CN111215432A - Three-stage integrated treatment system and method for organic biomass garbage - Google Patents

Three-stage integrated treatment system and method for organic biomass garbage Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111215432A
CN111215432A CN202010030577.2A CN202010030577A CN111215432A CN 111215432 A CN111215432 A CN 111215432A CN 202010030577 A CN202010030577 A CN 202010030577A CN 111215432 A CN111215432 A CN 111215432A
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aerobic
anaerobic
zone
treatment
fermentation
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Inventor
郭荣波
冯权
罗生军
王国栋
许晓晖
杨智满
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Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology of CAS
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Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology of CAS
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Priority to CN202010030577.2A priority Critical patent/CN111215432A/en
Publication of CN111215432A publication Critical patent/CN111215432A/en
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B3/00Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless
    • B09B3/80Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless involving an extraction step
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B3/00Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B5/00Operations not covered by a single other subclass or by a single other group in this subclass
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B09DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL
    • B09BDISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
    • B09B2101/00Type of solid waste
    • B09B2101/02Gases or liquids enclosed in discarded articles, e.g. aerosol cans or cooling systems of refrigerators

Abstract

The invention discloses an organic biomass garbage three-section integrated treatment system and an organic biomass garbage treatment method, wherein the treatment system comprises: three-section type fermentation reactor, spiral feeding and discharging device, external circulation coil pipe and deodorizing device. According to the system, micro aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic processes are integrated, kitchen waste is subjected to micro aerobic pretreatment, and the problem of unstable operation caused by acidification in the anaerobic process is avoided; secondly, a horizontal plug flow and integrated slow stirring mode is adopted, so that the mass transfer and heat transfer efficiency in the anaerobic process is improved; and thirdly, the materials are conveyed on line in the micro-aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic processes by adopting a multi-stage spiral conveying mode, so that the problems of poor material flow and blockage are solved. The process has strong practicability, is continuous and efficient, well solves the environmental problem caused by the urban kitchen garbage, comprehensively utilizes the wastes as resources, and is suitable for environment-friendly treatment of easily biodegradable organic wastes.

