CN111238322B - Rock roadway deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method - Google Patents

Rock roadway deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method Download PDF

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CN111238322B
CN111238322B CN202010152444.2A CN202010152444A CN111238322B CN 111238322 B CN111238322 B CN 111238322B CN 202010152444 A CN202010152444 A CN 202010152444A CN 111238322 B CN111238322 B CN 111238322B
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hole
shaped
wedge
energy
blasting
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CN111238322A (en
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张国锋
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China University of Mining and Technology Beijing CUMTB
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China University of Mining and Technology Beijing CUMTB
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D1/00Blasting methods or apparatus, e.g. loading or tamping
    • F42D1/08Tamping methods; Methods for loading boreholes with explosives; Apparatus therefor
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F42AMMUNITION; BLASTING
    • F42DBLASTING
    • F42D3/00Particular applications of blasting techniques
    • F42D3/04Particular applications of blasting techniques for rock blasting

Abstract

A rock drift deep hole multiple wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method. The method adopts a multiple-wedge straight cut technology to realize a large slot cavity with a slot cavity opening of 3.2-3.4 m and a deep hole slot cavity with a depth of more than 3.0m, and improves the single-cycle footage of rock drift tunneling; by adopting a peripheral T-shaped energy-gathered blasting technology, the effects of small diameter peripheral blasting, low explosive density, bidirectional full-hole deep cutting along two tangential sides of the periphery to form a smooth surface, cutting and breaking stones along a radial direction, generating tangential direction and peripheral shock absorption by a hollow hole, reducing super-undermining, reducing the lump degree of gangue, forming the smooth surface and stabilizing support are achieved; on the basis of the two key technical solutions, a full-section blasting process and parameters are set, and the expected deep-hole smooth blasting effect of 3.0m rock roadway blasting depth is achieved integrally.

Description

Rock roadway deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of smooth blasting, and particularly relates to a rock roadway deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method.
Background
In recent years, the quantity of rock roadway tunneling projects in the coal industry of China reaches more than 3000km every year, rock roadway tunneling generally accounts for 30% of the total tunneling quantity of a mine, and the rock roadway tunneling projects are throat projects extending from coal mine construction and development, and in order to realize stable and high yield of the mine and shorten the mine infrastructure construction period, the rock roadway tunneling speed is urgently needed to be accelerated. Wherein the rapid tunneling of the soft-medium hard rock roadway is solved by a fully-mechanized tunneling machine, and the average monthly footage reaches more than 300 m. The hard rock tunnel is tunneled mainly by a drilling and blasting method, and main procedures of drilling and gangue discharging are basically solved through new research and development equipment such as a rock drilling trolley, an excavation type loader, a drilling and loading unit for a rock tunnel and the like, but the blasting process is always a bottleneck for restricting single-feeding level, and the main performance is as follows: (1) the method is characterized in that the undercut cavity is small, the opening width of the common undercut cavity is 0.8-1.2 m, the bottom width of the undercut cavity is 0.2-0.4 m, a single wedge, double wedge and wedge direct hybrid undercut method is generally adopted, the depth of the actual undercut cavity after blasting is below 2.5m (belonging to medium-length hole blasting), the actual blast hole utilization is 70-80% (drilling is 3m, the actual utilization hole depth is 2.2m), the cyclic depth is generally 2-2.5 m, and the monthly single entry level is generally 60-70 m; (2) the large-diameter explosive roll with the diameter of 32mm is adopted, the peripheral distance is controlled to be 300-400 mm, so that the density of the explosive is large, when the explosive is broken and joints develop, the overbreak is serious, the tunnel forming is poor, the peripheral secondary renovation engineering quantity is large, the time is long, the sprayed concrete quantity is large, the cost is high, the stability of surrounding rocks is not facilitated, the tunnel supporting efficiency is low, and the tunneling speed is difficult to improve; (3) when the rock is hard, the problem is generally solved by increasing the number of blast holes and filling more explosive, so that the problems of large full-section hole drilling number, long hole drilling time, large explosive loading amount, large blasting vibration, long throwing distance, the requirement of retreating beyond 40m of a raking machine, large blocks of gangue after blasting, secondary gangue crushing and serious restriction on tunneling speed are caused.
