CN111282419A - Dry type purification process and device for multiple pollutants in flue gas of incinerator - Google Patents

Dry type purification process and device for multiple pollutants in flue gas of incinerator Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111282419A
CN111282419A CN202010210607.8A CN202010210607A CN111282419A CN 111282419 A CN111282419 A CN 111282419A CN 202010210607 A CN202010210607 A CN 202010210607A CN 111282419 A CN111282419 A CN 111282419A
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China
Prior art keywords
flue gas
desulfurizer
desulfurization
ammonia
gas
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CN202010210607.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
黄乃金
毛宜超
吴天晴
吴昊
梅文娟
陈玉林
徐兵
解彬
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Anhui Weida Environmental Protection Technology Co ltd
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Anhui Weida Environmental Protection Technology Co ltd
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Priority to CN202010210607.8A priority Critical patent/CN111282419A/en
Publication of CN111282419A publication Critical patent/CN111282419A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/74General processes for purification of waste gases; Apparatus or devices specially adapted therefor
    • B01D53/75Multi-step processes
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D46/00Filters, i.e. particle separators or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours
    • B01D46/02Particle separators, e.g. dust precipitators, having hollow filters made of flexible material
    • B01D46/023Pockets filters, i.e. multiple bag filters mounted on a common frame
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/48Sulfur compounds
    • B01D53/50Sulfur oxides
    • B01D53/508Sulfur oxides by treating the gases with solids
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/68Halogens or halogen compounds
    • B01D53/685Halogens or halogen compounds by treating the gases with solids
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/74General processes for purification of waste gases; Apparatus or devices specially adapted therefor
    • B01D53/81Solid phase processes
    • B01D53/83Solid phase processes with moving reactants
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/74General processes for purification of waste gases; Apparatus or devices specially adapted therefor
    • B01D53/86Catalytic processes
    • B01D53/8621Removing nitrogen compounds
    • B01D53/8625Nitrogen oxides
    • B01D53/8631Processes characterised by a specific device
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23GCREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
    • F23G5/00Incineration of waste; Incinerator constructions; Details, accessories or control therefor
    • F23G5/44Details; Accessories
    • F23G5/46Recuperation of heat
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F23COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
    • F23JREMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES; FLUES 
    • F23J15/00Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes
    • F23J15/06Arrangements of devices for treating smoke or fumes of coolers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2251/00Reactants
    • B01D2251/20Reductants
    • B01D2251/206Ammonium compounds
    • B01D2251/2062Ammonia
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2251/00Reactants
    • B01D2251/30Alkali metal compounds
    • B01D2251/304Alkali metal compounds of sodium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2251/00Reactants
    • B01D2251/40Alkaline earth metal or magnesium compounds
    • B01D2251/404Alkaline earth metal or magnesium compounds of calcium
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2258/00Sources of waste gases
    • B01D2258/02Other waste gases
    • B01D2258/0283Flue gases
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weather
    • Y02A50/20Air quality improvement or preservation, e.g. vehicle emission control or emission reduction by using catalytic converters
    • Y02A50/2351Atmospheric particulate matter [PM], e.g. carbon smoke microparticles, smog, aerosol particles, dust
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/30Technologies for a more efficient combustion or heat usage

Abstract

The invention relates to a dry type purification process and a dry type purification device for multiple pollutants in flue gas of an incinerator, wherein the device comprises a first-stage desulfurization system and a second-stage desulfurization system which are sequentially arranged, and each-stage desulfurization system comprises a desulfurizer powder bin, a desulfurizer pulverizer, a Roots blower, a desulfurizer feeding device, a desulfurizing tower and a bag-type dust remover which are sequentially arranged; the lower part of the second-stage desulfurization system is sequentially provided with a medium-low temperature SCR reactor, a waste heat exchange device and an induced draft fan; an ammonia spraying grid and a static mixer are arranged in the medium-low temperature SCR reactor, and the ammonia spraying grid is arranged in an air inlet pipeline of the medium-low temperature SCR denitration reactor; the medium-low temperature SCR reactor is connected with an ammonia gas preparation system and a thermal desorption/heating system; the bag-type dust collector comprises an air inlet flue, an ash bucket arranged at the bottom of the dust collector, a filter bag arranged in the dust collector, an air purifying chamber and an air outlet flue, wherein a flue gas uniform distribution device is arranged on the side of the ash bucket.

Description

Dry type purification process and device for multiple pollutants in flue gas of incinerator
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of integrated high-efficiency control of multiple pollutants in incinerator flue gas, and particularly relates to a dry type purification process and device for multiple pollutants in incinerator flue gas.
Background
Because dust and SO are generated in the production process of the incinerator2And harmful substances such as NOx cause environmental pollution. With the increasing environmental emission standard and the increasing pollution treatment force of the state, the treatment of the flue gas of the incinerator has been proposed in the daily agenda.
