CN111331063B - Low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method for complex gear blank forging - Google Patents

Low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method for complex gear blank forging Download PDF

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CN111331063B
CN111331063B CN202010243683.9A CN202010243683A CN111331063B CN 111331063 B CN111331063 B CN 111331063B CN 202010243683 A CN202010243683 A CN 202010243683A CN 111331063 B CN111331063 B CN 111331063B
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ring blank
diameter
height
forging
blank
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CN111331063A (en
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毛华杰
刘也
邓加东
钱东升
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Wuhan University of Technology WUT
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Wuhan University of Technology WUT
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21HMAKING PARTICULAR METAL OBJECTS BY ROLLING, e.g. SCREWS, WHEELS, RINGS, BARRELS, BALLS
    • B21H1/00Making articles shaped as bodies of revolution
    • B21H1/06Making articles shaped as bodies of revolution rings of restricted axial length

Abstract

The invention relates to a cold rolling forming method of a complex gear blank forging with special-shaped inner and outer surfaces. The method is characterized by comprising the following steps: (1) designing a ring blank: and determining the shape and size of the ring blank according to the geometric shape characteristics of the forge piece and the flow rule of the rolling deformation metal based on the stable contact condition and the equal volume distribution principle. (2) Roll pass design: the method comprises the following steps of designing a drive roller hole pattern size according to the geometric dimension matching of the outer surface of a forge piece, designing a core roller hole pattern size according to the geometric dimension matching of the inner surface of the forge piece, and comprehensively designing the radial dimensions of a drive roller and a core roller working surface according to the ring blank size, cold rolling deformation conditions and equipment parameters; (3) and (4) planning the cold rolling forming process, and reasonably controlling the deformation and the rolling speed of each stage. The method adopts continuous local plastic deformation, which can obviously reduce the forming force, improve the internal structure of the material and improve the mechanical property of the product. By reasonably designing the cold rolling forming process, high product forming precision can be obtained, and forming defects such as dishing, insufficient filling, burrs, pits and the like are avoided.

Description

Low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method for complex gear blank forging
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of plastic processing, and particularly relates to a low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method for a complex gear blank forging.
Background
The gear blank forging is generally a forging with a special-shaped section, wherein the middle of the outer surface of the forging is provided with a conical boss with a large section mutation degree, and the inner surface of the forging is provided with an inner step. The production process flow adopted at present is as follows: blanking a bar, heating, freely forging and hammering to prepare a blank, finally forging and forming by a die forging hammer, normalizing, trimming by a trimming press and punching. The die forging process generates large flashes in the machining process, a process for cutting the flashes needs to be added behind, working hours are increased, manpower and material resources are consumed, waste of metal materials is caused, the utilization rate of the materials is reduced, and the cost is increased; and the die forging process is the integral forming of the forging piece, the selected equipment has larger tonnage, and particularly the integral forging forming force of the gear blank is large and the energy consumption is high. The forging is an advanced local plastic deformation process, and a blank is subjected to local plastic deformation in a hole type formed by a driving roller and a core roller to reduce the wall thickness of the whole body, enlarge the diameter and form the section profile. Because of local plastic deformation, the tonnage of equipment selected for rolling the forge piece is obviously reduced compared with the whole die forging, and the energy consumption of the equipment is low. And through plastic deformation strengthening, the internal structure of the material can be effectively improved, the mechanical property of the product is improved, but the gear blank has complex appearance, so that the near-net cold rolling process has high difficulty, and if the process parameter design is improper, the forming defects such as dishing, insufficient filling, burrs, pits and the like are easy to occur.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method for a complex gear blank forging, which can effectively avoid the forming defects of dishing, insufficient filling, burrs and pits, improve the manufacturing precision of products and ensure the qualification rate of the products.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method for a complex gear blank forging is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
1) ring blank design
Firstly, determining the shape of a ring blank according to the contact mode of the ring blank and a roller and the flowing rule of metal; primarily selecting the size of the ring blank according to the axial volume distribution principle of the ring blank and the forged piece; finally, determining the final size of the ring blank according to the principle that the volumes of the ring blank and the forged piece are equal; the process for determining the shape and the size of the forging blank is as follows:
(1) determining the shape of the ring blank
The forging is a special-shaped section forging with a conical boss with a large section mutation degree in the middle of the outer surface and an inner step on the inner surface; designing the shape of a cavity of the driving roller to be consistent with the outer surface of the forging, and designing the shape of a cavity of the core roller to be consistent with the inner surface of the forging; in order to ensure stable contact and convenience of blank making when rolling starts, the ring blank is in three-point contact with the cavity of the driving roller, the ring blank is in line contact with the upper end face of the cavity of the core roller and in one-point contact with the boss, the outer surface of the ring blank is designed into a boss section with upper and lower tapers, and the inner surface of the ring blank is designed into a straight wall and a hole pattern with the tapers;
(2) preliminary selection of ring blank size
a) Selecting the equivalent rolling ratio
In order to ensure that the forging has corresponding cold rolling performance, the deformation in the rolling process is ensured by the inner diameter d of a small hole of the forging (namely, a target part)1Inner diameter d of small hole of ring blank01The ratio of which is the equivalent rolling ratio K, i.e.The equivalent rolling ratio K is 1.3-2;
b) designing the size of the inner surface of the ring blank