In the aspect of a rock roadway slitting method, multi-wedge slitting is adopted in recent years, wherein (1) the multi-wedge slitting adopts two-stage wedge-shaped or three-stage wedge-shaped compound slitting, the advantages of rock throwing out by inclined hole slitting and less number of slitting holes are utilized, the slitting depth is gradually increased step by adopting the mode that one time, two times and three times are both wedge-shaped, but the section of a roadway in a coal mine roadway is generally 4-5.7 m, the width of the roadway is limited, when a drilling cavity opening simultaneously meets 0.8-1.2 m and the hole depth meets the design requirement of 2.4-3.0 m, a drilling trolley adopted by drilling is limited by longer length of a drill arm (3.5 m-4.7 m), the main slitting wedge angle is generally 78-84 degrees, the main slitting wedge angle exceeds the inclined hole reasonable slitting angle by 60-75 degrees, the bottom clamping effect is increased, the bottom bulging phenomenon occurs, the utilization rate of blast holes is reduced to 80 percent, and the actual slitting depth is only 2.2-2.4 m, deep hole undercutting of more than 3m is difficult to achieve. (2) The mixed undermining of straight wedge adopts the straight mixed enhancement undermining of wedge + secondary wedge, the straight mixed strenghthened type undermining of wedge, and general one slot chamber width is 0.8 ~ 1.5m, and the slot chamber is less to cause the secondary slot chamber free surface less, and the direct eye is lower at deep clamp system lower rate of utilization, and the actual degree of depth only has 2.4 ~ 2.6m, and the gangue bulk fraction that explodes simultaneously is high, and excessive broken block rate is also higher. In the aspect of peripheral smooth blasting, the conventional method adopts uncoupled light blasting with the diameter of 32mm and the diameter and the spacing of 300-400 mm, and the blasting energy density is large due to the large diameter and the small spacing of the cartridges, so that the phenomena of overbreak and underbreak are usually caused when soft and jointed rocks are encountered; in recent years, market standard specifications are utilized: the wall thickness of the pipe is 2.0mm, the inner diameter is 36mm, PVC pipe, ABS pipe, PPR thermoplastic pipe, etc. of the outer diameter is 40mm, then the pipe wall is processed with cutting seams and intensive drilling to form 180-degree two-way energy-collecting pipes along the two sides of the pipe, so that the explosive energy can generate strong directional cutting action along the cutting seams of the two sides of the pipe wall, the blasting action in other directions of the blast hole is weakened, the success rate of light blasting is higher, however, because the device adopts a centralized charging mode (the explosive length is 300-600 mm) of 500mm energy-collecting pipes 1-2 rolls of 32 mm-35 mm large-diameter explosive rolls arranged at the bottom of the hole, if the device meets the joint or the blockage of weak rock mass, only 1.0m range in the bottom of the hole can generate the cutting action, the actual effective smooth surface depth only accounts for 1/3 of the hole length, the smooth surface forming effect is poorer. By adopting small-diameter D-shaped tubes with the inner diameter of 27mm and the outer diameter of 32mm and the like, the energy density of peripheral explosives is reduced, the distance between peripheral holes is increased to 600-800 mm, the number of the peripheral holes is reduced, and the drilling time is saved to a certain extent, but the actual time saving is very limited for the drill jumbo (the drill jumbo only needs 2 minutes for drilling 3m deep holes, the drilling efficiency is very high, the problem of drilling speed is basically solved, the number of the peripheral holes is reduced by 10, only 20 minutes is saved, and the time saving is limited); meanwhile, because energy is completely concentrated on directional cutting at two sides, the blasting of peripheral holes along the radial direction of the roadway without cutting action is caused to generate more massive waste rocks, and the rock loading and transporting are more unfavorable.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a rock roadway deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method to solve the problems.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a rock roadway deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method comprises the following steps:
step 1, forming an open cavity by adopting a deep-hole multi-wedge straight cut technology, wherein the width of the open cavity is 3.2-3.4 m, and the height of the open cavity is 1.2-2.0 m; the bottom of the groove cavity is 0.9-1.5 m wide and 0.9-1.2 m high, and is a big flat and rectangular wedge-shaped groove cavity with big front end and small back end, big width and small height; the depth of the groove cavity is 3 meters;
step 2, arranging auxiliary holes, caving holes and bottom holes between the detonation cut holes and peripheral holes according to the principle of a minimum resistance line on the basis of the free surface of the slot cavity formed by blasting in the step 1 and the depth of 3 meters, and forming the free surface and the depth of 3 meters after blasting;
and 3, on the basis of the new free surface formed by blasting in the step 2 and the depth of 3 meters, the peripheral holes adopt a T-shaped energy-gathering smooth blasting technology to realize the smooth blasting and the forming shape of the periphery of the rock roadway.
Further, in step 1, the cutting holes are divided into a first cutting hole, a second cutting hole and a third cutting hole; the first cut hole adopts a first-section 0ms detonator to carry out primary large-wedge straight cut, a large wedge in the cut forms a 1.6-2.2 m large-groove cavity opening, and the straight hole adopts six-direction energy-gathering cutting pipe cutting blasting to cut rocks at the opening cavity part into blocks along six directions;
a second undermining hole adopts a II-section 25ms detonator to carry out secondary large wedge straight undermining, and the secondary large wedge and the secondary empty hole straight undermining further enlarge the slot cavity to 2.4-2.6 m;
and the third cut hole adopts III-section 50ms detonator blasting to carry out three times of large-wedge straight cutting, three times of straight ground explosive charges further throw primary and secondary broken rocks out of the groove cavity to provide a free surface, meanwhile, the center straight hole is blasted at the bottom of the wedge center, the drum belly residual hole formed at the bottom by the primary and secondary wedges is cleaned, the bottom of the groove cavity is deepened to the position with the hole depth of 3m, and the groove cavity is further enlarged to 3.2-3.4 m along the section direction by the three times of wedges.