A large amount of garbage is generated in daily life and work of human beings, the components of the garbage are complex, the harm is huge, and the ecological environment is seriously influenced. The conventional method of landfill is gradually replaced by the advantage of waste incineration that the reduction and recycling of waste can be realized, and the method is widely applied in China. The waste incineration flue gas contains a large amount of pollutants, and serious secondary pollution can be generated due to improper treatment, so that the purification of the flue gas is very important. Certain specific components in the garbageThe burning of the waste gas is the main source of harmful gas in the flue gas, such as HCl generated after the chlorine-containing plastics are burnt, and nitrogen-containing compounds in the waste are decomposed and converted with N2High temperature oxidation to NOxBy combustion of sulfur-containing compounds with oxidation to form SOxAnd the like. GB18485-2014 pollution control Standard for domestic waste incineration issued by the ministry of environmental protection sets the following strict regulations on the daily average value of domestic waste incineration smoke emission: the emission concentration of the particulate matters is less than or equal to 20mg/m3The discharge concentration of the hydrogen chloride is less than or equal to 50mg/m3The sulfur dioxide emission concentration is less than or equal to 80mg/m3The concentration of nitrogen oxide emission is less than or equal to 250mg/m3. With the more strict domestic waste incineration smoke emission standard, manufacturers all use the European Union 2000 guidelines as the daily average emission standard of harmful substances: the emission concentration of the particulate matters is less than or equal to 10mg/m3The discharge concentration of hydrogen chloride is less than or equal to 10mg/m3The discharge concentration of hydrogen fluoride is less than or equal to 1mg/m3The sulfur dioxide emission concentration is less than or equal to 50mg/m3The concentration of nitrogen oxide emission is less than or equal to 200mg/m3. The draft of the comments on GB18484-2001 hazardous waste incineration pollution control Standard issued by the ministry of environmental protection for 14 years makes the following strict regulations on the exhaust smoke from hazardous waste incineration: the emission concentration of the particulate matters is less than or equal to 30mg/m3The discharge concentration of the hydrogen chloride is less than or equal to 50mg/m3The discharge concentration of hydrogen fluoride is less than or equal to 2mg/m3The sulfur dioxide emission concentration is less than or equal to 200mg/m3The concentration of nitrogen oxide emission is less than or equal to 400mg/m3The concentration of dioxin emission is less than or equal to 0.1mg/m3. In order for the incinerator flue gas to meet emission standards, efficient purification of incinerator flue gas pollutants is therefore of paramount importance.
At present, flue gas purification of an incinerator mainly adopts a flue gas treatment scheme of a semidry method (lime slurry sprayed by a rotary atomizer), activated carbon and a bag-type dust remover and a flue gas treatment scheme of a dry method (lime dry powder), activated carbon and a bag-type dust remover. The two schemes have the following defects that although the former process can meet the high discharge standard, the precision requirement on the lime dry powder particles is higher, the investment cost and the maintenance cost are higher, and the faults of lime slurry pipeline blockage, atomizing disc abrasion, large atomizer vibration, high bearing temperature and the like can occur during operation; although the latter has simple process and low investment, the absorption and regeneration of the active carbon are damaged in the repeated use process, the active carbon is frequently regenerated, the water consumption for water washing regeneration is high, the equipment is easy to corrode, and the heating regeneration of the active carbon is easy to be lost. And at present, the environmental protection is increasingly more demanding, and the emission index of the flue gas treated by the process can only meet the low standard requirement and can not meet the increasingly strict high emission standard. Based on this, research and development of dry purification technology for multiple pollutants in flue gas of incinerator are urgently needed.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention discloses a dry-type purification process and a dry-type purification device for multiple pollutants in incinerator flue gas, aiming at solving the defects of the existing incinerator flue gas treatment method. It can not only treat fine particle dust and SO in flue gas of incinerator2、NOXThe system has the advantages of zero water consumption, low operation energy consumption, low operation cost, high desulfurization and denitration efficiency, small maintenance amount, long service life of the catalyst and the like.
