CN111406589A - High-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method - Google Patents

High-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111406589A
CN111406589A CN202010392668.0A CN202010392668A CN111406589A CN 111406589 A CN111406589 A CN 111406589A CN 202010392668 A CN202010392668 A CN 202010392668A CN 111406589 A CN111406589 A CN 111406589A
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China
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parts
seed
yield
rape
planting
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CN202010392668.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈国栋
樊文霞
田玉刚
赵龙
万素梅
翟云龙
高山
吴全忠
李玲
李鸿
马希武
樊志龙
彭进城
邹春雷
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Tarim University
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Tarim University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/15Leaf crops, e.g. lettuce or spinach 
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C7/00Sowing
    • A01C7/002Dibble seeders
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0268Mats or sheets, e.g. nets or fabrics
    • A01G13/0275Films
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D1/00Fertilisers containing potassium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/28Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture specially adapted for farming

Abstract

The invention discloses a high-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method, which comprises the following steps: step one, mulching a film, arranging each ridge with the width of 140cm and the width of a ditch of 20cm, and covering each ridge with a black mulching film with the width of 145cm and the thickness of 0.01 mm; and step two, sowing, namely sowing 7 rows of rapeseeds on each membrane by using a hill planter at 4 days in the month of 5 or 2-3 days before and after the month of 5, controlling 2-3 seeds in each hill planter, controlling the sowing depth to be 2-3cm, the row spacing to be 20cm, the hole spacing to be 15cm, and the seedling protection density at the later stage to be 45000 plants/mu, and harvesting at 18 days in the month of 9 or 2-3 days before and after the month. The invention provides a high-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method, which is improved to adapt to the planting of rape in Gansu areas, so that the acre yield can reach 251.1 kg/mu, the rape can be used as the previous crop of other economic crops for rotation, the planting process can be matched with the rainfall in Gansu and the local sunshine, and the requirements of the whole process on the fertilizer amount and the water content in the rape planting process can be met.

Description

High-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method
Technical Field
The present invention relates to a method for use in crop planting situations. More particularly, the invention relates to a high-yield and high-efficiency planting method of rape used in the planting situation of rape in Gansu region.
Background
The rape is the most main oil crop in China, and the low content of saturated fatty acid is the special quality of high-quality rape and the healthier edible oil. The organic acid secreted by the rape root can change the phosphorus which is difficult to dissolve in the soil into the quick-acting phosphorus, so the rape can be used as a good previous crop of general crops and is a pioneer crop for cultivating land and improving soil. In agricultural production, the method is usually applied to crop rotation or intercropping with rice, wheat, corn, potato, cotton and the like, and soil is poor in Gansu areas, so that the method meets the requirement of economic crop growth and needs to improve the soil in the planting process so as to adapt to the requirement of crop growth, and meanwhile, effective planting measures are taken to promote the development of rape production, so that the economic benefit is maximized.
Disclosure of Invention
An object of the present invention is to solve at least the above problems and/or disadvantages and to provide at least the advantages described hereinafter.
To achieve these objects and other advantages in accordance with the purpose of the invention, there is provided a high-yield and high-efficiency planting method of rape, comprising:
step one, mulching a film, arranging each ridge with the width of 140cm and the width of a ditch of 20cm, and covering each ridge with a black mulching film with the width of 145cm and the thickness of 0.01 mm;
and step two, sowing, namely sowing 7 rows of rapeseeds on each membrane by using a hill planter at 4 days in the month of 5 or 2-3 days before and after the month of 5, controlling 2-3 seeds in each hill planter, controlling the sowing depth to be 2-3cm, the row spacing to be 20cm, the hole spacing to be 15cm, and the seedling protection density at the later stage to be 45000 plants/mu, and harvesting at 18 days in the month of 9 or 2-3 days before and after the month of 9.
Preferably, in the step one, a land preparation operation before film coating is further included;
wherein the land preparation is configured to adopt a subsoiler to carry out deep ploughing or deep scarification and turning on the land, apply base fertilizer and prepare the land into furrows after 5-15 days of sunning after deep ploughing or deep scarification;
the base fertilizer is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
280 parts of decomposed farmyard manure, 70-120 parts of fermented lees, 80-100 parts of plant ash, 150 parts of fermented sugar residues, 50-85 parts of oil cake, 75-94 parts of crushed rape seed hulls, 1-2 parts of microbial leavening agent, 35-50 parts of wormwood powder, 20-35 parts of pine needle powder, 30-38 parts of cypress leaf powder, 35-45 parts of bunge corydalis herb powder and 15-23 parts of soil or coal humic acid.
Preferably, the base fertilizer is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
265 parts of decomposed farmyard manure, 115 parts of fermented wine residues, 97 parts of plant ash, 137 parts of fermented sugar residues, 80 parts of oil cake, 85 parts of crushed rape seed hulls, 1.5 parts of microbial leavening agent, 48 parts of wormwood powder, 33 parts of pine needle powder, 34 parts of cypress leaf powder, 42 parts of bunge corydalis herb powder and 20 parts of soil or coal humic acid.
Preferably, the deep ploughing depth in the deep ploughing operation is controlled to be more than 45 cm;
the depth of the groove between the ridges is set to 5-15 cm;
watering each furrow before mulching to keep the water content of the soil at about 35-40%.
Preferably, the first step further comprises a rotary tillage fertilization operation before land preparation and furrow formation;
wherein, the rotary tillage fertilization is to carry out rotary tillage operation on deeply ploughed land by adopting a rotary cultivator, and simultaneously applying N7.1kg and P in each mu2O55.2kg、K2O1.1 kg of base fertilizer.
