluidity.
TABLE 2 expansion and contraction Properties of concrete materials for 3D printing
As can be seen from table 2, the concrete material for 3D printing prepared in example 4 has the lowest shrinkage of 3D, 7D, 14D, 28D and 56D, and further the material prepared in this example has better integrity when printing a member, and is not easy to collapse, warp, deform and the like.
The foregoing detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the invention has been presented. It should be understood that numerous modifications and variations could be devised by those skilled in the art in light of the present teachings without departing from the inventive concepts. Therefore, the technical solutions available to those skilled in the art through logic analysis, reasoning and limited experiments based on the prior art according to the concept of the present invention should be within the scope of protection defined by the claims.

Claims (1)

1. The concrete material for 3D printing is characterized by comprising the following components in percentage by weight: 20 to 40 percent of cement, 40 to 60 percent of sandstone, 1 to 8 percent of quartz powder, 2 to 8 percent of silica fume, 10 to 20 percent of water, 0.01 to 0.15 percent of water reducing agent, 0.1 to 0.8 percent of fiber, 0.1 to 0.8 percent of retarder, 0.02 to 0.2 percent of additive and 0.1 to 2 percent of composite stabilizer;
wherein the cement comprises one or two combinations of Portland cement and sulphoaluminate cement, and the marks of the cement are above 42.5-grade cement;
the specific surface area of the silica fume is 14000m2/kg-19000m2/kg,SiO2The content of (1) is 90-95%, and the activity index is 110-119;
the specific surface area of the quartz powder is 300m2/kg-550m2/kg;
The sand stone is well-graded, and the particle size range of the sand stone is 1mm-3 mm;
the retarder is one or a combination of more of citric acid, tartaric acid, sodium gluconate and borax; the additive is one of calcium oxide expanding agent, calcium sulphoaluminate expanding agent and calcium sulphoaluminate-calcium oxide composite expanding agent;
the water reducing agent is a polycarboxylic acid type water reducing agent, the solid content of the water reducing agent is 20-40%, and the water reducing rate is 35-50%;
the fibers comprise organic fibers and basalt fibers;
the preparation method for the concrete material for 3D printing comprises the following steps:
s100, mixing powder materials such as cement, sand stone, quartz powder, silica fume, a retarder, an additive and a composite stabilizer, adding fibers, and stirring uniformly to obtain a powder mixture;
s200, mixing water and a water reducing agent in corresponding formula amount to obtain a water reducing agent aqueous solution;
s300, uniformly mixing the powder mixture and a water reducing agent aqueous solution to obtain a concrete material for 3D printing;
s400, performing performance test on the concrete material;
wherein, the composite stabilizer in the step S100 is any one of a high molecular polymer and a cellulose ether thixotropic agent.
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