In order to realize the purpose, the technical scheme of the dry type purification process and the dry type purification device for the multiple pollutants in the flue gas of the incinerator is as follows:
a dry purification process for multiple pollutants in incinerator flue gas comprises the following steps:
(1) the flue gas enters an air inlet pipeline before the dust remover to be subjected to a first-stage desulfurization system: a desulfurizer adding device is arranged in the gas inlet pipeline in front of the dust remover, and the desulfurizer in the desulfurizer adding device is calcium hydroxide which is added; firstly, coarse powder desulfurizer is supplied to a desulfurizer powder bin, the coarse powder desulfurizer is ground to 20-25 mu m by a desulfurization grinding machine, the temperature is controlled below 50 ℃ in the grinding process, and finally the coarse powder desulfurizer is conveyed to a desulfurizer adding device through a conveying pipeline and is uniformly sprayed in an air inlet pipeline of a dust remover under the action of a Roots blower, the desulfurizer is thermally activated in the air inlet pipeline of the dust remover, the specific surface area is rapidly increased, a desulfurization tower is arranged behind the spraying pipeline, the contact time of flue gas and the desulfurizer is prolonged, and the contact time of the flue gas and the desulfurizer is enabled toThe desulfurizer fully contacts with the acid flue gas to react, and HCl, HF and SO in the flue gas of the incinerator2The acidic substances are absorbed and purified;
(2) by absorbing HCl, HF, SO2Waiting for acidic substances and feeding the dried flue gas containing powder into a bag-type dust collector; the flue gas enters the dust remover from the ash hopper through the air inlet flue and the flue gas uniform distribution device; the smoke enters the dust collector from the dust hopper and gradually rises along the gaps of the filter bags, so that the effective filtering area of the filter bags is maximized, the dust is filtered by the filter bags, and finally the filtered smoke is discharged from the small holes of the pattern plate of the bag-type dust collector and enters the air purifying chamber; the flue gas after dust removal enters a second-stage desulfurization system through an air outlet flue;
(3) the flue gas after the first desulfurization and dust removal enters a second-stage desulfurization system: a desulfurizer adding device is arranged in the air inlet pipeline of the dust remover of the secondary desulfurization system, and the desulfurizer in the desulfurizer adding device is sodium bicarbonate which is added; firstly, coarse powder desulfurizer is supplied to a desulfurizer powder bin, the coarse powder desulfurizer is ground to 20-25 mu m by a desulfurizer grinding machine, the specific surface area is large, the temperature is controlled below 50 ℃ in the grinding process, finally, the coarse powder desulfurizer is conveyed to a desulfurizer adding device through a conveying pipeline and is uniformly sprayed in an air inlet pipeline of a dust remover under the action of a Roots blower, the desulfurizer is thermally activated in the air inlet pipeline of the dust remover, the specific surface area is rapidly increased, the coarse powder desulfurizer is fully contacted with acidic flue gas to generate physical and chemical reactions, and residual HCl, HF and SO in the flue gas of an incinerator2The acidic substances are absorbed and purified;
(4) enabling the flue gas subjected to desulfurization and dust removal to enter a medium-low temperature SCR reactor for denitration reaction, and removing nitrogen oxides and dioxin in the flue gas: the secondary desulfurization bag-type dust remover air outlet flue of the secondary desulfurization system is connected with the air inlet of the medium-low temperature SCR reactor; an ammonia spraying grid is arranged in an air inlet pipeline of the medium-low temperature SCR denitration reactor, ammonia gas with the volume concentration of less than 5 percent which is uniformly sprayed through the ammonia spraying grid is primarily mixed with the flue gas of the incinerator, and the flue gas and the ammonia gas are primarily and uniformly mixed and then pass through a static mixer in the medium-low temperature SCR reactor to be fully mixed again; meanwhile, the thermal analysis/heating system can heat the catalyst when the temperature of the flue gas is lower than a set temperature value;
two catalyst layers and a catalyst reservation layer are arranged in the middle-low temperature SCR reactor, the uniformly mixed flue gas and ammonia gas uniformly flow out of the static mixer, the flue gas and the ammonia gas are further uniformly mixed and uniformly distributed through the buffering of the catalyst reservation layer and then enter the catalyst layers, and the ammonia gas and nitrogen oxides in the flue gas are subjected to chemical reaction under the catalytic action of the catalyst to generate nitrogen gas and water vapor;
(5) and finally, the clean flue gas after desulfurization, dust removal and denitration enters a waste heat exchange device through a gas outlet of the medium-low temperature SCR reactor for waste heat utilization under the action of a draught fan, and is discharged into the atmosphere through a chimney.
Furthermore, a guide plate is arranged at the inlet of the dust remover in the step (2), the guide plate performs inertia pre-separation on large particles in the flue gas, and meanwhile, the cross section of the airflow in the box body of the dust remover is uniformly distributed.
And (3) further, a pulse ash removal device is arranged on the filter bag in the step (2), and when dust on the surface of the filter bag is accumulated to 5mm, the filter bag is subjected to ash removal on line by blowing compressed air or nitrogen.
Further, the mixed ammonia gas in the step (4) is prepared by an ammonia gas preparation system by evaporating ammonia water by using flue gas subjected to high-temperature hot air denitration as a heat source.
And further, after ammonia water in the ammonia gas preparation system is metered and distributed at the front end, the ammonia water and atomizing air are mixed and sprayed into the evaporator in the double-fluid atomizing spray gun, and the mixture is fully evaporated and mixed with high-temperature flue gas in the evaporator to generate mixed ammonia gas with the concentration not more than 5%.
A dry type purification device for multiple pollutants in flue gas of an incinerator comprises a first-stage desulfurization system and a second-stage desulfurization system which are sequentially arranged, wherein each stage desulfurization system comprises a desulfurizer powder bin, a desulfurizer powder grinding machine, a Roots blower, a desulfurizer feeding device, a desulfurization tower and a bag-type dust remover which are sequentially arranged; the lower part of the second-stage desulfurization system is sequentially provided with a medium-low temperature SCR reactor, a waste heat exchange device and an induced draft fan; an ammonia spraying grid and a static mixer are arranged in the medium-low temperature SCR reactor, and the ammonia spraying grid is arranged in an air inlet pipeline of the medium-low temperature SCR denitration reactor; the medium-low temperature SCR reactor is connected with an ammonia gas preparation system and a thermal desorption/heating system; the bag-type dust collector comprises an air inlet flue, an ash bucket arranged at the bottom of the dust collector, a filter bag arranged in the dust collector, an air purifying chamber and an air outlet flue, wherein a flue gas uniform distribution device is arranged on the side of the ash bucket; calcium hydroxide is arranged in a desulfurizer pulverizer of the first-stage desulfurization system; sodium bicarbonate is arranged in a desulfurizer pulverizer of the second-stage desulfurization system.