Preferably, the hill planter is configured to include:
a frame connected to the tractor;
a plurality of seed boxes arranged on the rack;
a plurality of hill-drop assemblies cooperating with the various pods;
the stirring blade is arranged in the seed box and is in an arc structure with a notch on the surface, the notch is provided with a seed poking sheet at the position matched with the bottom of the seed box, and the seed poking sheet is in clearance fit with the bottom of the seed box;
the hole sowing assembly is configured to include:
hollow cavity-fixing tubes corresponding to the front and rear space positions of various boxes;
the first hydraulic mechanism is arranged on the rack and is in transmission connection with each hole positioning mechanism;
wherein the hollow cavity-positioning pipe is configured into an upper section, a middle section and a lower section which are detachable, and the diameter of the free end of the lower section is configured into 2-3 cm;
and a second hydraulic mechanism is arranged in the middle section, and a bulldozing disk matched with the inner side wall of the lower section is arranged at the power output end of the second hydraulic mechanism.
Preferably, the seed outlet pipe of each box is arranged behind the hole positioning pipe;
the rotary seed discharging pieces are respectively pivoted in each seed outlet pipe;
electromagnets are arranged above various placing positions of various seed outlets, and metal sheets capable of being adsorbed are arranged on the surfaces of various seed placing sheets corresponding to the electromagnets.
Preferably, the bulldozer disk is configured as a disk structure which is matched with the inner side wall of the lower section;
the inner side wall of the lower section is longitudinally provided with a plurality of guide grooves, and the periphery of the bulldozing disk is provided with a plurality of lugs matched with the guide grooves.
Preferably, the hill planter is configured to further comprise:
the scraping plate is arranged behind each hill-drop assembly;
the side, matched with the mulching film, of each scraper is provided with an arc-shaped bend, and each scraper and the mulching film form a preset angle in space;
the connecting ends of the scrapers are respectively connected with the frame in a pin joint mode, and an elastic element is arranged between each scraper and the frame;
the scrapers have a mating step structure in the direction of travel of the tractor.
The invention at least comprises the following beneficial effects: firstly, the invention improves the planting method, so that the planting method can adapt to the planting of rape in Gansu areas, the acre yield can reach 251.1 kg/mu, the planting method can be used as the previous crop of other economic crops for rotation, the planting process can be matched with the rainfall in Gansu and the local sunshine, and the requirements of the whole process of rape on the fertilizer amount and the water amount are met.
Secondly, the invention ensures that the fertilizer amount requirement of the whole growth cycle of the rape can be met by controlling the fertilizer amount in the planting process.
Thirdly, the film mulching is completed before seeding, so that the traditional hill planter needs to be improved to meet the needs of the film mulching on the hill planting, further the damage to the film is reduced, and the needs of the film on the water retention of the soil in the whole growth period are met.
Additional advantages, objects, and features of the invention will be set forth in part in the description which follows and in part will become apparent to those having ordinary skill in the art upon examination of the following or may be learned from practice of the invention.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a hill planter according to one embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic sectional top view of a seed box according to another embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further described in detail below with reference to the attached drawings so that those skilled in the art can implement the invention by referring to the description.
It will be understood that terms such as "having," "including," and "comprising," as used herein, do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other elements or groups thereof.
It is to be understood that in the description of the present invention, the terms indicating orientation or positional relationship are based on the orientation or positional relationship shown in the drawings, and are used only for convenience in describing the present invention and for simplification of the description, and do not indicate or imply that the device or element referred to must have a specific orientation, be constructed in a specific orientation, and be operated, and thus, should not be construed as limiting the present invention. Furthermore, the terms "first" and "second" are used for descriptive purposes only and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that, unless otherwise specifically stated or limited, the terms "mounted," "disposed," "sleeved/connected," "connected," and the like are used in a broad sense, and for example, "connected," may be fixedly connected, detachably connected, integrally connected, mechanically connected, electrically connected, directly connected, indirectly connected through an intermediate medium, and connected between two elements.
According to the realization form of the high-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method, the method comprises the following steps:
step one, mulching a film, arranging each ridge with the width of 140cm and the width of a ditch of 20cm, and covering each ridge with a black mulching film with the width of 145cm and the thickness of 0.01 mm;
and step two, sowing, namely sowing 7 rows of rapeseeds on each membrane by using a hill planter at 4 days in the month of 5 or 2-3 days before and after the month of 5, controlling 2-3 seeds in each hill planter, controlling the sowing depth to be 2-3cm, the row spacing to be 20cm, the hole spacing to be 15cm, and the seedling protection density at the later stage to be 45000 plants/mu, and harvesting at 18 days in the month of 9 or 2-3 days before and after the month of 9. By adopting the planting method, the beneficial effects of the method are verified through the following relevant tests:
1. density test
The test method adopts large-area planting, the planting area of each large area is 1 mu, no repetition is arranged, 4 treatments are arranged, and seeds adopt Huaxie No. 1:
1, planting 5 rows on each membrane, wherein the row spacing is 28cm, the hole spacing is 15cm, and the seedling keeping density is 15880 holes/mu (31760 plants);
2, planting 6 rows on each film, wherein the row spacing is 23.3cm, the hole spacing is 15cm, and the seedling keeping density is 19500 holes/mu (39000 plants);
treating 3, planting 7 rows on each membrane, wherein the row spacing is 20cm, the hole spacing is 15cm, and the seedling keeping density is 22500 holes/mu (45000 plants);
and 4, treating, planting 8 rows on each membrane, wherein the row spacing is 17.5cm, the hole spacing is 15cm, and the seedling keeping density is 29100 holes/mu (58300 plants).