Furthermore, the wedge-shaped holes in the first cut holes are 2.0-2.4 m deep, the included angle between the oblique holes and the tunnel face is 60-75 degrees, and the distance is 300-500 mm; the depth of the straight hole is 1.5-1.8 m, 90-degree straight holes are adopted, and the distance is 500-900 mm;
the depth of the second cut hole is 3.2m, the included angle between the oblique hole and the tunnel face is 75-85 degrees, and the distance between the oblique hole and the tunnel face is 300-500 mm;
the depth of a wedge-shaped hole in the third cut hole is 3.2m, the included angle between the oblique hole and the tunnel face is 75-85 degrees, and the distance between the oblique hole and the tunnel face is 300-500 mm; the depth of the central straight hole is 3.2m, 90-degree straight holes are adopted, and the distance is 500-900 mm.
Further, in step 3, the T-shaped energy collecting pipes are arranged along the circumferential direction of the cut hole area; the explosive loading mode is interval explosive loading, and specifically:
the method comprises the following steps of (1) filling explosive at intervals by adopting full-length explosive filling and bottom explosive filling holes, wherein the front hole is a T-shaped energy-gathering pipe which is 2m long, 32mm in outer diameter and 27mm in inner diameter, the full-length explosive filling is carried out, the decoupling coefficient is 1.31, and the hole sealing is 1.0 m; the bottom of the rear hole is filled with powder in a centralized way, a T-shaped energy collecting pipe with the length of 0.7m, the outer diameter of 32mm and the inner diameter of 27mm is adopted, the decoupling coefficient is 1.31, the powder is filled for 0.4m, the hole sealing is 0.3m, and the empty hole is 2 m.
Further, in step 3, the installation of the peripheral T-shaped energy-collecting pipes is specifically as follows:
1) connecting a pneumatic glue gun with an air bag, wherein the air bag uses air to press air from a driving face, and adjusting the pressure of the air bag to 0.2 MPa;
2) placing the T-shaped energy-gathering pipes on a working platform side by side;
3) removing the outer package of the cartridge, putting the cartridge into a pneumatic glue gun, and screwing down the back cover of the glue gun; pressurizing the explosive injection gun, holding the glue gun by hand to move from left to right at a constant speed along the energy-gathering tube, and uniformly injecting explosives into the energy-gathering tube;
4) sliding into the upper cover of the T-shaped energy-accumulating pipe, connecting the reinforcing explosive with the T-shaped energy-accumulating pipe by using a hole bottom connecting piece, ensuring that the reinforcing explosive cartridge explosive is uniformly contacted with the explosive of the energy-accumulating pipe during connection, and then firmly winding by using an adhesive tape;
5) each T-shaped energy-collecting pipe device is provided with two round table-mounted spacing blocks, and the spacing blocks are used for fixing the position of the energy-collecting pipe device and ensuring that an energy-collecting groove is parallel to a profile surface of a roadway after the energy-collecting pipe device is mounted in a blast hole;
6) inserting the priming detonator into the reinforcing explosive cartridge and ensuring the short circuit of the detonator leg wire;
furthermore, the energy accumulation requirement of the T-shaped energy accumulation pipe is as follows: the single V-shaped groove faces the center direction of the roadway, the bidirectional V-shaped groove is parallel to the peripheral tangent line, and two circular truncated cone type spacing blocks are arranged at equal intervals on each T-shaped energy-gathering pipe.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following technical effects:
the invention provides a rock tunnel deep hole smooth blasting method, which adopts a multiple wedge straight deep hole undermining technology to realize the effects of undermining depth of more than 3.0m, high single-cycle footage, reduction of the rate of large gangue blocks and shortening of gangue throwing distance; the surrounding T-shaped energy-gathering smooth blasting technology is adopted to realize the high-quality smooth blasting effect of small-diameter full-length joint cutting, small charge density, less super-short excavation, good tunnel forming and good supporting effect on the periphery of the rock tunnel.
Wherein, the multiple wedge straight deep hole undercutting technique: providing an opening cavity with the width of 3.2-3.4 m and the height of 1.2-2.0 m; the bottom of the groove cavity is 0.9-1.5 m wide and 0.9-1.2 m high, and is a big flat and rectangular wedge-shaped groove cavity with big front end and small back end, big width and small height; the deep-hole slot cavity with the slot cavity depth of 3m has the advantages that the ratio of the large gangue thrown out by the cut is small, the gangue throwing distance is reduced to 25-30 m, the retreating distance of the raking machine is reduced to 30m, the rock roadway tunneling single-cycle footage is integrally realized to be 2.8-3.0 m, the monthly single footage is 150-180 m, and the single-heading speed is improved by 2.5-3 times compared with the single-heading speed of the existing drilling and blasting method (the monthly single footage is 60-70 m in level).
Peripheral T-shaped energy-gathering smooth blasting technology: the T-shaped energy-accumulating blasting device provides a cartridge with a diameter of 27mm, a low explosive density, a full-length continuous charging structure and the effect of a T-shaped energy-accumulating pre-splitting joint, a smooth surface is formed along two-way full-hole deep joints at two sides in the tangential direction of the periphery, crushed stones are cut along the radial direction, and the lump size of gangue is reduced; the method for arranging the peripheral hole overall length and the hole bottom centralized charging partition provides a smooth blasting effect for generating tangential direction and peripheral shock absorption effects, avoids the overbreak and underexcavation effect caused by jointing and weak surrounding rocks, reduces the thickness of a sprayed layer of primary sprayed concrete, reduces the secondary trimming engineering quantity of the periphery, and improves the surrounding rock supporting effect.