Firstly, determining the height H of the inner surface conical surface of a ring blank (or blank) according to the total height H of a forged piece04=H-a-b-H05Wherein a is the gap between the upper end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller, b is the gap between the lower end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller, H05For the thickness of the punched integral skin, H05Usually 5-8 mm; h is the total height of the forging; h04The height of the conical surface of the inner surface of the blank;
the minimum diameter of the taper hole of the blank can be determined according to the equivalent rolling ratioWherein d is1The inner diameter of a small hole of the forge piece, and K is the equivalent rolling ratio;
determining the maximum diameter of the tapered hole of the blank according to the point contact requirement of the inner surface of the blank and the core rollerWherein d is1、d3Is the inner diameter of a small hole and a large hole of a forged piece (the forged piece is a ring piece), H5、H6The height of the small hole and the conical hole of the forging; h05For the thickness of the punched integral skin, H05Usually 5-8 mm; h is the total height of the forging; a is a gap between the upper end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller, and b is a gap between the lower end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller;
c) designing the outer surface size of the ring blank
The upper conical surface of the ring blank is in two-point contact with the driving roller, and the ring blank and the forged piece are arranged in an H position01The maximum outer diameter D of the ring blank is determined by the equal volume on the height01Outside the upper conical surface of the ring blankDiameter D02(ii) a The lower conical surface of the ring blank is in one-point contact with the driving roller, and the ring blank and the forging piece are at the height H06The upper volumes are equal, and the outer diameter D of the lower conical surface of the ring blank is determined03
According to the height H of the upper conical surface of the ring blank01Volume V of ring blank01Height H of forged piece11Volume V of1Equal, i.e. V01=V1(ii) a Simultaneous equations can be used to determine the diameter D of the upper conical surface of the ring blank01、D02
Wherein H01Is the height of the upper conical surface of the ring blank,H05the thickness of the punched continuous skin is usually 5-8 mm; d01The inner diameter of the small hole of the ring blank; d04Is a ring blank in H01Inner diameter of (d)1Is the inner diameter of the forging hole D1Is the outer diameter of the upper end face of the forging, D2For forgings in H1Outer diameter at height, D6For forgings in H11Outer diameter at height H1The height of the upper step of the forging; a is a gap between the upper end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller; d01Is the maximum outer diameter of the ring blank, D02The outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the ring blank; alpha is the angle formed by the forge piece at the boss and the vertical direction; theta is an angle formed by the upper conical surface of the blank and the horizontal direction;
according to the height H of the lower conical surface of the ring blank06Volume V of02Height H of forged piece4Volume V of2Equal, i.e. V2=V02Simultaneous equations to calculate the outer diameter D of the lower conical surface of the ring blank03
Wherein D is03Is the outer diameter of the lower conical surface of the ring blank,D04for the lower conical surface at a height H06Outer diameter of (D)04=D01+D4-D2-2tanα(H01+a-H1) (ii) a Gamma is the lower cone angle of the ring blank,H4height of lower step of forging, D3Is the maximum outer diameter of the forging, D4For forgings in H4Outer diameter at height, D5Is the outer diameter of the lower end face of the forging, D01Is the maximum outer diameter of the ring blank, H02Is the axial height of the lower conical surface of the ring blank,H06is the height H of the ring blank and the forging4At the same height; b is the gap between the lower end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller; d02The diameter of the ring blank is large; d03 is a ring blank with a taper hole in H06A diameter at height; d3The maximum inner diameter of the forging;
(3) correcting ring blank size
According to the axial volume distribution principle of the ring blank and the forging, the outer diameter D of the ring blank is primarily selected01、D02、D03And finally, determining the final size of the ring blank according to the principle that the volumes of the ring blank and the forged piece are equal
According to the total volume V of the ring blankGeneral assemblyEqual to the total volume V of the forging, i.e. VGeneral assemblyIf the value of k is V, a simultaneous equation set can be calculated, and k is the corrected value of the outer diameter of the ring blank;
wherein: d01Is the maximum outer diameter of the ring blank, D02Is the outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the ring blank, D03The outer diameter of the lower conical surface of the ring blank; h01Is the upper cone height of the ring blank, H02Is the lower cone height of the ring blank, H03Is the height of the boss of the ring blank H04Height of the conical hole in the inner surface of the ring blank, H05The thickness of the punched continuous skin is usually 5-8 mm; d1Is the outer diameter of the upper end face of the forging, D2Is a forged part H1Outer diameter at height, D3Is the maximum outer diameter of the forging, D4For forgings in H4Outer diameter at height, D5Is the outer diameter of the lower end face of the forging piece, d1Is the minimum inner diameter of the forging, d2For forgings in H7Height-wise inner diameter, d3Is the maximum inner diameter, H, of the forging1Is the upper step height of the forging, H2Is the height of the boss conical surface of the forging piece, H3Is the boss straight wall height of the forging, H4Is the lower step height of the forging, H5Height of straight-walled aperture in forging, H6Height of conical hole in forging, H7The height of a straight wall large hole on the inner surface of the forging piece is obtained; d01The inner diameter of the small hole of the ring blank; d02The diameter of the ring blank is large;
the maximum outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the corrected ring blank is as follows:
the outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the modified ring blank is as follows:
the external diameter of the lower conical surface of the modified ring blank is as follows:
the gear blank forging piece is made of 20CrMnTi, and a blanked bar is heated, upset, formed in a die, trimmed, punched and punched to form a special-shaped ring blank;
2) roll pass design
Designing the hole patterns and the sizes of the driving roller and the core roller according to the shape and the size of the forge piece and the structural requirements of the ring rolling mill; the driving roller is designed into a closed hole type with upper and lower end faces, and the hole type corresponds to the outer surface of the forge piece; the core roller is designed into a closed hole pattern with upper and lower end surfaces, and the hole pattern corresponds to the inner surface of the forge piece;
a) roll pass cavity size
According to the height H of the straight-wall small hole on the inner surface of the forging5Inner surface taper hole height H6Inner surface straight wall large hole height H7Determining the core roller boss height Bi1Total height of holei2,Bi1=H7+(0~0.2)mm,Bi2=H5+H6+H7