Furthermore, the desulfurizer pulverizer is an impact mill with a classifier, the fineness of the desulfurizer powder is high and is 20-25 μm, and a cooling device is arranged on the desulfurizer pulverizer.
Furthermore, a guide plate is arranged at the inlet of the bag-type dust collector, a flower plate is arranged in the bag-type dust collector, small holes are formed in the flower plate, and the small holes of the flower plate are communicated with the air purifying chamber.
Furthermore, the air purifying chamber is a high air purifying chamber with the height of 2.5-3.5 m, and a manhole is arranged on the high air purifying chamber; the filter bag is provided with a pulse ash removal device; the static mixer is a high-temperature resistant three-dimensional porous medium metal flat plate, and the porosity is 60-90%; the ammonia preparation system comprises a heating unit, a two-fluid atomization spray gun and an evaporator.
Furthermore, two catalyst layers and a catalyst reserved layer are arranged in the medium-low temperature SCR reactor.
Furthermore, the ammonia injection grid is of a net structure and is formed by parallelly arranging a plurality of stainless steel pipes with small holes, the diameter of each small hole is 4-20 mm, the direction of each small hole is along the flow direction of flue gas, and the distance between every two small holes is 150-300 mm.
The invention has the technical effects that:
the process and the device can realize the cooperative dry treatment and waste heat utilization of multiple pollutants such as particulate matters, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and the like.
Particularly, the method can not only treat fine particle dust, sulfur dioxide and NO in the flue gas of the incineratorXAnd the like, and the device realizes the dry treatment with zero water consumption. Meanwhile, comprehensively considering high desulfurization efficiency but high price of sodium bicarbonate, the sodium hydroxideThe calcium desulfurization efficiency is low but the price is cheap, the desulfurization reaction is carried out in two steps, and the operation cost is reduced as far as possible while the desulfurization efficiency is met. The first-stage desulfurizer of the device adopts calcium hydroxide, and HCl and HF in flue gas are more acidic than SO2Therefore, the first-stage desulfurization mainly removes HCl, HF and part of SO in the flue gas by preferentially reacting with calcium hydroxide2. The second stage desulfurizing agent adopts sodium bicarbonate, and partial SO is removed in the first stage desulfurizing agent2Therefore, the consumption of the second-stage desulfurizer is reduced, the cost is reduced, and simultaneously, the sodium bicarbonate desulfurization efficiency is high, SO that the requirement of SO can be met2The second-stage desulfurization can remove most of the residual HCl, HF and SO in the flue gas according to the emission standard2. Desulfurization and dust removal are carried out before flue gas denitration, so that safe and efficient operation of the catalyst can be realized, abrasion and blockage of the catalyst by dust can be effectively avoided, and meanwhile, impurities in the flue gas, such as alkali metal, can be prevented from poisoning the catalyst, so that the denitration efficiency is improved. Meanwhile, the process realizes the maximum utilization of the waste heat of the flue gas of the incinerator. In conclusion, the dry purification process and the dry purification device are reliable in operation, and can enable pollutants in the flue gas of the incinerator to reach emission limit values required by GB18485-2014 pollution control Standard for municipal solid waste incineration, GB18484 pollution control Standard for hazardous waste incineration and the like.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of the apparatus of the present invention;
in the figure: 1-a desulfurizer powder bin, 2-a desulfurizer powder mill, 3-a Roots blower, 4-a desulfurizer adding device, 5-a desulfurizing tower, 6-a bag-type dust remover, 7-a medium-low temperature SCR reactor, 8-an ammonia spraying grid, 9-a static mixer, 10-an ammonia gas preparation system, 11-a thermal desorption/heating system, 12-a waste heat exchange device and 13-an induced draft fan;
FIG. 2 is a structural view of a bag-type dust collector of the present invention;
in the figure: 14-air inlet flue, 15-flue gas uniform distribution device, 16-ash bucket, 17-filter bag, 18-air purifying chamber and 19-air outlet flue.