On the basis of the two key technical solutions, a full-section blasting process and parameters are set to achieve the expected deep-hole smooth blasting effect with the blasting depth of 3.0 m.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a design drawing of the main body of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a top view of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a partial view of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a partial top view of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a six-way concentrator tube of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a perspective view of a six-way concentrator tube of the present invention;
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of a T-shaped concentrator tube of the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a T-shaped concentrator tube of the present invention;
FIG. 9 is a schematic view of a T-shaped concentrator tube installation of the present invention;
FIG. 10 is a view of the T-shaped concentrator tube and the frustum spacer of the present invention;
FIG. 11 is a diagram of a spacer block of the round table of the present invention.
101. The rock drilling machine comprises a primary straight hole, 102, a primary wedge-shaped inclined hole, 103, a secondary wedge-shaped inclined hole, 104, a tertiary wedge-shaped inclined hole, 105, a tertiary straight hole, 106, an auxiliary hole, 107, a caving hole, 108, a bottom hole, 109, a peripheral T-shaped energy-gathering bottom charge hole, 110, a peripheral T-shaped energy-gathering full-length charge hole, 111, a drill jumbo left arm drill rod, 112, a drill jumbo right arm drill rod, 113, a six-direction energy-gathering pipe, 114, an energy-gathering kerf, 115, a T-shaped energy-gathering pipe, 116, a peripheral tangential V-shaped energy-gathering groove, 117, a peripheral radial V-shaped energy-gathering groove, 118, a T-shaped energy-gathering charge bag, 119, water stemming, 120, yellow mud, 121, an empty hole, 122, a round platform spacing block.
Detailed Description
The invention is further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings:
referring to fig. 1 to 11, in a first step, a rock roadway deep-hole multi-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method firstly adopts a deep-hole multi-wedge straight cut blasting technology to firstly form an opening cavity with a width of 3.2 to 3.4m and a height of 1.2 to 2.0 m; the bottom of the slot cavity is 0.9-1.5 m wide and 0.9-1.2 m high, the slot cavity is a flat and rectangular large wedge-shaped slot cavity with a large front end and a small rear end and a large width and a small height, the slot cavity is beneficial to the collapse of partial rocks of the upper semicircular arch and the bottom plate, the depth of the cut can be more than 3.0m, the single-cycle footage is high, the rate of large blocks of waste rocks is reduced, and the effect of long waste rock throwing distance is shortened, and free surfaces can be provided for the second-step blasting of the auxiliary hole, the caving hole and the bottom hole, so that the auxiliary hole, the caving hole and the bottom hole can be fully blasted and reach 3m depth. And secondly, arranging response auxiliary holes, caving holes and bottom holes between the detonation cut holes and the peripheral holes according to the principle of a minimum resistance line, and providing a free surface and a depth of 3 meters for the peripheral hole blasting in the third step after blasting. And thirdly, on the basis of the free surface formed by blasting in the second step and the depth of 3 meters, the peripheral holes adopt a T-shaped energy-gathering smooth blasting technology to realize the high-quality smooth blasting effect of small-diameter full-length joint cutting, small charge density, less super-short excavation, good tunnel forming, the depth of 3 meters and good supporting effect on the periphery of the rock tunnel.
The specific technique is as follows:
(1) deep hole multiple wedge straight cut technology
The slotting method comprises the following steps: as shown in fig. 3 and 4, the undermining holes (eye position numbers 1-14) adopt i-section 0ms detonators to perform primary large-wedge straight undermining (namely 1-10 form primary large wedges, and 11-14 form primary straight-eye energy-gathering kerf blasting), the primary large wedge in the primary undermining hole forms a 1.6-2.2 m large cavity opening, the primary straight-eye energy-gathering kerf blasting cuts rocks at the opening cavity part into blocks along six directions (fig. 5), a six-direction energy-gathering kerf pipe (fig. 6) is adopted to have a kerf top plate, the length of the kerf is large, the capacity of reducing the blockiness range of gangue is large, and the primary undermining hole provides a large-groove opening cavity free surface for the secondary undermining hole;
secondary large-wedge straight undermining is carried out on undermining holes (with hole positions being 15-22) by adopting II-section 25ms detonators (namely 15-22 form a secondary large wedge, and 29-31 straight undermining holes form a secondary large-wedge straight undermining hole), the secondary large wedge and the secondary straight undermining holes further enlarge a slot cavity, and the secondary straight undermining holes have the function of providing free surfaces for secondary large-wedge inclined holes along the axial deep part of a roadway;
and (3) blasting the slotted holes (eye positions 23-28 and 29-31) by adopting III sections of 50ms (the eye positions 23-28 form a three-time large wedge shape, and the charge parts of the 29-31 straight eye bases form a three-time large wedge straight slotted hole), wherein the three-time straight eye base charge can further throw primary and secondary broken rocks out of the slot cavity, the slot cavity is emptied to provide a free surface for assisting, caving eyes and bottom eye blasting, and simultaneously, the straight eye can fully clear the residual bulging holes formed at the bottom by the primary and secondary wedges at the bottom of the wedge-shaped center bottom, the bottom of the slot cavity is deepened to the position with the hole depth of 3m, and the slot cavity is further enlarged along the section direction by the three-time wedges.