Results and analysis: (1) influence of mulching film hole sowing density on growth period
TABLE 1 Effect of different seeding densities on Huaxin No. 1 growth period
As can be seen from Table 1, under different sowing densities, the emergence periods of the rape variety Hua Xie No. 1 are consistent and are all 5 months and 12 days, while the flowering period and the mature period are advanced with the increase of the sowing density, the full growth period is slightly shortened, wherein the treatment 4 blooms firstly and is 7 months and 10 days; treatment 3 later in flowering, delayed by 1d compared to treatment 4; treatment 1 and treatment 2 florescence were at the latest, 2 days later than treatment 4; treatments 3 and 4 were first mature, both 9 months and 16 days; 2 treatments, with a delay in maturation period of 1d compared to treatments 3 and 4; treatment 1 matured the latest, 4d later than treatments 3 and 4, the shortest of the total reproductive life being treatment 3 and treatment 4, both 127d, significantly shorter than treatment 1; treatment 2 had a growth period 1d longer than treatments 3 and 4; treatment 1 had the longest growth period, significantly more than treatments 3 and 4 days more than treatments 3 and 4.
(2) Influence of mulching film hole sowing density on main agronomic characters
TABLE 2 influence of different seeding densities on Huaxin No. 1 major agronomic traits
As can be seen from Table 2, the planting density was different, the plant height, the number of effective branches per time, the number of effective siliques per plant, the number of siliques and the thousand kernel weight were also different, wherein the plant height of treatment 3 was significantly higher than that of other treatments, and was 185.4 cm; 2 times of treatment, shorter by 5.2cm than treatment 3, significantly higher than treatments 1 and 4; treatments 1 and 4 were shorter than treatment 3 by 11.4cm to 13.8 cm.
Branch site treatment 4 was significantly higher than treatments 1 and 3, at 96 cm; treatment 2 the branch site was slightly lower than treatment 4; the branch site was the lowest at treatment 3, only 68.3cm, and 27.7cm shorter than treatment 4. Treatment 3 had the highest number of effective branches at one time, 6.2, significantly more than treatment 4, and 1.3, 0.2, and 1.9 more than treatments 1, 2, and 4, respectively.
The number of effective siliques per plant was the greatest for treatment 3, significantly greater than the other treatments, 146.5, 41.8, 15, 55.2 more than treatments 1, 2 and 4, respectively. The silique number treatment 3 was significantly greater than treatments 1 and 4, being 23.7 more, 2.8 more, 1.6 more and 3 more than treatments 1, 2 and 4 respectively. Thousand kernel weight was the heaviest of treatment 3, but the differences between treatments were not significant.
(3) Influence of mulching film hole sowing density on yield
TABLE 3 Effect of different seeding Density on the yield of Huaxin No. 1
As can be seen from Table 3, the seeding rate and yield varied. With the increase of seeding amount, the yield is in the trend of first rising and then falling. The yield is the highest when 3 mu is processed, which is remarkably higher than other processes, and is 252.3 kg/mu, the yield is increased by 28.85kg compared with 2(ck), and the yield is increased by 12.91%; treatment 1 and treatment 4 yields were significantly lower than treatment 2(ck), with the lowest yield per mu for treatment 4, a yield reduction of 27.94kg, which is up to 12.50% over treatment 2 (ck).
In conclusion, the research result of the rape variety Huaxie No. 1 mulching film hole sowing density test shows that the yield per mu is the highest when the suitable sowing density is 20cm of row spacing, 15cm of hole spacing and 45000 seedlings per mu, and is 252.3 kg.
2. Fertilizer testing
2.1 "3414" field fertilizer efficiency test
2.1.1 varieties to be tested
The tested rape variety is Hua Xie No. 1.
2.1.2 Fertilizer tested
N46% of nitrogenous fertilizer (N), urea and P2O5) Heavy calcium contains P2O512% of potash fertilizer (K)2O) Potassium sulfate containing K2O51%。
2.1.3 test methods
The test was designed with 3 factors of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, 4 levels per factor, plus a blank for a total of 14 treatments. No fertilization was performed at level 0, local recommended fertilization level at level 2, 0.5 at level 1-2, and 1.5 at level 2-3 (this level is the level of excess fertilization). The experiment is repeated for 3 times, the block groups are randomly arranged, the net area of a small zone is 30 square meters (3 square meters), the fertilization is uniform, and the fertilization in the test field is completed by the same person. The specific fertilization protocol is shown in table 1. The experiment is completed in the same day according to the principle of 'most suitable' and 'consistent' and the fertilization, film covering, seeding, irrigation and weeding of the residential quarter are completed in the same day. Sowing in 5 months and 3 days in 2014, and carrying out film mulching and soil covering by using a four-wheel tractor to drag a film mulching and soil covering hill planter to carry out film paving, soil covering and hill planting. The sowing depth is generally 2-3cm, the row spacing is 17.5cm, the hole spacing is 15cm, the sowing density is 29100 holes/mu, and 45000 seedlings are kept per mu. The 14 treatments are randomly arranged, the peripheral protection lines are not less than 1.5m, irrigation ditches and drainage ditches are arranged among the blocks, and the irrigation is carried out in the subdistricts by adopting a drip irrigation mode under the film. Harvesting in 17 days at 9 months, randomly sampling 20 rape plants in each cell for testing, and separately collecting and counting the yield of each cell.
2.1.4 Effect of "3414" on yield
TABLE 4 Effect of rape "3414" on yield
Unit: kg/667m2
As shown in Table 4, when phosphorus and potassium were at a 2-level, the yields in the nitrogen-free zone (treatment 2), the low-nitrogen zone (treatment 3), the medium-nitrogen zone (treatment 6) and the high-nitrogen zone (treatment 11) were 157.3kg/667m, respectively2、 235.6kg/667m2、245.9、240.2kg/667m2. When the nitrogen and potassium levels are 2, the yield of the phosphorus-free zone (treatment 4), the low phosphorus zone (treatment 5), the medium phosphorus zone (treatment 6) and the high phosphorus zone (treatment 7) is 205.7kg/667m2、235.7kg/667m2、245.9kg/667m2、244.8kg/667 m2. No potassium zone (treatment) when nitrogen and phosphorus are at 2 level8) The yields in the low potassium zone (treatment 9), the medium potassium zone (treatment 6) and the high potassium zone (treatment 10) were 228.5kg/667m2、241.2kg/667 m2、245.9kg/667m2、238.5kg/667m2. The test result shows that the yield of each treatment under a certain fertilization level increases along with the increase of the fertilization amount, and the yield decreases along with the increase of the fertilization amount after the yield increases to a certain degree, which indicates that the law of 'reward decrement' exists when the excessive fertilization is carried out.