According to the minimum inner radius r of the forging1And a maximum inner radius r3Determining the step length L of the core rolleri,Li=r3-r1
According to the height H of the upper step of the forging1Height H of boss conical surface of forged piece2Height H of boss straight wall of forged piece3Lower step height H of forging4Determining the height H of the upper step in the hole pattern of the driving rollerd1Height H of conical surface of bossd2Height H of boss straight walld3Lower step height Hd4,Hd1=H1-(0~0.2)mm,Hd2=H2+(0~0.2)mm,Hd3=H3+(0~0.2)mm,Hd4=H4- (0 to 0.2) mm; total height H of the drive rollerd,Hd=Hd1+Hd2+Hd3+Hd4+(20~30)mm;
According to the external diameter D of the upper end surface of the external diameter dimension of the forging1、H1Outer diameter D at height2Maximum outer diameter D3、H4Outer diameter D at height4Lower end surface outer diameter D5Determining the step length of the driving roller: hd2Length L of the conical surfaced1Length L of upper stepd2Length of lower stepLd3、Hd4Length L of the conical surfaced4
To avoid widening during rolling, the width of the upper end of the driving roller is takenWidth of upper end of core rollerWherein D1Is the outer diameter of the upper end face of the forging piece, d1Is the inner diameter of the small hole of the forging; width of lower end of core rollerd3The maximum inner diameter of the forging;
determining the axial height of the core roller hole pattern according to the axial height of the inner surface of the forge piece, wherein the height of the core roller hole pattern boss is equal to that of the straight-wall large hole of the inner surface of the forge piece, namely Bi1=H7(ii) a The total height of the core pass is equal to the total height of the forging, i.e. Bi2=H;H7The height of a straight wall large hole on the inner surface of the forging piece is obtained; h is the total height of the forging;
b) radial dimension of working surface of roller
The size of the working surface of the roller is required to meet the requirements of both biting and complete forging and the requirement of a spatial structure; linear velocity V of driving rollerdThe radius of the working surface of the driving roller can be determined according to the linear velocity of the driving roller, and is usually 1.1-1.6 m/sWhereinIs the rotating speed of the driving roller, n is the rotating speed of the motor, eta is the transmission ratio, n and eta are determined by equipment parameters,
in order to make the forged piece not only continuously bite into the hole pattern, but also forge thoroughly, the minimum working surface radius R of the core rolleriThe following conditions should be satisfied:
wherein R isiIs the minimum working face radius of the core roll; beta-arctan mu is a friction angle, mu is a friction coefficient generally 0.15-0.2, and R is3Is the maximum outer radius of the forging piece,r1is the minimum inner radius of the forging piece,
to ensure that the core roller can be smoothly placed into the inner hole of the ring blank, the maximum outer diameter of the core roller is at least 3mm smaller than the minimum inner diameter of the inner hole of the ring blank, i.e. the maximum outer diameter of the core roller is at least 3mm smaller than the minimum inner diameter of the inner hole of the ring blankAccording to the structural requirements of the ring rolling mill, when rolling is started, the distance between the driving roller and the core roller is not larger than the maximum central moment of the ring rolling mill; when the driving roller and the core roller are completely closed, the central moment of the two rollers is not smaller than the minimum central distance of the ring rolling mill;
namely, it is
Wherein L ismaxAnd LminMaximum and minimum closing center distances allowed by the ring rolling mill;
3) cold roll forming process planning
According to the contact and self deformation state of the forge piece and the roller in the rolling process, the rolling process is divided into five stages: the method comprises the following steps of (1) a contact stabilization stage, a hole pattern filling stage, a forge piece diameter expansion stage, a sizing stage and a rounding stage, wherein the deformation and the deformation speed of each stage need to be matched in a coordinated manner, so that stable and accurate rolling forming is ensured; determining the rotating speed of the driving roller and the feeding speed of the core roller by combining the equipment parameters of the ring rolling mill;
in order to satisfy the volume of biting and penetration of forging,requirement Vmin≤VInto≤Vmax
VminTo meet the minimum feed rate under the conditions of biting and penetration, VIntoFor feed speed, VmaxTo meet the maximum feed rate under the conditions of biting and penetration, R1To drive the roller at a minimum radius, R2Is the minimum radius of the core roller, R is the maximum outer radius of the ring blank, R is the maximum inner radius of the ring blank, ndIs the rotational speed of the drive roller; the total feed quantity delta H is the wall thickness reduction of the ring blank, in the contact stabilization stage, the ring blank and the roller are in surface contact from point contact, and the feed quantityFeed rateFeed timeIn the hole pattern filling stage, the feed amount Δ H2=(0.45~0.55)(ΔH-ΔH1) Medium speed feeding and feeding speedFeed timeIn the diameter enlargement stage, the feed amount Δ H3=(0.35~0.45)(ΔH-ΔH1) High speed feeding, feed speedFeed timeFeed Δ H in the sizing phase4=0.05(ΔH-ΔH1) Feed speed V40.1mm/s, feed timeFeed Δ H in the rounding stage50, feed speed V5Setting the feeding time to be 0.5-2 s;
and putting the machined ring blank of the forging into a ring rolling machine hole.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the complex gear blank forging is processed by adopting the forging cold rolling process, and the ring blank with simple shape and convenient blank manufacturing can be obtained by planning the ring blank design, the roll pass design and the cold rolling forming process, reasonably designing the shape and the size of the cold rolling forming ring blank and the roll and coordinately planning the parameters of the cold rolling forming process. And the initial volume distribution of the ring blank is reasonable, the defects of burrs, fishtails, dished shapes, pits, insufficient filling and the like of the forged piece can be eliminated, the manufacturing precision of the product is improved, the qualification rate of the product is ensured, the production efficiency and the product quality are improved, and the production cost is reduced.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the structure and dimensions of the target part (i.e., forging) of the present invention.
Fig. 2(a) is a schematic diagram of the principle of the present invention. Fig. 2(b) is a cross-sectional effect view of fig. 2 (a).
Fig. 3 is a schematic view of a ring blank of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic view of the drive roller configuration of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is a schematic view of the core roll structure of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a graph of forming process feed versus feed rate control in accordance with the present invention.
Labeled in FIG. 2 (a): 1-driving roller, 2-core roller, 3-forge piece and 4-guide roller, wherein V represents the speed of the core roller, and nd represents the rotating speed of the driving roller.