The groove cavity is directly blasted in times, deepened step by step and enlarged step by step through the triple wedge, so that the width of an opening cavity is 3.2-3.4 m, and the height is 1.2-2.0 m; the bottom of the groove cavity is 0.9-1.5 m wide and 0.9-1.2 m high, and is a big flat and rectangular wedge-shaped groove cavity with big front end and small back end, big width and small height; the depth of the groove cavity is 3 meters; such a cavity facilitates the collapse of the upper semicircular arch and floor section.
Arranging the cutting holes: as shown in fig. 2 and fig. 3, the depth of the cut hole (eye position number 1-10) is 2.0-2.4 m, the included angle between the oblique hole and the tunnel face is 55-75 degrees, and the distance is 300-500 mm; the cutting holes (the hole positions are 11-14), the hole depth is 1.5-1.8 m, 90-degree straight holes are adopted, and the distance is 500-900 mm; the depth of each cut hole (eye position number is 15-22) is 3.2m, the included angle between each oblique eye hole and the corresponding palm surface is 75-85 degrees, and the distance between each oblique eye hole and the corresponding palm surface is 300-500 mm; the depth of the cut hole (the eye position number is 23-28) is 3.2m, the included angle between the oblique eye hole and the palm surface is 75-85 degrees, and the distance is 300-500 mm; the cutting holes (eye position numbers 29-31) adopt 90-degree straight holes with the distance of 500-900 mm.
(2) T-shaped energy-gathering smooth blasting technology
The peripheral T-shaped energy-gathering smooth surface blasting holes (59-86) are blasted by adopting T-shaped energy-gathering pipes (shown in figure 7), the T-shaped energy-gathering pipes generate three-way cutting seams (shown in figure 8), wherein the peripheral smooth surfaces are formed by tangential bidirectional energy-gathering cutting seams along the periphery of the roadway, and the peripheral gangue cutting seams are subjected to radial single-item energy-gathering cutting seams along the center of the roadway, so that the block size of the peripheral gangue is reduced.
Spaced charging: referring to fig. 9, full-length charging and bottom charging holes are used for spaced charging, wherein the front hole is a small-diameter T-shaped energy-collecting pipe with the length of 2m, the outer diameter of 32mm and the inner diameter of 27mm, the decoupling coefficient is 1.31, and the hole sealing is 1.0 m; the bottom of the rear hole is filled with powder in a centralized way, a T-shaped energy collecting pipe with the length of 0.7m, the outer diameter of 32mm and the inner diameter of 27mm is adopted, the non-coupling coefficient is 1.31, the powder is filled for 0.4m, the hole sealing is 0.3m, and the empty hole is 2 m; the blank hole part has the direction, guarantees the joint-cutting line to the blank hole has the release energy shock-absorbing action of release pressure, protects the country rock vibration destruction and causes the overbreak.
The charge structure: the bottom is strengthened the big gun head, the middle energy-gathering tube, the water bag, the yellow mud.
The peripheral T-shaped energy-gathering pipe installation technology comprises the following steps:
firstly, a pneumatic glue gun is connected with a wind bag, the wind bag uses wind to press wind from a driving face, and the pressure of the wind bag is adjusted to be 0.2 MPa.
And secondly, placing the T-shaped energy collecting pipes on the working platform side by side.
Removing the external package of the explosive cartridge, putting a pneumatic glue gun (two explosive cartridges are put each time), and screwing down a back cover of the glue gun; pressurizing the explosive injection gun, holding the glue gun by hand to move from left to right at a constant speed along the energy-gathering tube, and uniformly injecting explosives into the energy-gathering tube.
Sliding into the upper cover of the T-shaped energy-accumulating pipe, connecting the reinforcing explosive with the T-shaped energy-accumulating pipe by using a hole bottom connecting piece, ensuring that the reinforcing explosive cartridge explosive is uniformly contacted with the explosive of the energy-accumulating pipe during connection, and then firmly winding by using an adhesive tape;
installing two circular truncated cone-shaped spacing blocks on each T-shaped energy-collecting pipe device, wherein the spacing blocks are used for fixing the positions of the energy-collecting pipe devices and ensuring that energy-collecting grooves are parallel to the profile surface of the roadway after the energy-collecting pipe devices are installed in blastholes;
inserting the primer detonator into the reinforced explosive cartridge and ensuring the short connection of the detonator leg wire (operating according to the method of making a gun head).
The whole explosive injection process is simple, convenient and quick to operate, and 20 energy-collecting pipe devices required by one circulating light explosion blasthole can be assembled within 30-45 minutes.
And energy gathering requirements of the T-shaped energy gathering pipe are as follows: the single V-shaped groove faces the center direction of the roadway, the bidirectional V-shaped groove is parallel to the peripheral tangent line, and two circular truncated cone type spacing blocks (see figure 11) are arranged on each T-shaped energy-gathering pipe at equal intervals (figure 10).