2.1.5 soil contribution analysis
Test treatment 6 the yield of the unfertilized area was 58.1% of the yield of the medium fertilized area (142.8/245.9) compared to the yield of treatment 1 (i.e., the unfertilized test area). The results show that the rape planted on the soil has higher dependence on fertilizer than on soil nutrient, and the fertilizer application and yield increase effects are very obvious.
Through experimental data, the following regression equation is established by using a '3414' data analysis program in the soil testing formula fertilization data management system:
Y=141.0862+15.5039N+14.8490P+15.5233K+0.8789NP+5.9580NK-4.0267PK-1.7985N2-1.4818P2-16.1444K2
correlation coefficient R is 0.9814, significance F value is 11.6221 & gtF0.05The difference reaches a very significant level when the total weight is 5.9988. According to the ratio of 4.7 yuan/kg of nitrogenous fertilizer (N) and phosphate fertilizer (P)2O5)5.9 yuan/kg potash fertilizer (K)2O)7.6 yuan/kg, the rape price is 4.4 yuan/kg, and the optimal fertilizing amount of the rape is N7.0810kg/667m2、P2O55.18 kg/667m2、K2O 1.0879kg/667m2The rape yield is 251.0748kg/667m2,N、P2O5、K2The ratio of O is 1:0.73: 0.15.
The above test results show that the best fertilizer application amount of the rape variety Huazhong No. 1 is N7.0810kg/667m under the mode of mulching film hole sowing cultivation2、P2O55.18kg/667m2、K2O 1.0879kg/667m2The yield of the rape is 251.0748kg/667m2It can be widely popularized in Shandan county.
3. Mulch film contrast test
3.1 comparison test of Black mulching film and degraded film
3.1.1 varieties to be tested
The tested rape variety is Hua Xie No. 1.
3.1.2 test methods
The total floor area of the test field is 3 mu, the film is coated on 5 months and 2 days in 2014, the ridge width is 140cm, the furrow width is 20cm, and the black mulching film and the degradation film with the width of 145cm and the thickness of 0.01mm are used for covering. Sowing the seeds by a rape hill planter in 3 days in 5 months, sowing 8 rows on each film, sowing the seeds with the depth of 2-3cm, sowing 2-3 seeds in each hole, sowing the seeds at the row spacing of 18cm, sowing the seeds at the hole spacing of 15cm, and keeping the seedling density of 25714 holes/mu. 16kg of special fertilizer for rape is used, and the formula of-P2O 5-K2O-B-Zn applied by water spraying in the bolting stage is as follows: 27-19-4-0.8-1.5, 4kg of water-soluble fertilizer with the total content of 50%, and the formula of N-P2O5-K2O-B-Zn applied by combining water spraying and dressing in the flowering period is as follows: 31-11-8-1.2-2, 5kg of water-soluble fertilizer with the total content of 50 percent, and the other field management is the same as that of local fields. Harvesting in 17 days in 9 months, wherein 1 square meter per cell is used for investigating the number of plants per mu during harvesting, 20 conventional test seeds are randomly sampled per cell, and each cell is harvested and counted.
3.1.3 analysis of degradation Effect of degradable Membrane
Through field observation, the treatment of covering the degradable film starts to degrade within one week after sowing, 50 percent of the film is degraded within one month, namely 3 days in 6 months, 60 percent of the film is degraded within 6 days in 7 months, 80 percent of the film is degraded within 12 days in 8 months, and the film is small fragments with the radius of about 1.5 cm-2.5 cm. Compared with the common mulching film, the degradable mulching film greatly solves the problem of environmental pollution caused by waste mulching films. However, the degradation film is greatly influenced by illumination, temperature and humidity, the soil-buried part is difficult to degrade, degraded fragments cannot be continuously differentiated or decomposed, and the problem of soil pollution is not solved. In addition, the degradation speed of the degradable membrane is higher, but the effects on warming and soil moisture conservation are not good. 3.1.4 Effect of Black mulch film and degraded film on growth period
TABLE 5 influence of Black mulch and degraded mulch on Huaxie No. 1 growth period
As can be seen from Table 5, the emergence periods of the spring rape seedlings using the common black film and the degradable film are consistent, and are 5 months and 3 days; compared with the common black film, the flowering period and the mature period of the degradable film are both earlier than those of the common black film, and are respectively 5d and 4d earlier than those of the common black film; the whole growth period of the degradable membrane is slightly shorter than that of the common black membrane, and the time is advanced by 4 days.
3.1.5 influence of Black mulching and degrading films on major agronomic traits
TABLE 6 influence of Black mulching and degraded film on Huaxie No. 1 major agronomic traits
As can be seen from Table 6, the plant height of the treated mulching film is 103.4cm, which is 6.5cm lower than that of the conventional black mulching film; the branch part is 31.2cm, and the coverage is 4.7cm higher than that of a common black film; the number of the first effective branches is 3.3, and is reduced by 1 compared with the coverage of a common black film; the number of effective siliques of a single plant is 50.3, and the coverage is reduced by 54.7 compared with that of a common black film; the number of the silique grains is 20.4, and the coverage is reduced by 7.3 compared with that of the common black film; the thousand grains are 3.487g in weight and are lighter than the common black film in coverage by 0.445 g.