Labeled in FIG. 6: the method comprises the following steps of firstly, rolling at a low speed, secondly, rolling at a medium speed, thirdly, rolling at a high speed and fourthly, sizing.
Detailed Description
The foregoing description is only an overview of the technical solutions of the present invention, and in order to make the technical means of the present invention more clearly understood, the present invention may be implemented in accordance with the contents of the description, and in order to make the above and other objects, features, and advantages of the present invention more clearly understood, the following detailed description is given in conjunction with the preferred embodiments.
A low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method for a complex gear blank forging is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
1) ring blank design
Firstly, determining the shape of a ring blank according to the contact mode of the ring blank and a roller and the flowing rule of metal; primarily selecting the size of the ring blank according to the axial volume distribution principle of the ring blank and the forged piece; finally, determining the final size of the ring blank according to the principle that the volumes of the ring blank and the forged piece are equal; the process for determining the shape and the size of the forging blank is as follows:
(2) determining the shape of the ring blank
The forging is a special-shaped section forging with a conical boss with a large section mutation degree in the middle of the outer surface and an inner step on the inner surface; designing the shape of a cavity of the driving roller to be consistent with the outer surface of the forging, and designing the shape of a cavity of the core roller to be consistent with the inner surface of the forging; in order to ensure stable contact and convenience of blank making when rolling starts, the ring blank is in three-point contact with the cavity of the driving roller, the ring blank is in line contact with the upper end face of the cavity of the core roller and in one-point contact with the boss, the outer surface of the ring blank is designed into a boss section with upper and lower tapers, and the inner surface of the ring blank is designed into a straight wall and a hole pattern with the tapers;
(2) preliminary selection of ring blank size
a) Selecting the equivalent rolling ratio
In order to ensure that the forging has corresponding cold rolling performance, the deformation in the rolling process is ensured by the inner diameter d of a small hole of the forging (namely, a target part)1Inner diameter d of small hole of ring blank01The ratio of which is the equivalent rolling ratio K, i.e.The equivalent rolling ratio K is 1.3-2;
b) designing the size of the inner surface of the ring blank
Firstly, determining the height H of the inner surface conical surface of a ring blank (or blank) according to the total height H of a forged piece04=H-a-b-H05Wherein a is the gap between the upper end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller, b is the gap between the lower end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller, H05For the thickness of the punched integral skin, H05Usually 5-8 mm; h is the total height of the forging; h04The height of the conical surface of the inner surface of the blank;
the minimum diameter of the taper hole of the blank can be determined according to the equivalent rolling ratioWherein d is1The inner diameter of a small hole of the forge piece, and K is the equivalent rolling ratio;
determining the maximum diameter of the tapered hole of the blank according to the point contact requirement of the inner surface of the blank and the core rollerWherein d is1、d3Is the inner diameter of a small hole and a large hole of a forged piece (i.e. a ring piece), H5、H6The height of the small hole and the conical hole of the forging; h05For the thickness of the punched integral skin, H05Usually 5-8 mm; h is the total height of the forging; a is a gap between the upper end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller, and b is a gap between the lower end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller;
c) designing the outer surface size of the ring blank
The upper conical surface of the ring blank is in two-point contact with the driving roller, and the ring blank and the forged piece are arranged in an H position01The maximum outer diameter D of the ring blank is determined by the equal volume on the height01The outer diameter D of an upper conical surface of the ring blank02(ii) a The lower conical surface of the ring blank is in one-point contact with the driving roller, and the ring blank and the forging piece are at the height H06The upper volumes are equal, and the outer diameter D of the lower conical surface of the ring blank is determined03
According to the height H of the upper conical surface of the ring blank01Volume V of ring blank01Height H of forged piece11Volume V of1Equal, i.e. V01=V1(ii) a Simultaneous equations can be used to determine the diameter D of the upper conical surface of the ring blank01、D02
Wherein H01Is the height of the upper conical surface of the ring blank,H05the thickness of the punched continuous skin is usually 5-8 mm; d01The inner diameter of the small hole of the ring blank; d04Is a ring blank in H01Inner diameter of (d)1Is the inner diameter of the forging hole D1Is the outer diameter of the upper end face of the forging, D2For forgings in H1Outer diameter at height, D6For forgings in H11Outer diameter at height H1The height of the upper step of the forging; a is a gap between the upper end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller; d01Is the maximum outer diameter of the ring blank, D02The outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the ring blank; alpha is the angle formed by the forge piece at the boss and the vertical direction; theta is an angle formed by the upper conical surface of the blank and the horizontal direction;
according to the height H of the lower conical surface of the ring blank06Volume V of02Height H of forged piece4Volume V of2Equal, i.e. V2=V02Simultaneous equations to calculate the outer diameter D of the lower conical surface of the ring blank03
Wherein D is03Is the outer diameter of the lower conical surface of the ring blank,D04for the lower conical surface at a height H06Outer diameter of (D)04=D01+D4-D2-2tanα(H01+a-H1) (ii) a Gamma is the lower cone angle of the ring blank,H4height of lower step of forging, D3Is the maximum outer diameter of the forging, D4For forgings in H4Outer diameter at height, D5Is the outer diameter of the lower end face of the forging, D01Is the maximum outer diameter of the ring blank,
H02is the axial height of the lower conical surface of the ring blank,H06is the height H of the ring blank and the forging4At the same height; b is the gap between the lower end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller; d02The diameter of the ring blank is large; d03For the ring blank with a conical hole in H06A diameter at height; d3The maximum inner diameter of the forging;
(3) correcting ring blank size
According to the axial volume distribution principle of the ring blank and the forging, the outer diameter D of the ring blank is primarily selected01、D02、D03And finally, determining the final size of the ring blank according to the principle that the volumes of the ring blank and the forged piece are equal
According to the total volume V of the ring blankGeneral assemblyEqual to the total volume V of the forging, i.e. VGeneral assemblyIf the value of k is V, a simultaneous equation set can be calculated, and k is the corrected value of the outer diameter of the ring blank;