Detailed Description
In order to more vividly illustrate the concrete implementation steps of the present invention, the following further description will be made with reference to the accompanying drawings:
referring to the attached drawings, the dry type purification device for multiple pollutants in the flue gas of the incinerator comprises a desulfurizer powder bin 1, a desulfurizer powder mill 2, a Roots blower 3, a desulfurizer adding device 4, a desulfurizing tower 5, a bag-type dust remover 6, a medium-low temperature SCR reactor 7, an ammonia spraying grid 8, a static mixer 9, an ammonia gas preparation system 10, a thermal desorption/heating system 11, a waste heat exchange device 12 and an induced draft fan 13; the bag-type dust collector 6 comprises an air inlet flue 14, a flue gas uniform distribution device 15, an ash bucket 16, a filter bag 17, an air purifying chamber 18 and an air outlet flue 19. Removing HCl, HF and SO in flue gas of incinerator flue gas by two-stage desulfurization (calcium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate)2And (3) waiting for acid gas, removing particles in the flue gas through dust removal, and removing nitric oxide, dioxin and the like in the flue gas through denitration. The treated clean flue gas is fully utilized by the waste heat exchange device 12, and finally returns to the original chimney of the incinerator for emission under the action of the induced draft fan 13. The device can realize the dry processing and waste heat utilization of the synergy of multiple pollutants such as particles, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and the like. The specific implementation steps are as follows:
(1) the flue gas enters the inlet duct before the dust separator. A desulfurizer adding device 4 is arranged in the air inlet pipeline in front of the dust remover, and the desulfurizer in the desulfurizer adding device 4 is calcium hydroxide which is added. First, a desulfurizing agent powder silo 1 supplies coarse powder desulfurizing agent, and the coarse powder is finely ground to 20 to 25 μm by a desulfurizing mill 2, and the desulfurizing agent mill 2 is an impact mill with a classifier, and can maintain the required fineness of the desulfurizing agent in long-term operation. The desulfurizing agent has high powder fineness of 20-25 μm, large specific surface area, and can sufficiently react with SO in coke oven flue gas2And other acidic gases are contacted to react, so that the desulfurization efficiency is improved. Meanwhile, in order to avoid the heating and premature decomposition of the desulfurizer in the grinding process, the temperature is controlled below 50 ℃ in the grinding process, and the desulfurizer grinding mill 2 is provided with a proper cooling facility for controlling the grinding temperature. Finally, under the action of the Roots blower 3, the desulfurizer is conveyed to the desulfurizer adding device 4 through the conveying pipeline and is uniformly sprayed in the gas inlet pipeline of the dust remover, the desulfurizer is thermally activated in the gas inlet pipeline of the dust remover, the specific surface area is rapidly increased, and the desulfurizing tower 5 is arranged behind the spraying pipeline and extends to the rear of the gas inlet pipelineThe contact time of the flue gas and the desulfurizer is long, SO that the desulfurizer is fully contacted with the acidic flue gas to react, HCl, HF and SO in the flue gas of the incinerator2Etc. are absorbed and purified.
The main reaction chemical equation is as follows:
Ca(OH)2+SO2=CaSO3·1/2H2O+1/2H2O
Ca(OH)2+SO3=CaSO4·1/2H2O+1/2H2O
CaSO3·1/2H2O+1/2O2=CaSO4·1/2H2O
2Ca(OH)2+2HCl=CaCl2·Ca(OH)2·2H2O(>120℃)
Ca(OH)2+2HF=CaF2+2H2O
(2) by absorbing HCl, HF, SO2The flue gas containing acidic substances and dried powder enters a bag-type dust collector 6 for further desulfurization reaction and smoke purification, and particulate matters in the flue gas are effectively prevented from blocking a catalyst layer. The flue gas passes through an air inlet flue 14 and a flue gas uniform distribution device 15, and enters a dust remover from an ash hopper 16, and a guide plate is arranged at the inlet of the dust remover, the guide plate performs inertia pre-separation on large particles in the flue gas, and meanwhile, the guide plate has a uniform distribution effect on the airflow entering a bag chamber, so that the airflow is uniformly distributed on the inner section of a box body in the dust remover. The flue gas enters the dust remover from the ash hopper 16 and gradually rises along the gaps of the filter bags 17, so that the effective filtering area of the filter bags 17 is maximized, the dust removing efficiency is improved, the dust is filtered by the filter bags 17, and finally the filtered flue gas is discharged from the small holes of the pattern plates of the bag-type dust remover 6 and enters the air purifying chamber 18. The air purifying chamber 18 is a high air purifying chamber with the height of 2.5-3.5 m, a manhole is arranged on the high air purifying chamber, and when the filter bag needs to be overhauled or replaced, the filter bag can be directly overhauled or replaced in the air purifying chamber 18. Meanwhile, the arrangement mode of the high air purifying chamber can effectively avoid the problems of poor sealing, water leakage and the like of the traditional low air purifying chamber (with an access door). The filter bag 17 is provided with a pulse ash cleaning device, and when dust on the surface of the filter bag 17 is accumulated to a certain degree, the dust can be blown and pressedThe compressed air or nitrogen is used for cleaning ash in the filter bag 17 on line, and the flue gas after dust removal enters the second-stage desulfurization system through the air outlet flue 19.
(3) And the flue gas after primary desulfurization and dust removal enters a second stage of desulfurization, a desulfurizer adding device 4 is arranged in an air inlet pipeline of the second stage of dust remover, and the desulfurizer in the desulfurizer adding device 4 is sodium bicarbonate added with sodium bicarbonate. First, a desulfurizing agent powder silo 1 supplies coarse powder desulfurizing agent, and the coarse powder is finely ground to 20 to 25 μm by a desulfurizing agent mill 2, and the desulfurizing agent mill 2 is an impact mill with a classifier, and can maintain the required fineness of the desulfurizing agent in long-term operation. The desulfurizing agent has high powder fineness of 20-25 μm, large specific surface area, and can sufficiently react with SO in coke oven flue gas2And other acidic gases are contacted to react, so that the desulfurization efficiency is improved. Meanwhile, in order to avoid the heating and the early decomposition of the desulfurizer in the grinding process, the temperature is controlled below 50 ℃ in the grinding process, and the desulfurizer mill 2 is provided with a proper cooling facility for controlling the grinding temperature. Finally, under the action of the Roots blower 3, the desulfurizer is conveyed to the desulfurizer adding device 4 through the conveying pipeline and is uniformly sprayed into the gas inlet pipeline of the dust remover, the desulfurizer is thermally activated in the gas inlet pipeline of the dust remover, the specific surface area is rapidly increased, the desulfurizer is fully contacted with the acidic flue gas to generate physical and chemical reactions, and residual HCl, HF and SO in the flue gas of the incinerator2Etc. are absorbed and purified.