3.1.6 influence of Black mulching and degradation films on yield
TABLE 7 influence of Black mulch and degraded mulch on Huaxie No. 1 yield
As can be seen from Table 7, the yield of degraded film is 5.2 kg/mu lower than that of black film, and the yield is reduced by 2.01%. Test results show that when a comparison test of covering a common black mulching film and a degradation film is carried out on the rape variety Huaxie No. 1 in Shandan county, the performances of the treatment of covering the degradation film in the aspects of main agricultural characters and yield are different from those of the common black mulching film. Therefore, the black degradable film is not suitable for popularization and application in my county. In conclusion, the scheme of the invention ensures that the yield meets the use requirement and the yield requirement by limiting the planting method, the density and the membrane material.
In another example, in the step one, a land preparation operation before film covering is further included;
the land preparation is configured to carry out deep ploughing or deep scarification and land turning on the land and base fertilizer application operation on the land by adopting a deep scarification machine, the land is prepared into a furrow after 5-15 days of sunning after deep ploughing or deep scarification, the soil is loosened by adopting deep ploughing and loosening, soil hardening is relieved, root systems of crops can be pricked deeper, more water can be stored in the soil, farmyard manure is used as base fertilizer to cultivate fertility after deep ploughing, the deep ploughing is combined with application of organic fertilizer, the soil structure and physical and chemical properties can be improved, the soil microbial activity is enhanced, the organic matter decomposition is accelerated, the soil maturity and nutrient effectiveness are improved, the absorption range of the root systems is increased, the growth and absorption of the root systems are promoted, a good ecological environment is created for the root systems to grow, the deep spreading among the root systems is promoted, and the distribution depth, the width and the root growth quantity are obviously increased; the soil is subjected to ultraviolet sterilization by drying the soil in the sun, so that some insects are killed, and the wind and air permeability of the soil is improved;
the base fertilizer is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
280 parts of decomposed farmyard manure, 70-120 parts of fermented lees, 80-100 parts of plant ash, 150 parts of fermented sugar residues, 50-85 parts of oil cake, 75-94 parts of crushed rape seed hulls, 1-2 parts of microbial leavening agent, 35-50 parts of wormwood powder, 20-35 parts of pine needle powder, 30-38 parts of cypress leaf powder, 35-45 parts of bunge corydalis herb powder and 15-23 parts of soil or coal humic acid, the components of the base fertilizer raw materials are limited, so that the fertilizer can conform to the local soil environment in Gansu province and can improve alkaline soil, meanwhile, the fertilizer quantity supplement in the middle and later growth periods of the rape is met, and further, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contained in the decomposed farmyard manure are effectively utilized, and calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron and some trace elements are also contained in the decomposed farmyard manure. These nutrients are mostly in the state of organic matter, are difficult to be directly absorbed and utilized by crops, and must be gradually released through the chemical and physical action in soil and the fermentation and decomposition of microorganisms, so that the fertilizer efficiency is long and stable. In addition, the application of organic fertilizer is favorable for promoting the formation of soil aggregate structure, the ratio of air to water in soil is coordinated, the soil is loosened, the water retention, heat preservation, ventilation and fertilizer retention capacity are improved, the rape seed hulls and various powders are treated by utilizing the softening capacity of wine residue (vinasse) mixture, so that the rape seed hulls and various powders can meet the requirements of fertilizer properties, the decomposition and fertilizer release treatment of various raw materials can be accelerated, the main component of plant ash is potassium carbonate (K2CO3), and more than 90 percent of potassium elements with the largest content are water-soluble and exist in the form of carbonate; secondly, phosphorus generally contains 1.5-3 percent; the fertilizer also contains calcium, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, and trace nutrient elements such as iron, manganese, copper, zinc, boron, molybdenum and the like, when the plant ash is applied with equal potassium amount, the fertilizer efficiency is better than that of a chemical potash fertilizer, the potassium element is supplemented to the soil, beneficial bacteria and active substances are obtained after sugar residue (bagasse) is fermented, the soil is modified when eating rice, the activity of the soil is increased, and meanwhile, alkaline soil is improved by utilizing the property of partial acidity of the soil; oil cakes (rapeseed cakes, cottonseed cakes, bean cakes, sesame cakes, peanut cakes and the like) are adopted, a large amount of protein and fat contained in the oil cakes are utilized to provide organic fertilizer for plants, the fermented oil cakes are utilized to serve as base fertilizer, the fertilizer efficiency is durable, and insect egg germs are less in harm; the rapeseed hull mainly contains tannin, and also contains a small amount of vitamin B1, calcium, vitamin B2, magnesium, nicotinic acid, iron, vitamin C, manganese carbohydrate, vitamin E, zinc, dietary fiber, copper, vitamin, potassium, phosphorus, carotene, sodium and selenium, the fertility performance of each raw material is maintained by utilizing the antiseptic effect of the tannin, and the 'high-activity microbial fermentation agent' is a novel multifunctional additive product, integrates the comprehensive functions of beneficial microbial flora, probiotics, enzyme preparations, leavening agents, deodorizers, animal health care products, growth promoters, hypnotics, flavor enhancing sweeteners and Chinese herbal medicine additives, and is composed of a plurality of microorganisms, so that each type of microorganism in the application can play an important role respectively, can fall down to the home rapidly and combine with the benign force of the periphery rapidly to generate antioxidant substances and remove the oxidant substances, eliminating putrefaction and malodor, preventing and inhibiting pathogenic bacteria, and forming good environment suitable for animal and plant growth; meanwhile, the biological feed also generates a large amount of beneficial substances which are easily absorbed by animals and plants, such as amino acids, organic acids, polysaccharides, various vitamins, various biochemical enzymes, growth promoting factors, antioxidant substances, antibiotics, antiviral substances and the like, improves the immune function of the animals and plants, and promotes healthy growth; the wormwood is used as a broad-spectrum antibacterial and antiviral drug, and has the effects of inhibiting and killing viruses and bacteria; the pine needle is rich in shikimic acid which has an antibacterial effect, is an important precursor of oseltamivir phosphate which is an effective medicament of the fatal avian influenza virus H5N1 and is also an antiviral and anticancer medicament intermediate; the fragrant smell of the cypress leaves is utilized, the cypress leaves have insecticidal efficacy, and the bunge corydalis herb alkaloid is utilized to modify soil; the method comprises the following steps of neutralizing soil by using alkaloid of the herba corydalis bungeanae, and killing insects and eggs existing in the soil; the humic acid fertilizer has the advantages that the humic acid water absorption and storage functions are utilized, the nutrient utilization rate of soil is improved, acid and alkali hazards are buffered, the soil structure is improved, the growth of root systems is promoted, the water absorption capacity of the root systems and the fertilizer preservation capacity of the soil are increased, so that the humic acid fertilizer can be combined with the Gansu soil condition through the proportion of various raw materials, the soil is improved, harmful bacteria and insect eggs existing in the soil are removed, and the long-term supply requirement on the fertilizer amount in the growth period of rape is guaranteed.