wherein: d01Is the maximum outer diameter of the ring blank, D02Is the outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the ring blank, D03The outer diameter of the lower conical surface of the ring blank; h01Is the upper cone height of the ring blank, H02Is the lower cone height of the ring blank, H03Is the height of the boss of the ring blank H04For conical holes in the inner surface of the ring blankHeight, H05The thickness of the punched continuous skin is usually 5-8 mm; d1Is the outer diameter of the upper end face of the forging, D2Is a forged part H1Outer diameter at height, D3Is the maximum outer diameter of the forging, D4For forgings in H4Outer diameter at height, D5Is the outer diameter of the lower end face of the forging piece, d1Is the minimum inner diameter of the forging, d2For forgings in H7Height-wise inner diameter, d3Is the maximum inner diameter, H, of the forging1Is the upper step height of the forging, H2Is the height of the boss conical surface of the forging piece, H3Is the boss straight wall height of the forging, H4Is the lower step height of the forging, H5Height of straight-walled aperture in forging, H6Height of conical hole in forging, H7The height of a straight wall large hole on the inner surface of the forging piece is obtained; d01The inner diameter of the small hole of the ring blank; d02The diameter of the ring blank is large;
the maximum outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the corrected ring blank is as follows:
the outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the modified ring blank is as follows:
the external diameter of the lower conical surface of the modified ring blank is as follows:
the gear blank forging piece is made of 20CrMnTi, and a blanked bar is heated, upset, formed in a die, trimmed, punched and punched to form a special-shaped ring blank;
2) roll pass design
Designing the hole patterns and the sizes of the driving roller and the core roller according to the shape and the size of the forge piece and the structural requirements of the ring rolling mill; the driving roller is designed into a closed hole type with upper and lower end faces, and the hole type corresponds to the outer surface of the forge piece; the core roller is designed into a closed hole pattern with upper and lower end surfaces, and the hole pattern corresponds to the inner surface of the forge piece;
a) roll pass cavity size
According to the height H of the straight-wall small hole on the inner surface of the forging5Inner surface taper hole height H6Inner surface straight wall large hole height H7Determining the core roller boss height Bi1Total height of holei2,Bi1=H7+(0~0.2)mm,Bi2=H5+H6+H7
According to the minimum inner radius r of the forging1And a maximum inner radius r3Determining the step length L of the core rolleri,Li=r3-r1
According to the height H of the upper step of the forging1Height H of boss conical surface of forged piece2Height H of boss straight wall of forged piece3Lower step height H of forging4Determining the height H of the upper step in the hole pattern of the driving rollerd1Height H of conical surface of bossd2Height H of boss straight walld3Lower step height Hd4,Hd1=H1-(0~0.2)mm,Hd2=H2+(0~0.2)mm,Hd3=H3+(0~0.2)mm,Hd4=H4- (0 to 0.2) mm; total height H of the drive rollerd,Hd=Hd1+Hd2+Hd3+Hd4+(20~30)mm;
According to the external diameter D of the upper end surface of the external diameter dimension of the forging1、H1Outer diameter D at height2Maximum outer diameter D3、H4Outer diameter D at height4Lower end surface outer diameter D5Determining the step length of the driving roller: hd2Length L of the conical surfaced1Length L of upper stepd2Lower step length Ld3、Hd4Length L of the conical surfaced4
To avoid widening during rolling, the width of the upper end of the driving roller is takenWidth of upper end of core rollerWherein D1Is the outer diameter of the upper end face of the forging piece, d1Is the inner diameter of the small hole of the forging; width of lower end of core rollerd3The maximum inner diameter of the forging;
determining the axial height of the core roller hole pattern according to the axial height of the inner surface of the forge piece, wherein the height of the core roller hole pattern boss is equal to that of the straight-wall large hole of the inner surface of the forge piece, namely Bi1=H7(ii) a The total height of the core pass is equal to the total height of the forging, i.e. Bi2=H;H7The height of a straight wall large hole on the inner surface of the forging piece is obtained;
b) radial dimension of working surface of roller
The size of the working surface of the roller is required to meet the requirements of both biting and complete forging and the requirement of a spatial structure; linear velocity V of driving rollerdThe radius of the working surface of the driving roller can be determined according to the linear velocity of the driving roller, and is usually 1.1-1.6 m/sWhereinIs the rotating speed of the driving roller, n is the rotating speed of the motor, eta is the transmission ratio, n and eta are determined by equipment parameters,
in order to make the forged piece not only continuously bite into the hole pattern, but also forge thoroughly, the minimum working surface radius R of the core rolleriThe following conditions should be satisfied:
wherein R isiIs the minimum working face radius of the core roll; beta-arctan mu is a friction angle, mu is a friction coefficient generally 0.15-0.2, and R is3Is the maximum outer radius of the forging piece,r1is the minimum inner radius of the forging piece,
to ensure that the core roller can be smoothly placed into the inner hole of the ring blank, the maximum outer diameter of the core roller is at least 3mm smaller than the minimum inner diameter of the inner hole of the ring blank, i.e. the maximum outer diameter of the core roller is at least 3mm smaller than the minimum inner diameter of the inner hole of the ring blankAccording to the structural requirements of the ring rolling mill, when rolling is started, the distance between the driving roller and the core roller is not larger than the maximum central moment of the ring rolling mill; when the driving roller and the core roller are completely closed, the central moment of the two rollers is not smaller than the minimum central distance of the ring rolling mill;
namely, it is
Wherein L ismaxAnd LminMaximum and minimum closing center distances allowed by the ring rolling mill;
3) cold roll forming process planning
According to the contact and self deformation state of the forge piece and the roller in the rolling process, the rolling process is divided into five stages: the method comprises the following steps of (1) a contact stabilization stage, a hole pattern filling stage, a forge piece diameter expansion stage, a sizing stage and a rounding stage, wherein the deformation and the deformation speed of each stage need to be matched in a coordinated manner, so that stable and accurate rolling forming is ensured; determining the rotating speed of the driving roller and the feeding speed of the core roller by combining the equipment parameters of the ring rolling mill;
to satisfy the bite and forge through volume, V is requiredmin≤VInto≤Vmax
VminTo meet the minimum feed rate under the conditions of biting and penetration, VIntoFor feed speed, VmaxTo meet the maximum feed rate under the conditions of biting and penetration, R1To drive the roller at a minimum radius, R2Is the minimum radius of the core roller, R is the maximum outer radius of the ring blank, R is the maximum inner radius of the ring blank, ndIs the rotational speed of the drive roller; the total feed quantity delta H is the wall thickness reduction of the ring blank, in the contact stabilization stage, the ring blank and the roller are in surface contact from point contact, and the feed quantityFeed rateFeed timeIn the hole pattern filling stage, the feed amount Δ H2=(0.45~0.55)(ΔH-ΔH1) Medium speed feeding and feeding speedFeed timeIn the diameter enlargement stage, the feed amount Δ H3=(0.35~0.45)(ΔH-ΔH1) High speed feeding, feed speedFeed timeFeed Δ H in the sizing phase4=0.05(ΔH-ΔH1) Feed speed V40.1mm/s, feed timeFeed Δ H in the rounding stage50, feedVelocity V5Setting the feeding time to be 0.5-2 s;
and putting the machined ring blank of the forging into a ring rolling machine hole.