Example (b):
the research is carried out on the track of the three mining areas of coal-electricity Qidong mine II in the north of Anhui province, the design length of a roadway is 1027m, and the starting and stopping elevation of the roadway is-577.9-800.0 m. The upper part of the track adopts a straight wall semicircular arch shape, the anchor net cable is used for spraying and supporting, the width of a rough section is 5140mm, the height of the rough section is 4020mm, the width of a net section is 5000mm, the height of the net section is 3950mm, and the area of the rough section is 16.94m2Net cross-sectional area 15.67m2. The surrounding rock is white sandstone, joints and bedding development are realized, a local area is complete, and the hardness coefficient f is 10-13, and belongs to a hard sandstone layer.
The original construction scheme adopts a drilling and blasting method, and the specific method is that the whole section of the track in the II three mining areas is subjected to primary blasting hole blasting and grouped blasting, the grouped blasting adopts two groups of powder charges, and each group is subjected to primary blasting, namely the primary powder charge blasting bottom plate is upwards 1.2m, and the secondary powder charge blasting bottom plate is upwards 1.2m to the roadway top. 126 full-face blasts are carried out, wherein 76 blasts are carried out for the first time, and 50 blasts are carried out for the second time. The single cycle footage 2.5 ~ 2.6m after the blasting, the tunnel shaping is very poor, the periphery is because surrounding rock joint and bedding develop, cause unsmooth crisscross serious owing phenomenon of digging, must take the initial blow during the tunnel is strutted, the initial blow volume increases 260 yuan because the single meter cost of digging phenomenon is surpassed, the part of digging under then needs a large amount of artifical secondary to expand and repair the section, otherwise be difficult to guarantee the section size, difficult part of repairing with expanding then needs artifical benefit porthole cubic blasting shaping, tunnel driving causes very big difficulty. In addition, the throwing distance of the gangue after each blasting reaches 45m, so that the drilling and loading machine needs to move backwards by 50m, the equipment moving time is prolonged, the drilling efficiency is reduced, and the tunneling speed is influenced. The thrown gangue has larger lumpiness, the volume of a single block of 1.0m to 1.2m accounts for 20-35 percent, the volume of the gangue cannot exceed 40cm when underground transportation is required, otherwise, the gangue cannot pass through a gangue sliding hole, so that a large amount of manpower and time are needed to crush the large gangue into small blocks by adopting an air pick, and the construction cost and the manpower input are increased. Construction adopts three eight systems, the integral single circulation footage is 2.2-2.5 m, three circulation is carried out in two days, the average footage is 3.3-3.5 m every day, the monthly footage is maintained at 70-90 m, the tunneling speed is slow, the taking over in a mining area is tense, and production cannot be carried out according to the period.
The novel scheme adopts the rock drift deep hole multiple wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method, the three-time wedge straight compound cut technology and the T-shaped energy-gathering smooth blasting technology, and drilling and blasting parameters and a construction process are designed on the basis of the two technologies, so that a good effect is achieved.
(1) Drilling and blasting parameter design
Adaptability: the current deepest drilling jumbo for coal mines is adopted for drilling, the jumbo has the arm length of 4.7m, the drill rod length of 3.5m, the maximum effective drilling depth of 3.2m and the drilling diameter of 42-43 mm, and the width x of the section of the rock roadway is suitable for being 5.2-7.0 m according to the matching relation among the arm length, the inclination angle of the drill rod and the section.
Arranging blast holes: the blast hole (shown in figure 1) of the blasting method comprises a cut hole (eye position numbers 1-28), an auxiliary hole (eye position numbers 36-49), a caving hole (eye position numbers 32-35), bottom holes (50-58, 87-97) and peripheral T-shaped energy-collecting smooth surface blasting holes (59-86). Wherein, the cutting holes (the hole positions are 1-14) adopt I-section 0ms detonators to carry out primary cutting; secondary undermining is carried out on undermining holes (with hole positions being 15-22) by adopting II-section 25ms detonators; three times of slotting are carried out on the slotting holes (eye position numbers 23-28 and 29-31) by adopting a III section of 50 ms; blasting auxiliary eyes (eye positions 36-49), collapse eyes (eye positions 32-35) and bottom eyes (50-58, 87-97) by adopting an IV section for 75 ms; v-section 100ms detonators are adopted in peripheral T-shaped energy-gathering smooth surface blasting holes (59-86), each hole in each section is connected in parallel through a lead, and then the sections are connected in series for primary blasting.
The blast hole structure is as follows: referring to fig. 2, the middle cut hole (eye position number 1-10) adopts a secondary water gel explosive for mining with a charge size of 32mm and 300mm, the uncoupling coefficient is 1.31, the charging length accounts for 70-75% of the hole length, and the hole sealing length is not less than 30%; the middle cut hole (eye position number 11-14) adopts a six-direction energy-gathering explosive roll, the outer diameter is 37mm, the length is 900mm, the decoupling coefficient is 1.31, and the hole sealing length is 500 mm; the cut hole (the hole position number is 15-22) adopts a secondary water gel explosive for mining with a size of 32mm and 300mm of explosive roll, the uncoupling coefficient is 1.31, the charging length accounts for 70-75% of the hole length, and the hole sealing length is not less than 30%; the cut hole (the hole position number is 23-28) adopts a secondary water gel explosive for mining with a size of 32mm and 300mm of explosive roll, the uncoupling coefficient is 1.31, the charging length accounts for 70-75% of the hole length, and the hole sealing length is not less than 30%; the cut hole (eye position number 29-31) adopts a secondary water gel explosive for mining with a size of 32mm and 300mm of explosive roll, the decoupling coefficient is 1.31, the explosive is charged for 0.4-0.8 m, and the hole sealing length is not less than 300 mm; the auxiliary eyes (eye position numbers 36-49), the caving eyes (eye position numbers 32-35) and the bottom eyes (50-58, 87-97) are all made of secondary water gel explosives for mining with the explosive roll of 32mm and 300mm, the uncoupling coefficient is 1.31, the charging length accounts for 70-75% of the hole length, and the hole sealing length is not less than 30%; the peripheral T-shaped energy-gathering smooth surface blasting holes (59-86) are filled at intervals, 2m long T-shaped energy-gathering pipes are used for front holes, the full-length charge is carried out, the holes are sealed by 1m, 0.7m long T-shaped energy-gathering pipes are used for adjacent rear holes, the holes are filled at the bottoms of the holes in a concentrated mode, and the holes are sealed by 0.3 m.