The flue gas containing powder after secondary desulfurization enters a bag-type dust collector 6 for further desulfurization reaction and smoke purification, and particulate matters in the flue gas are effectively prevented from blocking a catalyst layer, and the process is not repeated in step 2.
The main reaction chemical equation is as follows:
2NaHCO3→Na2CO3+CO2+H2O
SO2+1/2O2+2NaCO3→Na2SO4+CO2
SO3+2NaCO3→Na2SO4+2CO2
HCl+NaCO3→NaCl+H2O+CO2
HF+NaCO3→NaF+H2O+CO2
(4) the flue gas after desulfurization and dust removal enters a medium-low temperature SCR reactor 7 for denitration reaction, and nitrogen oxides and dioxin in the flue gas are removed. And an air outlet flue of a bag-type dust collector 6 of the secondary desulfurization system is connected with an air inlet of a medium-low temperature SCR reactor 7. An ammonia spraying grid 8 is arranged in an air inlet pipeline of the medium-low temperature SCR denitration reactor 7, ammonia gas with the volume concentration of less than 5% which is uniformly sprayed out through the ammonia spraying grid 8 is preliminarily mixed with flue gas of an incinerator, the ammonia spraying grid 8 is of a net structure and is formed by a plurality of stainless steel pipes which are provided with small holes in parallel, the diameter of each small hole is 4-20 mm, the direction of each hole is along the flow direction of the flue gas, and the distance between the small holes is 150-300 mm. The flue gas and the ammonia gas are primarily and uniformly mixed and then pass through a static mixer 9 in the middle and low temperature SCR reactor 7, so that the ammonia gas and the flue gas are fully mixed again. The static mixer 9 is a high-temperature resistant three-dimensional porous medium metal flat plate, and the porosity is 60-90%. The mixed ammonia gas is prepared by the ammonia gas preparation system 10 by evaporating ammonia water by using high-temperature hot air (flue gas after denitration) as a heat source, no additional energy is needed, and the requirements of energy conservation and safety are met. Specifically, after ammonia water is metered and distributed at the front end of the ammonia gas preparation system 10, the ammonia water and atomizing air are mixed and sprayed into the evaporator in the two-fluid atomizing spray gun, and the ammonia water and high-temperature flue gas are fully evaporated and mixed in the evaporator to generate mixed ammonia gas with the concentration not more than 5%, and no aqueous solution is left. Meanwhile, the thermal desorption/heating system 11 can heat the catalyst when the temperature of the flue gas is lower than a set temperature value, so that the denitration reaction is carried out within a proper temperature range, the denitration efficiency is ensured, the thermal desorption can be carried out on the catalyst in situ, and the service life of the catalyst is prolonged.
Two catalyst layers and a catalyst reservation layer are arranged in the medium-low temperature SCR (denitration) reactor 7, and the uniformly mixed flue gas and ammonia gas uniformly flow out of the static mixer 9 and enter the catalyst layers after being further uniformly mixed and uniformly distributed through the buffering of the catalyst reservation layer. Under the catalytic action of the catalyst, the ammonia gas and the nitrogen oxides in the flue gas are subjected to chemical reaction to generate nitrogen and water vapor. The main chemical reaction formula of the medium-low temperature SCR selective reduction denitration is as follows:
4NO+4NH3+O2→4N2+6H2O
6NO+4NH3→5N2+6H2O
6NO2+8NH3→3N2+6H2O
2NO2+4NH3+O2→3N2+6H2O
the process is carried out in NH3When the leakage amount is less than 10ppm, the denitration efficiency is more than 90%; SO (SO)2/SO3<0.5%。
The denitration catalyst can be a catalyst in patent number ZL 201210167211.5 (an SCR flue gas denitration catalyst and a preparation method of titanium tungsten serving as a raw material of the SCR flue gas denitration catalyst), patent number ZL 201110149575.6 (a surface deposition type honeycomb flue gas denitration catalyst and a preparation method of the surface deposition type honeycomb flue gas denitration catalyst) or patent number ZL 200910145015.6 (a low-temperature selective catalytic reduction denitration catalyst and a preparation method of the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction denitration catalyst).
When the catalyst reaches or approaches the active life cycle, or reaches a higher emission standard, a new catalyst can be installed on the catalyst reserve layer to ensure denitration efficiency.
(5) And finally, enabling the purified flue gas (180-200 ℃) subjected to desulfurization, dedusting and denitration to enter a waste heat exchange device 12 through a gas outlet of the medium-low temperature SCR reactor 7 under the action of a draught fan 13 for waste heat utilization, and then discharging the waste heat into the atmosphere through a chimney.