Example 1
Taking the complex gear blank forging piece shown in figure 1 as a specific example, the outer diameter D of the forging piece which requires cold rolling forming1、D2、D3、D4、D5157.5mm, 199.6mm, 215.4mm, 180mm, 148.8 mm. Forging inside diameter d1、d2、d3Respectively 128mm, 130.1mm and 139.4 mm. High H of forging1、H2、H3、H4、H5、H6、H7、H01、H02And H is respectively 9.6mm, 16.2mm, 12mm, 6mm, 20.6mm, 10mm, 13.18mm, 18.48mm, 11.82mm and 43.8 mm.
The cold rolling forming method comprises the following steps:
1. design of ring blank
According to the method for designing the size of the ring blank, the rolling ratio K is selected to be 2, and the inner diameter size d of the ring blank is determined1=64mm、d278 mm. The clearance between the upper end face of the ring blank and the roller is 2.3mm, and the clearance between the lower end face of the ring blank and the roller is 0.7 mm. Taking the upper taper angle theta of the ring blank to be 15.1 degrees, and arranging the ring blank and the forging piece in an H position01Equal volume in height, determine D01=100mm、D02183.64 mm; from blanks to forgings H02Equal volume in height, determine D03=103.64mm、γ=10.94°、H027.35mm, and determining a correction coefficient K of-0.5 according to the equal total volume of the blank and the forged piece. Obtaining the external dimension of the blank
2. Roll pass design, blank making
The gear blank forging piece is made of 20CrMnTi, and the blanked bar is heated, upset, punched and connected with a skin by punching to obtain the inner shape size of a ring blank; and (4) according to the blank size obtained in the calculation process, manufacturing the blank by using a horizontal forging machine to obtain the external dimension of the ring blank.
Determining a rolling pass: taking rolling line speed Vd1.5mm/s, the design of the drive roller according to the hole pattern design method of the invention is as shown in FIGS. 2(a) and 2(b), and the minimum working face radius R of the drive rollerdIs 150 mm; the core roll structure is designed as shown in fig. 2(a) and 2(b), and the minimum working surface radius R of the core rolliIs 19 mm;
3. cold roll forming process planning (determination of rolling process parameters)
And determining the rotating speed of the driving roller and the feeding speed of the core roller according to the deformation condition in the process of rolling the forge piece and the equipment parameters of the ring rolling mill. The feeding speed of the core roller can be divided into 4 stages, namely a low-speed feeding stage, a medium-speed feeding stage, a high-speed feeding stage, a sizing stage and a rounding stage on the premise of meeting the requirements of biting and complete forging. In the low-speed feeding stage, the feeding speed V1Is 0.6 mm/s; in the medium-speed feeding stage, the feeding speed V2Is 1 mm/s; in the high-speed feeding stage, the feeding speed V3Is 1.5 mm/s; in the sizing stage, the feed speed V4Is 0.1 mm/s; in the rounding stage, the feed speed V5Is 0 mm/s.