(2) Drilling and blasting process
1) And the construction process flow comprises the following steps: advancing blasthole driving → full-section charging → line connection → blasting → net laying, back front cantilever → anchor pile driving hole, slider hanging → head pushing → top driving anchor rod → mucking/mucking → side driving anchor rod → advancing blasthole driving.
2) And a drilling construction process: according to a blast hole arrangement diagram, firstly red paint is adopted for manual hole positioning → peripheral holes are firstly dotted → a roadway center point is found, a slotted hole is marked according to design size requirements → a two-arm drill carriage is started to simultaneously perform slotted hole drilling, and during drilling, the drilling arm adopts a parallel angle fixing, stepping upward movement, first descending and then ascending manner to drill the slotted hole → then auxiliary holes are drilled → peripheral holes are drilled → bottom holes are drilled.
3) And the construction process of charging comprises the following steps: checking the hole, inserting a gun rod into the borehole before charging, and checking the depth and angle of the borehole and the condition of the borehole; cleaning holes, wherein coal, rock and water in the blast holes are blown off by a compressed air pipe to prevent coal and rock powder from blocking the blast holes and prevent the cartridges from being tightly connected or being not filled into the eyeground; charging according to the charging amount in the blasting specification and the initiation sequence of the detonator by the number of sections; the hole sealing is realized by adopting a water sand bag and clay stemming, so that the hole sealing effect is good, the operation is simple, and the operation is quick and convenient.
4) The T-shaped energy-accumulating tube explosive package mounting process comprises the steps of manufacturing the T-shaped energy-accumulating tube explosive package, filling according to the sequence of the T-shaped energy-accumulating tube → water stemming → yellow mud, and connecting a V-section detonator and a leg wire in parallel.
5) The online construction process comprises the following steps: the slotting holes → the auxiliary holes → the peripheral holes → the bottom holes, and the mode of subsection parallel connection and integral series connection is adopted;
6) and the charging mode is as follows: and (4) reverse charging.
(3) Application effects
The test results show that: the single cut depth is maintained at 2.8-3.0 m, and the single blasting molding is carried out, the light surface rate accounts for 80% -95%, the phenomenon of over-under excavation is greatly reduced, the initial spraying required by over-under excavation is cancelled, the concrete spraying amount is reduced, the adverse operation environmental influence of workers for spraying concrete is reduced, no obvious massive waste rock exists after blasting, the underground transportation requirement is met, the distance between the thrown waste rock and the maximum waste rock is 35m, the average distance is 25-30 m, the backward moving distance of the drill-shaped equipment is greatly reduced, and a large amount of equipment moving time and engineering quantity are saved. The construction organization management of four-six-shift small-shift circulation greatly improves the tunneling efficiency, the single-cycle footage is 2.8-3.0 m, the three-cycle is carried out in two days, the average footage per day is 4.2-4.5 m, the monthly footage is maintained at 125-145 m, the monthly footage is improved by 38-207% compared with the original footage, and the cost of the footage of a single-meter roadway is reduced by 1146 yuan.