In another example, the base fertilizer is configured to be made from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
265 parts of decomposed farmyard manure, 115 parts of fermented lees, 97 parts of plant ash, 137 parts of fermented sugar residues, 80 parts of oil cake, 85 parts of crushed rape seed hulls, 1.5 parts of microbial leavening agent, 48 parts of wormwood powder, 33 parts of pine needle powder, 34 parts of cypress leaf powder, 42 parts of bunge corydalis herb powder and 20 parts of soil or coal humic acid, in the scheme, the fertility of the fertilizer can meet the growth requirement of rape by optimizing and limiting the proportion of the raw materials, in the process, the wormwood powder, the pine needle powder, the cypress leaf powder, the bunge corydalis herb powder and rape seed hulls are aggregated and neutralized by the moisture of the fermented sugar residues, the total moisture content of the fertilizer is ensured, meanwhile, the soil is modified by the powder, the loose degree of soil is better, the water retention rate can be effectively improved, in addition, the fertility of the soil is supplemented by other raw materials and further modified, and in the course of working, also can carry out further fermentation with each raw materials and make can intensive mixing and abundant reaction between each raw materials, interact promotes synergistic action between each raw materials, and then makes it continuously provide the fertility, improves the property, colour and the fertility of soil simultaneously for it can improve the Gansu soil property for a long time in the later stage.
In another example, the deep ploughing depth in the deep ploughing operation is controlled to be more than 45cm, and the deep ploughing operation is used for deeply ploughing the soil so as to adapt to the problem that the utilization rate of the soil is insufficient only by adopting rotary tillage for a long time;
the ditch depth between every two furrows is configured to be 5-15cm, and the ditch depth is used for limiting the ditch depth, so that the ditch depth can be matched with the walking of a tractor, the damage to the films of the furrows by the ditch depth is reduced, the ditch depth can be used as a drainage ditch, the water content of soil is ensured to meet the requirement, and the ditch depth can be covered by corresponding films as the drainage ditch, and then water is retained;
watering each furrow before mulching to keep the water content of the soil at about 35-40%, and when the water amount is less in the initial stage, performing water replenishing operation on the soil, performing water locking operation on the soil after mulching, and simultaneously effectively utilizing reverse osmosis of underground water in the whole period so as to comprehensively meet the requirement of the whole rape growth period on water.
In another example, the first step further comprises a rotary tillage fertilization operation before land preparation and furrow formation;
wherein, the rotary tillage fertilization is to carry out rotary tillage operation on deeply ploughed land by adopting a rotary cultivator, and simultaneously applying N7.1kg and P in each mu2O55.2kg、K2The base fertilizer of O1.1 kg is known from the fertilizer test in the front, the proportion in the scheme is matched with the soil fertility condition of the Gansu local area, the requirement for various fertility in the rape growth period is ensured, and the requirement for the optimal rape per mu yield is met。
In another example, as shown in fig. 1-2, the hill planter is configured to include:
the frame 1 is connected with the tractor and used for installing all the parts into an integrated structure to meet the requirements of hole sowing, and meanwhile, the tractor can be connected with the hole sowing machine through a matched connecting piece;
the seed box comprises a plurality of seed boxes 2 arranged on a rack, wherein the seed boxes are used for matching with the planting rows of the furrows to meet the seed outlet requirement in the operation process, the distance among the various seed boxes can be adjusted through a plurality of mounting holes formed in the rack, the various seed boxes are detachably connected with the rack through matched fixing pieces, the fixing pieces are matched with the outer side walls of the seed boxes, a plurality of L-shaped connecting pieces matched with the mounting holes of the rack are arranged below the fixing pieces, matched flexible layers can be arranged on the fixing pieces, the influence of vibration on the seed boxes in the operation process is further reduced, and the outer parts of the seed boxes can be further provided with a step shape, so that the matching degree of the seed boxes and the fixing pieces is higher;
a plurality of hole sowing components 3 matched with various boxes and used for digging seed holes, sowing and earthing up the ridges;
wherein, the inside of the seed box is connected with a stirring blade 4 through a rotating shaft, at least one row of radial seed outlet holes 5 are arranged at the bottom of the seed box, the stirring blade is configured into a circular arc structure with a gap 6 on the surface, the gap is provided with a seed poking sheet 7 at the position matched with the bottom of the seed box, the seed poking sheet is in clearance fit with the bottom of the seed box, in the structure, the stirring blade rotates along with the rotating shaft through a motor matched with the rotating shaft, the rotating speed of the stirring blade can be limited through a matched speed reducer according to the seed outlet speed, only one seed outlet hole is arranged at the bottom of the seed box, the seed outlet number is limited, the gap on the stirring blade enables the seeds to enter the preset position of the seed box, the position of the seeds is deviated in the rotating process through the seed poking sheet, and then the quantitative seed discharging hole is passed through, outputting the seeds to a seed sowing pipe to finish seed sowing;
the hole sowing assembly is configured to include:
the hollow cavity positioning pipes 8 correspond to the front and rear space positions of various boxes and are used for drilling a 2-3cm sowing hole on the covered film under the action of the hollow positioning pipes, so that the requirements of the scheme on the amount of seeds in various cavities can be met;