(6) Dioxin substances mainly exist in two states in the flue gas of the incinerator: adsorbed on the surface of powder particles or directly dissociated in the flue gas in a gaseous state. Two-stage bag dust collector 6 that sets up in the system can effectually get rid of the particulate matter, just got rid of the dioxin that adsorbs on the particulate matter surface simultaneously. The remaining gaseous dioxin reacts with oxygen under the action of catalyst (francium radical), and is decomposed into CO at a suitable temperature2、H20. Discharging HCl and the like.
(7) Because the uniform distribution of the air flow plays a crucial role in desulfurization, dust removal and denitration, and the ammonia spraying uniformity and the ammonia/flue gas uniform mixing degree in the medium-low temperature SCR (denitration) reactor 7 determine the medium-low temperature SCR denitration effect. The apparatus of the process employs Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods to numerically simulate it for optimal design. The numerical simulation optimization method can adopt a numerical simulation optimization design method in a patent-bag type dust collector air flow organization multi-parameter optimization method (publication number CN 105912745A).

Claims (10)

1. A dry purification process for multiple pollutants in incinerator flue gas is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
(1) the flue gas enters an air inlet pipeline before the dust remover to be subjected to a first-stage desulfurization system: a desulfurizer adding device (4) is arranged in the gas inlet pipeline in front of the dust remover, and the desulfurizer in the desulfurizer adding device (4) is calcium hydroxide which is added; firstly, a desulfurizer powder bin (1) is supplied with coarse powder desulfurizer, the coarse powder desulfurizer is finely ground to 20-25 mu m by a desulfurization grinding machine (2), the temperature is controlled below 50 ℃ in the grinding process, and finally the coarse powder desulfurizer is conveyed to a desulfurizer adding device (4) through a conveying pipeline and is uniformly sprayed in an air inlet pipeline of a dust remover under the action of a Roots blower (3), the desulfurizer is thermally activated in the air inlet pipeline of the dust remover, the specific surface area is rapidly increased, a desulfurization tower (5) is arranged behind the spraying pipeline, the contact time of flue gas and the desulfurizer is prolonged, SO that the desulfurizer is fully contacted with acid flue gas to react, and HCl, HF and SO in the flue gas of an incinerator2The acidic substances are absorbed and purified;
(2) by absorbing HCl, HF, SO2The flue gas containing the acidic substances and dried powder enters a bag-type dust collector (6); the flue gas enters the dust remover from an ash hopper (16) through an air inlet flue (14) and a flue gas uniform distribution device (15); the flue gas enters the dust remover from the ash hopper (16) and gradually rises along the gaps of the filter bags (17), so that the effective filtering area of the filter bags (17) is maximized, the dust is filtered by the filter bags (17), and finally the filtered flue gas is discharged from the small holes of the pattern plates of the bag-type dust remover (6) and enters the air purifying chamber (18); the flue gas after dust removal enters a second-stage desulfurization system through an air outlet flue (19);
(3) the flue gas after the first desulfurization and dust removal enters a second-stage desulfurization system: in the air inlet pipeline of the dust remover of the second-stage desulfurization systemA desulfurizer adding device (4) is arranged, the desulfurizer in the desulfurizer adding device (4) is sodium bicarbonate, and sodium bicarbonate is added; firstly, a coarse powder desulfurizer is supplied to a desulfurizer powder bin (1), the coarse powder desulfurizer is ground to 20-25 mu m by a desulfurizer powder grinding machine (2), the specific surface area is large, the temperature is controlled below 50 ℃ in the grinding process, and finally the coarse powder desulfurizer is conveyed to a desulfurizer adding device (4) through a conveying pipeline and is uniformly sprayed in an air inlet pipeline of a dust remover under the action of a Roots blower (3), the desulfurizer is thermally activated in the air inlet pipeline of the dust remover, the specific surface area is rapidly increased, the coarse powder desulfurizer is fully contacted with acidic flue gas to generate physical and chemical reactions, and the residual HCl, HF and SO in the flue gas of an incinerator2The acidic substances are absorbed and purified;
(4) the flue gas after desulfurization and dust removal enters a medium-low temperature SCR reactor (7) for denitration reaction, and nitrogen oxides and dioxin in the flue gas are removed: the secondary desulfurization bag-type dust collector (6) air outlet flue of the secondary desulfurization system is connected with the air inlet of the medium-low temperature SCR reactor (7); an ammonia spraying grid (8) is arranged in an air inlet pipeline of the medium-low temperature SCR denitration reactor (7), ammonia gas with the volume concentration of less than 5 percent which is uniformly sprayed through the ammonia spraying grid (8) is primarily mixed with flue gas of the incinerator, and the flue gas and the ammonia gas are fully mixed again through a static mixer (9) in the medium-low temperature SCR reactor (7) after being primarily and uniformly mixed; meanwhile, the thermal analysis/heating system (11) can heat the catalyst when the temperature of the flue gas is lower than a set temperature value;
two catalyst layers and a catalyst reservation layer are arranged in the middle-low temperature SCR reactor (7), the uniformly mixed flue gas and ammonia gas uniformly flow out of the static mixer (9), the flue gas and the ammonia gas are further uniformly mixed and uniformly distributed through the buffering of the catalyst reservation layer and then enter the catalyst layers, and the ammonia gas and nitrogen oxides in the flue gas are subjected to chemical reaction under the catalytic action of the catalyst to generate nitrogen gas and water vapor;
(5) and finally, the clean flue gas after desulfurization, dust removal and denitration enters a waste heat exchange device (12) through a gas outlet of the medium-low temperature SCR reactor (7) for waste heat utilization under the action of a draught fan (13), and then is discharged into the atmosphere through a chimney.