Claims (5)

1. A rock lane deep hole multiple wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step 1, forming an open cavity by adopting a deep-hole multi-wedge straight cut technology, wherein the width of the open cavity is 3.2-3.4 m, and the height of the open cavity is 1.2-2.0 m; the bottom of the groove cavity is 0.9-1.5 m wide and 0.9-1.2 m high, and is a big flat and rectangular wedge-shaped groove cavity with big front end and small back end, big width and small height; the depth of the groove cavity is 3 meters;
step 2, on the basis of the free surface of the slot cavity and the depth of 3 meters formed by blasting in the step 1, detonating an auxiliary hole, a caving hole and a bottom hole which are arranged between the cut hole and the peripheral holes according to the principle of the minimum resistance line, and forming a new free surface and the depth of 3 meters after blasting;
step 3, on the basis of the new free surface formed by blasting in the step 2 and the depth of 3 meters, the peripheral holes adopt a T-shaped energy-gathering smooth blasting technology to realize smooth blasting and forming on the periphery of the rock roadway;
in the step 1, the cutting holes are divided into a first cutting hole, a second cutting hole and a third cutting hole; the first undermining hole comprises a primary straight hole and a primary large wedge-shaped hole, the primary large wedge-shaped hole is subjected to primary large wedge-shaped straight undermining by adopting a detonator with the length of 0ms in the section I, a large cavity opening with the size of 1.6-2.2 m is formed in the primary large wedge-shaped undermining hole, and the rock at the position of the cavity opening is subjected to joint cutting and blasting by adopting a six-direction energy-gathering joint cutting pipe to cut and block rocks in six directions by the straight hole;
the second undermining hole comprises a secondary large wedge-shaped hole and a secondary empty hole straight hole, the second undermining hole adopts a II-section 25ms detonator to carry out secondary large wedge-shaped straight undermining, and the secondary large wedge-shaped hole and the secondary empty hole straight hole further enlarge the opening of the slot cavity to 2.4-2.6 m;
the third cut hole comprises a central straight hole and a third large wedge-shaped hole, the third cut hole is blasted by a third-section 50ms detonator, blasting broken rocks of the first cut hole and the second cut hole are further thrown out of the slot cavity by the aid of charging of the central straight hole bottom to provide a free surface, the central straight hole is blasted at the bottom of the wedge-shaped center, residual bulging holes formed at the bottom of the primary and secondary large wedges are cleaned, the bottom of the slot cavity is deepened to the depth of 3m, and the opening of the slot cavity is further enlarged to 3.2-3.4 m in the section direction by the aid of the third large wedge.
2. The rock roadway deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the depth of a wedge-shaped eye hole in the first cut hole is 2.0-2.4 m, the included angle between the wedge-shaped eye and a tunnel face is 60-75 degrees, and the distance between the wedge-shaped eye and the tunnel face is 300-500 mm; the depth of the straight hole is 1.5-1.8 m, 90-degree straight holes are adopted, and the distance is 500-900 mm;
the depth of the second cut hole is 3.2m, the included angle between the wedge-shaped hole and the tunnel face is 75-85 degrees, and the distance between the wedge-shaped hole and the tunnel face is 300-500 mm;
the depth of a wedge-shaped hole in the third cut hole is 3.2m, the included angle between the wedge-shaped hole and the tunnel face is 75-85 degrees, and the distance between the wedge-shaped hole and the tunnel face is 300-500 mm; the depth of the central straight hole is 3.2m, 90-degree straight holes are adopted, and the distance is 500-900 mm.
3. The rock lane deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method according to claim 1, wherein in step 3, in the T-shaped energy-gathering smooth blasting technology, T-shaped energy-gathering pipes are circumferentially arranged along a cut hole area; the explosive loading mode is interval explosive loading, and specifically:
the method comprises the following steps of (1) filling explosive at intervals by adopting full-length explosive filling and bottom explosive filling holes, wherein the front hole is a T-shaped energy-gathering pipe which is 2m long, 32mm in outer diameter and 27mm in inner diameter, the full-length explosive filling is carried out, the decoupling coefficient is 1.31, and the hole sealing is 1.0 m; the bottom of the rear hole is filled with powder in a centralized way, a T-shaped energy collecting pipe with the length of 0.7m, the outer diameter of 32mm and the inner diameter of 27mm is adopted, the decoupling coefficient is 1.31, the powder is filled for 0.4m, the hole sealing is 0.3m, and the empty hole is 2 m.
4. The rock lane deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method according to claim 1, wherein in the step 3, in the T-shaped energy-gathering smooth blasting technology, the installation of the T-shaped energy-gathering tube specifically comprises the following steps:
1) connecting a pneumatic glue gun with an air bag, wherein the air bag uses air to press air from a driving face, and adjusting the pressure of the air bag to 0.2 MPa;
2) placing the T-shaped energy-gathering pipes on a working platform side by side;
3) removing the outer package of the cartridge, putting the cartridge into a pneumatic glue gun, and screwing down the back cover of the glue gun; pressurizing the explosive injection gun, holding the glue gun by hand to move uniformly from left to right along the energy-gathering tube, and uniformly injecting explosives into the energy-gathering tube;
4) sliding into the upper cover of the T-shaped energy-accumulating pipe, connecting the reinforcing explosive with the T-shaped energy-accumulating pipe by using a hole bottom connecting piece, ensuring that the reinforcing explosive cartridge explosive is uniformly contacted with the explosive of the energy-accumulating pipe during connection, and then firmly winding by using an adhesive tape;
5) each T-shaped energy-collecting pipe device is provided with two round table-shaped spacing blocks, and the spacing blocks are used for fixing the position of the energy-collecting pipe device and ensuring that an energy-collecting groove is parallel to the profile surface of a roadway after the energy-collecting pipe device is arranged in a blast hole;
6) and inserting the priming detonator into the reinforced explosive cartridge and ensuring the short circuit of the detonator leg wire.
5. The rock lane deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method according to claim 4, characterized in that T-shaped energy-gathering pipes have energy-gathering requirements: the single V-shaped groove faces the center direction of the roadway, the bidirectional V-shaped groove is parallel to the peripheral tangent line, and two truncated cone-shaped spacing blocks are arranged at equal intervals on each T-shaped energy-collecting pipe.
CN202010152444.2A 2020-03-06 2020-03-06 Rock roadway deep-hole multiple-wedge straight cut energy-gathering smooth blasting method Active CN111238322B (en)

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