Claims (4)

1. A low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method for a complex gear blank forging is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
1) ring blank design
Firstly, determining the shape of a ring blank according to the contact mode of the ring blank and a roller and the flowing rule of metal; primarily selecting the size of the ring blank according to the axial volume distribution principle of the ring blank and the forged piece; finally, determining the final size of the ring blank according to the principle that the volumes of the ring blank and the forged piece are equal;
2) roll pass design
Designing the hole patterns and the sizes of the driving roller and the core roller according to the shape and the size of the forge piece and the structural requirements of the ring rolling mill; the driving roller is designed into a closed hole type with upper and lower end faces, and the hole type corresponds to the outer surface of the forge piece; the core roller is designed into a closed hole pattern with upper and lower end surfaces, and the hole pattern corresponds to the inner surface of the forge piece;
3) cold roll forming process planning
According to the contact and self deformation state of the forge piece and the roller in the rolling process, the rolling process is divided into five stages: the method comprises the following steps of (1) a contact stabilization stage, a hole pattern filling stage, a forge piece diameter expansion stage, a sizing stage and a rounding stage, wherein the deformation and the deformation speed of each stage need to be matched in a coordinated manner, so that stable and accurate rolling forming is ensured; determining the rotating speed of the driving roller and the feeding speed of the core roller by combining the equipment parameters of the ring rolling mill;
in the ring blank design of the step 1), the process of determining the shape and the size of a forging blank is as follows:
(1) determining the shape of the ring blank
The forging is a special-shaped section forging with a conical boss with a large section mutation degree in the middle of the outer surface and an inner step on the inner surface; designing the shape of a cavity of the driving roller to be consistent with the outer surface of the forging, and designing the shape of a cavity of the core roller to be consistent with the inner surface of the forging; in order to ensure stable contact and convenience of blank making when rolling starts, the ring blank is in three-point contact with the cavity of the driving roller, the ring blank is in line contact with the upper end face of the cavity of the core roller and in one-point contact with the boss, the outer surface of the ring blank is designed into a boss section with upper and lower tapers, and the inner surface of the ring blank is designed into a straight wall and a hole pattern with the tapers;
(2) preliminary selection of ring blank size
a) Selecting the equivalent rolling ratio
In order to ensure that the forging has corresponding cold rolling performance, the deformation in the rolling process is ensured by the inner diameter d of the small hole of the forging1Inner diameter d of small hole of ring blank01The ratio of which is the equivalent rolling ratio K, i.e.The equivalent rolling ratio K is 1.3-2;
b) designing the size of the inner surface of the ring blank
Firstly, determining the height H of the conical surface of the inner surface of a ring blank according to the total height H of a forged piece04=H-a-b-H05Wherein a is the gap between the upper end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller, b is the gap between the lower end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller, H05For the thickness of the punched integral skin, H05Usually 5-8 mm; h is the total height of the forging; h04The height of the conical surface of the inner surface of the blank;
the minimum diameter of the taper hole of the blank can be determined according to the equivalent rolling ratioWherein d is1The inner diameter of a small hole of the forge piece, and K is the equivalent rolling ratio;
determining the maximum diameter of the tapered hole of the blank according to the point contact requirement of the inner surface of the blank and the core rollerWherein d is1、d3Is the inner diameter of small hole and large hole of forged piece H5、H6The height of the small hole and the conical hole of the forging; h05For the thickness of the punched integral skin, H05Usually 5-8 mm; h is the total height of the forging; a is a gap between the upper end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller, and b is a gap between the lower end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller;
c) designing the outer surface size of the ring blank
The upper conical surface of the ring blank is in two-point contact with the driving roller, and the ring blank and the forged piece are arranged in an H position01The maximum outer diameter D of the ring blank is determined by the equal volume on the height01The outer diameter D of an upper conical surface of the ring blank02(ii) a The lower conical surface of the ring blank is in one-point contact with the driving roller, and the ring blank and the forging piece are at the height H06The upper volumes are equal, and the outer diameter D of the lower conical surface of the ring blank is determined03
According to the height H of the upper conical surface of the ring blank01Volume V of ring blank01Height H of forged piece11Volume V of1Equal, i.e. V01=V1(ii) a Simultaneous equations can be used to determine the diameter D of the upper conical surface of the ring blank01、D02
Wherein H01Is the height of the upper conical surface of the ring blank,H05the thickness of the punched continuous skin is usually 5-8 mm; d01The inner diameter of the small hole of the ring blank; d04Is a ring blank in H01Inner diameter of (d)1Is the inner diameter of the forging hole D1Is the outer diameter of the upper end face of the forging, D2For forgings in H1Outer diameter at height, D6For forgings in H11Outer diameter at height H1The height of the upper step of the forging; a is a gap between the upper end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller; d01Is the maximum outer diameter of the ring blank, D02The outer diameter of an upper conical surface of the ring blank; alpha is the angle formed by the forge piece at the boss and the vertical direction; theta is an angle formed by the upper conical surface of the blank and the horizontal direction;
according to the height H of the lower conical surface of the ring blank06Volume V of02Height H of forged piece4Volume V of2Equal, i.e. V2=V02Simultaneous equations to calculate the outer diameter D of the lower conical surface of the ring blank03
Wherein D is03Is the outer diameter of the lower conical surface of the ring blank,D04for the lower conical surface at a height H06Outer diameter of (D)04=D01+D4-D2-2tanα(H01+a-H1) (ii) a Gamma is the lower cone angle of the ring blank,H4is the lower step of the forgingHeight of (D)3Is the maximum outer diameter of the forging, D4For forgings in H4Outer diameter at height, D5Is the outer diameter of the lower end face of the forging, D01Is the maximum outer diameter of the ring blank, H02Is the axial height of the lower conical surface of the ring blank,H06is the height H of the ring blank and the forging4At the same height; b is the gap between the lower end surface of the ring blank and the end surface of the core roller; d02The diameter of the ring blank is large; d03For the ring blank with a conical hole in H06A diameter at height; d3The maximum inner diameter of the forging;
(3) correcting ring blank size
According to the axial volume distribution principle of the ring blank and the forging, the outer diameter D of the ring blank is primarily selected01、D02、D03And finally, determining the final size of the ring blank according to the principle that the volumes of the ring blank and the forged piece are equal
According to the total volume V of the ring blankGeneral assemblyEqual to the total volume V of the forging, i.e. VGeneral assemblyIf the value of k is V, a simultaneous equation set can be calculated, and k is the corrected value of the outer diameter of the ring blank;
wherein: d01Is the maximum outer diameter of the ring blank, D02Is the outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the ring blank, D03The outer diameter of the lower conical surface of the ring blank; h01Is the upper cone height of the ring blank, H02Is the lower cone height of the ring blank, H03Is the height of the boss of the ring blank H04Height of the conical hole in the inner surface of the ring blank, H05The thickness of the punched continuous skin is usually 5-8 mm; d1Is the outer diameter of the upper end face of the forging, D2Is a forged part H1Outer diameter at height, D3Is the maximum outer diameter of the forging, D4As forged piecesAt H4Outer diameter at height, D5Is the outer diameter of the lower end face of the forging piece, d1Is the minimum inner diameter of the forging, d2For forgings in H7Height-wise inner diameter, d3Is the maximum inner diameter, H, of the forging1Is the upper step height of the forging, H2Is the height of the boss conical surface of the forging piece, H3Is the boss straight wall height of the forging, H4Is the lower step height of the forging, H5Height of straight-walled aperture in forging, H6Height of conical hole in forging, H7The height of a straight wall large hole on the inner surface of the forging piece is obtained; d01The inner diameter of the small hole of the ring blank; d02The diameter of the ring blank is large;
the maximum outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the corrected ring blank is as follows:
the outer diameter of the upper conical surface of the modified ring blank is as follows:
the external diameter of the lower conical surface of the modified ring blank is as follows:
and heating the blanked bar stock, upsetting, in-mold forming, trimming, punching and punching a connecting skin to prepare the special-shaped ring blank.