the first hydraulic mechanism 9 is arranged on the frame and is in transmission connection with each hole positioning mechanism, on one hand, the hole positioning pipes are pushed towards the film by the pushing action force of the first hydraulic mechanism and are pushed for about 2-3cm by the action of the first hydraulic mechanism, the hole opening requirement before seeding is finished, and in order to meet the requirement of hole distance, the hole positioning mechanism can be adjusted by controlling the working gap of the hydraulic mechanism;
the hollow hole-fixing pipe is configured into an upper section, a middle section and a lower section which are detachable, the diameter of the free end of the lower section is configured into 2-3cm, the hole-fixing pipe is divided into a plurality of sections under the structure, so that the sections can be detached as required, and the sections can be connected in a threaded manner, so that the later maintenance and replacement of equipment are facilitated, the diameter of the free end of the lower section is set to be matched with the size of a seed-opening hole, the damage to a membrane is reduced as much as possible, a better water retention effect is realized, and the workload of breaking the membrane after the seed sprouts in the later period and sprouting is reduced;
the middle section is internally provided with a second hydraulic mechanism 10, the power output end of the second hydraulic mechanism is provided with a bulldozing disk 11 matched with the inner side wall of the lower section, the second hydraulic mechanism is used for changing the position of the bulldozing disk, so that soil can effectively enter the hole when the hole-fixing pipe is pressed down, the binding force of the soil is better due to the water replenishing operation in the early stage of the soil, the soil can be taken out when the hole-fixing pipe rises, a seed pit with 2-3cm is formed, the soil is separated from the hole-fixing pipe by further pushing down force of the second hydraulic mechanism, and after the second hydraulic mechanism drives the bulldozing disk to rise, the hole-fixing pipe can carry out next hole-fixing operation, and the hole distance can be adjusted by programming to realize independent work of each hydraulic mechanism and the clearance of matched work.
In another example, as shown in fig. 1, the seed outlet pipe 12 of each box is arranged behind the hole-defining pipe, and is connected with the lower part of the seed box through a connecting end 13 with a conical structure, and can be connected in a threaded manner or a clamping manner, and the frame can also be provided with a matched stabilizing member for fixing the seed outlet pipe spatially so as to prevent the influence of shaking on the connection stability of the equipment during the operation process, and the stabilizing member can comprise a connecting plate fixedly connected with the longitudinal direction of the frame, a plurality of fixing rings with notches are arranged on the connecting plate, and a matched flexible fixing layer is arranged on the inner side wall of the fixing plate, so as to reduce the influence of vibration generated in the operation on the seed outlet pipe;
the rotary chip releasing pieces 14 are respectively pivoted in the various seed discharging pipes, the positions of the chip releasing pieces are limited by a shaft 15 penetrating through the seed discharging pipes, the shaft and the chip releasing pieces can also be connected in the same way, and the rotary gaps of the chip releasing pieces can be realized by switching the working states of the electromagnets through programming;
each seed outlet pipe is provided with an electromagnet 16 above each seed placing part, each seed placing piece is provided with a metal sheet (not shown) capable of being adsorbed on the surface corresponding to the electromagnet, the suction force generated by the electromagnet during working adsorbs one side of the seed placing piece with the metal sheet, so that the position of the seed placing piece is deviated, further, seeds on the seed placing piece can move downwards through angle deflection and enter a seed pit to complete the seeding operation, and the working state of the electromagnet is switched to enable the seed placing piece to return to the initial position under the action of gravity.
In another example, the dozer plate is configured as a disc structure that mates with an inner sidewall of the lower section;
the inner side wall of the lower section is longitudinally provided with a plurality of guide grooves (not shown), the periphery of the bulldozing disk is provided with a plurality of lugs (not shown) matched with the guide grooves, and through the design of the structure, the bulldozing disk is matched with the hole positioning pipe more effectively, so that the position deviation caused by insufficient matching degree of the bulldozing disk and the hole positioning pipe after long-term use is prevented, and the bulldozing effect is prevented from being influenced due to insufficient matching degree.
In another example, as shown in fig. 1, the hill planter is configured to further comprise:
the scraping plates 17 are arranged behind the hole sowing assemblies and used for scraping soil output by the hole positioning pipes to the seed pits after sowing through the scraping plates, so that the soil covering operation of the seed pits is completed, the manual soil covering operation of the seed pits in the later period is reduced, and the mechanization degree is higher;
the arc-shaped bends 18 are arranged on one sides of the scrapers matched with the mulching film, the scrapers and the mulching film form preset angles in space, damage to the mulching film in soil scraping operation is reduced through the arc-shaped bends, and meanwhile the soil scraping effect of the scrapers is guaranteed to meet the requirement;
the connecting ends of the scrapers are respectively connected with the rack in a pivoting mode, an elastic element 19 is further arranged between each scraper and the rack, the scrapers have certain working allowance through the design of a pivoting structure, and can return to a preset position under the action of the elastic element, so that the damage to the surface of the film in the working process is reduced;
the scraper blade has matched with stair structure 20 in the advancing direction of tractor, and it is through the stair structure design for it can break up fashioned column soil according to different positions, in order to satisfy the needs of earthing.