2. The dry purification process of multi-pollutants in incinerator flue gas as claimed in claim 1, wherein: and (3) a guide plate is arranged at the inlet of the dust remover in the step (2), the guide plate performs inertial pre-separation on large particles in the flue gas, and meanwhile, the airflow is uniformly distributed on the inner section of a box body in the dust remover.
3. The process of claim 1 or 2, wherein the dry purification process comprises the following steps: and (3) arranging a pulse ash removal device on the filter bag (17) in the step (2), and when dust on the surface of the filter bag (17) is accumulated to 5mm, blowing compressed air or nitrogen to perform ash removal on the filter bag (17) on line.
4. The dry purification process of multi-pollutants in incinerator flue gas as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the mixed ammonia gas in the step (4) is prepared by using flue gas subjected to high-temperature hot air denitration as a heat source to evaporate ammonia water in an ammonia gas preparation system (10).
5. The dry purification process of multi-pollutants in incinerator flue gas as claimed in claim 4, wherein: after ammonia water is metered and distributed at the front end of the ammonia gas preparation system (10), the ammonia water and atomizing air are mixed and sprayed into the evaporator in the double-fluid atomizing spray gun, and the ammonia water and high-temperature flue gas are fully evaporated and mixed in the evaporator to generate mixed ammonia gas with the concentration not more than 5%.
6. A dry type purification device for multiple pollutants in flue gas of an incinerator is characterized in that: the system comprises a first-stage desulfurization system and a second-stage desulfurization system which are sequentially arranged, wherein each stage of desulfurization system comprises a desulfurizer powder bin (1), a desulfurizer pulverizer (2), a Roots blower (3), a desulfurizer adding device (4), a desulfurization tower (5) and a bag-type dust remover (6) which are sequentially arranged; the lower part of the second-stage desulfurization system is sequentially provided with a low-medium temperature SCR reactor (7), a waste heat exchange device 12 and an induced draft fan 13; an ammonia spraying grid (8) and a static mixer (9) are arranged in the medium-low temperature SCR reactor (7), and the ammonia spraying grid (8) is arranged in an air inlet pipeline of the medium-low temperature SCR denitration reactor (7); the medium-low temperature SCR reactor (7) is connected with an ammonia gas preparation system (10) and a thermal desorption/heating system (11); the bag-type dust collector (6) comprises an air inlet flue (14), an ash bucket (16) arranged at the bottom of the dust collector, a filter bag (17) arranged in the dust collector, an air purifying chamber (18) and an air outlet flue (19), wherein a flue gas uniform distribution device (15) is arranged on the side of the ash bucket (16); calcium hydroxide is arranged in a desulfurizer pulverizer (2) of the first-stage desulfurization system; sodium bicarbonate is arranged in a desulfurizer mill (2) of the second-stage desulfurization system.
7. The dry purification device for multiple pollutants in incinerator flue gas as claimed in claim 5, wherein: the desulfurizer pulverizer (2) is an impact mill with a classifier, the fineness of desulfurizer powder is high and is 20-25 mu m, and a cooling device is arranged on the desulfurizer pulverizer (2).
8. The dry purification device for multiple pollutants in incinerator flue gas as claimed in claim 5, wherein: the inlet of the bag-type dust collector (6) is provided with a guide plate, a flower plate is arranged in the bag-type dust collector (6), small holes are formed in the flower plate, and the small holes of the flower plate are communicated with the air purifying chamber (18).
9. The dry purification device for multiple pollutants in incinerator flue gas as claimed in claim 5, wherein: the air purifying chamber (18) is a high air purifying chamber with the height of 2.5-3.5 m, and a manhole is arranged on the high air purifying chamber; a pulse ash removal device is arranged on the filter bag (17); the static mixer (9) is a high-temperature resistant three-dimensional porous medium metal flat plate, and the porosity is 60-90%; the ammonia gas preparation system (10) comprises a heating unit, a two-fluid atomization spray gun and an evaporator.
10. The dry purification device for multiple pollutants in incinerator flue gas as claimed in claim 5, wherein: two catalyst layers and a catalyst reserved layer are arranged in the medium-low temperature SCR reactor (7); the ammonia injection grid (8) is of a net structure and is formed by parallelly arranging a plurality of stainless steel pipes with small holes, the diameter of each small hole is 4-20 mm, the hole opening direction is along the flow direction of flue gas, and the distance between the small holes is 150-300 mm.
CN202010210607.8A 2020-03-24 2020-03-24 Dry type purification process and device for multiple pollutants in flue gas of incinerator Pending CN111282419A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112121614A (en) * 2020-09-23 2020-12-25 山鹰国际控股股份公司 Stable ultralow emission device and method for solid waste incineration flue gas

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112121614A (en) * 2020-09-23 2020-12-25 山鹰国际控股股份公司 Stable ultralow emission device and method for solid waste incineration flue gas

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