2. The low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method of the complex gear blank forging piece according to claim 1, characterized in that the roll pass design of the step 2) comprises the following specific steps:
a) roll pass cavity size
According to the height H of the straight-wall small hole on the inner surface of the forging5Inner surface taper hole height H6Inner surface straight wall large hole height H7Determining the core roller boss height Bi1Total height of holei2,Bi1=H7+(0~0.2)mm,Bi2=H5+H6+H7
According to the minimum inner radius r of the forging1And a maximum inner radius r3Determining the step length L of the core rolleri,Li=r3-r1
According to the height H of the upper step of the forging1Height H of boss conical surface of forged piece2Height H of boss straight wall of forged piece3Lower step height H of forging4Determining the height H of the upper step in the hole pattern of the driving rollerd1Height H of conical surface of bossd2Height H of boss straight walld3Lower step height Hd4,Hd1=H1-(0~0.2)mm,Hd2=H2+(0~0.2)mm,Hd3=H3+(0~0.2)mm,Hd4=H4- (0 to 0.2) mm; total height H of the drive rollerd,Hd=Hd1+Hd2+Hd3+Hd4+(20~30)mm;
According to the external diameter D of the upper end surface of the external diameter dimension of the forging1、H1Outer diameter D at height2Maximum outer diameter D3、H4Outer diameter D at height4Lower end surface outer diameter D5Determining the step length of the driving roller: hd2Length L of the conical surfaced1Length L of upper stepd2Lower step length Ld3、Hd4Length L of the conical surfaced4
To avoid widening during rolling, the width of the upper end of the driving roller is takenWidth of upper end of core rollerWherein D1Is the outer diameter of the upper end face of the forging piece, d1Is the inner diameter of the small hole of the forging; width of lower end of core rollerWherein d is3The maximum inner diameter of the forging;
determining the axial height of the core roller hole pattern according to the axial height of the inner surface of the forge piece, wherein the height of the core roller hole pattern boss is equal to that of the straight-wall large hole of the inner surface of the forge piece, namely Bi1=H7(ii) a The total height of the core pass is equal to the total height of the forging, i.e. Bi2=H;
b) Radial dimension of working surface of roller
The size of the working surface of the roller is required to meet the requirements of both biting and complete forging and the requirement of a spatial structure; linear velocity V of driving rollerdThe radius of the working surface of the driving roller can be determined according to the linear velocity of the driving roller, and is usually 1.1-1.6 m/sWhereinIs the rotating speed of the driving roller, n is the rotating speed of the motor, eta is the transmission ratio, n and eta are determined by equipment parameters,
in order to make the forged piece not only continuously bite into the hole pattern, but also forge thoroughly, the minimum working surface radius R of the core rolleriThe following conditions should be satisfied:
wherein R isiIs the minimum working face radius of the core roll; beta-arctan mu is a friction angle, mu is a friction coefficient generally 0.15-0.2, and R is3Is the maximum outer radius of the forging piece,r1is the minimum inner radius of the forging piece,
to ensure smooth insertion of the core rollerThe maximum outer diameter of the inner bore of the ring blank, the core roll, should be at least 3mm smaller than the minimum inner diameter of the inner bore of the ring blank, i.e.According to the structural requirements of the ring rolling mill, when rolling is started, the distance between the driving roller and the core roller is not larger than the maximum central moment of the ring rolling mill; when the driving roller and the core roller are completely closed, the central moment of the two rollers is not smaller than the minimum central distance of the ring rolling mill;
namely, it is
Wherein L ismaxAnd LminThe maximum and minimum closing center distance allowed by the ring rolling mill.
3. The low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method of the complex gear blank forging piece according to claim 1, characterized in that the cold rolling forming process planning in the step 3) comprises the following specific steps:
to satisfy the bite and forge through volume, V is requiredmin≤VInto≤Vmax
VminTo meet the minimum feed rate under the conditions of biting and penetration, VIntoFor feed speed, VmaxTo meet the maximum feed rate under the conditions of biting and penetration, R1To drive the roller at a minimum radius, R2Is the minimum radius of the core roller, R is the maximum outer radius of the ring blank, R is the maximum inner radius of the ring blank, ndIs the rotational speed of the drive roller; the total feed quantity delta H is the wall thickness reduction of the ring blank, and the ring blank and the roller are in the contact stabilization stageFrom point contact to surface contact, the feed amountFeed rateFeed timeIn the hole pattern filling stage, the feed amount Δ H2=(0.45~0.55)(ΔH-ΔH1) Medium speed feeding and feeding speedFeed timeIn the diameter enlargement stage, the feed amount Δ H3=(0.35~0.45)(ΔH-ΔH1) High speed feeding, feed speedFeed timeFeed Δ H in the sizing phase4=0.05(ΔH-ΔH1) Feed speed V40.1mm/s, feed timeFeed Δ H in the rounding stage50, feed speed V5Setting the feeding time to be 0.5-2 s;
and putting the machined ring blank of the forging into a ring rolling machine hole.
4. The low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method of the complex gear blank forging according to claim 1, wherein the ring blank is made of 20 CrMnTi.
CN202010243683.9A 2020-03-31 2020-03-31 Low-consumption high-performance near-net cold rolling forming method for complex gear blank forging Active CN111331063B (en)

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