The above scheme is merely illustrative of a preferred example, and is not limiting. When the invention is implemented, appropriate replacement and/or modification can be carried out according to the requirements of users.
The number of apparatuses and the scale of the process described herein are intended to simplify the description of the present invention. Applications, modifications and variations of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art.
While embodiments of the invention have been disclosed above, it is not intended to be limited to the uses listed in the specification and examples. It can be applied to all kinds of fields suitable for the present invention. Additional modifications will readily occur to those skilled in the art. The invention is therefore not to be limited to the specific details and illustrative examples shown and described herein, without departing from the general concept as defined by the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims (9)

1. A high-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step one, mulching a film, arranging each ridge with the width of 140cm and the width of a ditch of 20cm, and covering each ridge with a black mulching film with the width of 145cm and the thickness of 0.01 mm;
and step two, sowing, namely sowing 7 rows of rapeseeds on each membrane by using a hill planter at 4 days in the month of 5 or 2-3 days before and after the month of 5, controlling 2-3 seeds in each hill planter, controlling the sowing depth to be 2-3cm, the row spacing to be 20cm, the hole spacing to be 15cm, and the seedling protection density at the later stage to be 45000 plants/mu, and harvesting at 18 days in the month of 9 or 2-3 days before and after the month.
2. The high-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method as claimed in claim 1, further comprising a soil preparation operation before the mulching in the step one;
wherein the land preparation is configured to carry out deep ploughing or deep scarification and land turning, base fertilizer application operation on the land by adopting a subsoiler, and land preparation is carried out on the land 5-15 days after the land is deeply turned or deeply scarified and sunned;
the base fertilizer is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
280 parts of decomposed farmyard manure, 70-120 parts of fermented wine residues, 80-100 parts of plant ash, 150 parts of fermented sugar residues, 50-85 parts of oil cake, 75-94 parts of crushed rape seed hulls, 1-2 parts of microbial leavening agent, 35-50 parts of wormwood powder, 20-35 parts of pine needle powder, 30-38 parts of cypress leaf powder, 35-45 parts of bunge corydalis herb powder and 15-23 parts of soil or coal humic acid.
3. The high-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method as claimed in claim 2, wherein the base fertilizer is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
265 parts of decomposed farmyard manure, 115 parts of fermented wine residues, 97 parts of plant ash, 137 parts of fermented sugar residues, 80 parts of oil cake, 85 parts of crushed rape seed hulls, 1.5 parts of microbial leavening agent, 48 parts of wormwood powder, 33 parts of pine needle powder, 34 parts of cypress leaf powder, 42 parts of herba violae powder and 20 parts of soil or coal humic acid.
4. The high-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method according to claim 2, wherein the depth of deep ploughing in the deep ploughing operation is controlled to be 45cm or more;
the depth of the groove between the ridges is set to 5-15 cm;
watering each furrow before mulching to keep the water content of the soil at about 35-40%.
5. The method for high yield and high efficiency planting of rape as claimed in claim 2, further comprising, in the first step, a rotary tillage and fertilization operation before preparing the land and furrowing;
wherein, the rotary tillage fertilization is to carry out rotary tillage operation on deeply ploughed land by adopting a rotary cultivator, and simultaneously applying N7.1kg and P in each mu2O55.2kg、K2O1.1 kg of base fertilizer.
6. The high yield and high efficiency method for planting canola as claimed in claim 1, wherein said hill planter is configured to include:
a frame connected to the tractor;
a plurality of seed boxes arranged on the rack;
a plurality of hill-drop assemblies cooperating with the various pods;
the stirring blade is arranged in the seed box and is in an arc structure with a notch on the surface, the notch is provided with a seed poking sheet at the position matched with the bottom of the seed box, and the seed poking sheet is in clearance fit with the bottom of the seed box;
the hole sowing assembly is configured to include:
hollow cavity-fixing tubes corresponding to the front and rear space positions of various boxes;
the first hydraulic mechanism is arranged on the rack and is in transmission connection with each hole positioning mechanism;
the hollow cavity positioning pipe is configured into an upper section, a middle section and a lower section which are detachable, and the diameter of the free end of the lower section is configured into 2-3 cm;
and a second hydraulic mechanism is arranged in the middle section, and a bulldozing disk matched with the inner side wall of the lower section is arranged at the power output end of the second hydraulic mechanism.
7. The high-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method according to claim 6, wherein the seed outlet pipe of each seed box is arranged behind the hole-defining pipe;
the rotary seed discharging pieces are respectively pivoted in each seed outlet pipe;
electromagnets are arranged above various placing positions of various seed outlets, and metal sheets capable of being adsorbed are arranged on the surfaces of various seed placing sheets corresponding to the electromagnets.
8. The method for high yield and high efficiency planting of rape as claimed in claim 6, wherein said soil shifting plate is configured as a disc type structure fitted with an inner sidewall of the lower section;
the inner side wall of the lower section is longitudinally provided with a plurality of guide grooves, and the periphery of the bulldozing disk is provided with a plurality of lugs matched with the guide grooves.
9. The high yield and high efficiency method for planting canola as claimed in claim 6, wherein said hill planter is configured to further comprise:
the scraping plate is arranged behind each hill-drop assembly;
the side, matched with the mulching film, of each scraper is provided with an arc-shaped bend, and each scraper has a preset angle with the mulching film in space;
the connecting ends of the scrapers are respectively connected with the frame in a pin joint mode, and an elastic element is arranged between each scraper and the frame;
the scrapers have a mating step structure in the direction of travel of the tractor.
CN202010392668.0A 2020-05-11 2020-05-11 High-yield and high-efficiency rape planting method Pending CN111406589A (en)

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