Description

Three-stage integrated treatment system and method for organic biomass garbage
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of organic biomass waste recycling treatment, and particularly relates to a three-stage integrated treatment system and a three-stage integrated treatment method for organic biomass garbage, in particular kitchen garbage.
Background
China is facing double pressure of environment and energy, with the acceleration of economic and urbanization progress, energy consumption is huge in China, and 2/3 faces the dilemma of refuse city in large cities. The domestic garbage is changed into available resources by technical means, and the crisis of energy and environment in China can be relieved to a certain extent. The municipal refuse mainly comprises kitchen wastes, waste paper, waste plastics, waste fabrics, waste metals, brick and tile residue soil, excrement, waste electrical appliances, greening wastes and the like. Before garbage classification, the main treatment modes of the mixed garbage are as follows: landfill, incineration and composting.
Wherein, the landfill technology can not realize the resource treatment of the organic biomass garbage in the garbage, which wastes energy. At present, the method is forbidden by many developed countries, and China also gradually reduces the use of the treatment method. The incineration technology is a municipal domestic waste treatment technology widely adopted in developed countries at present. However, the incineration technology has the problems of higher capital investment and operation cost, smoke pollution and huge equipment investment. The composting technology is a microbiological process for biochemically converting biodegradable organic matters into stable humus by depending on microorganisms widely distributed in the nature under aerobic conditions, and the temperature in the fermentation process is controlled by composting to basically realize the recycling and harmless treatment of the putrescible garbage. At present, the mainstream technology for treating the household garbage is still landfill and incineration, and the compost is used less.
With the progress of garbage classification nationwide, kitchen waste in urban garbage is separated separately, and the garbage has high organic matter content and is easy to decay, so that if the garbage is treated according to the traditional landfill, incineration and composting, the energy waste is caused.
At present, the kitchen waste treatment technology and equipment are mainly divided into two categories, one is an aerobic fermentation technology, most of organic matters in the kitchen waste are converted into carbon dioxide under aerobic conditions, the temperature in the fermentation process is raised to 50-60 ℃, although stabilization and harmless treatment of the organic matters are realized, the fermentation product can be used as an organic fertilizer or a soil conditioner, the water content needs to be adjusted in the fermentation process, energy sources in the organic fertilizer are not recycled, and a large amount of organic matters are converted into the carbon dioxide, so that energy waste is caused; secondly, anaerobic digestion technology, anaerobic digestion can reduce the pollution of kitchen garbage and carbon dioxide emission, and simultaneously generate biogas, and nowadays, the anaerobic digestion technology has received more and more attention due to energy shortage.
The anaerobic digestion process is divided into a wet type anaerobic digestion technology and a dry type anaerobic digestion technology, wherein the solid content is generally controlled to be below 10%, kitchen waste is converted into biogas in an anaerobic state, water is generally added in the fermentation process for fully mixing and stirring fermented materials, fermented residues need to be discharged, then dehydration and aerobic composting are carried out, and finally an organic fertilizer product is formed. A large amount of high concentration biogas slurry wastewater is produced in the whole process, and the treatment of high concentration organic wastewater is very difficult and costly, such as the familiar landfill leachate. The dry anaerobic digestion refers to that the municipal kitchen waste (the concentration of dry matter is 15-40%) is decomposed into CH by anaerobic bacteria4、CO2And the like. The dry anaerobic digestion has the advantages of high dry matter concentration of raw materials, small occupied area, low heating energy consumption, low pretreatment requirement, high organic load and the like, does not need to be diluted by adding water, and can avoid the defects of difficult feeding and discharging, uneven heat and mass transfer and the like caused by the defects of the traditional method.
Although dry anaerobic fermentation is a potential kitchen waste treatment method, the large-scale application of the dry anaerobic fermentation is limited due to some process technical difficulties, mainly because of the following four reasons:
1. after the solid content is increased, the organic matter concentration is increased, the system is easy to acidify in the initial fermentation stage, the suitable environment of the methane bacteria is neutral or alkalescent, and the process of producing methane is difficult to control and even difficult to start due to acidification;
2. in the dry anaerobic fermentation process, materials are solid and have no fluidity, so that the materials are difficult to enter and exit the anaerobic reactor, and efficient solid material entering and exiting equipment is lacked;
3. the materials after dry anaerobic fermentation also need to be dehydrated and further aerobically treated;
4. the materials in the dry anaerobic fermentation system are solid, and the mixing mass transfer of the solid materials in the reactor is difficult, so that the mass transfer and heat transfer efficiency in the process is low, and the methane production efficiency is low.
The existing traditional kitchen waste treatment technology and equipment basically need to sort kitchen waste, remove plastic bags, waste paper, chopsticks, and possible impurities such as ironwork, sand and stones in the kitchen waste, and prevent the blockage of the subsequent material conveying process. The sorting process has poor operating environment, incomplete sorting, blockage, equipment damage and other operation problems.
In summary, most of the existing kitchen waste treatment equipment and process are mainly based on single anaerobic treatment or aerobic treatment, and a low-concentration wet anaerobic fermentation method is usually adopted, so that the advantages of aerobic and anaerobic treatment of kitchen waste are not combined, the operation flow is complex, combination of various types of equipment is required, and sorted waste is required, so that the investment and operation cost is high.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects in the prior art, the invention aims to solve the technical problems that the advantages of aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation are combined, the problem that dry anaerobic fermentation is easy to acidify and influences the yield of methane is solved, and the problem of blockage in the process of conveying non-sorted materials is solved through spiral conveying.
According to one aspect of the invention, the invention aims at providing a three-stage integrated treatment system for organic biomass garbage, which comprises the following parts:
the device comprises a three-section type fermentation reactor, a spiral feeding and discharging device, an external circulating coil and a deodorizing device;
the three-section type fermentation reactor is divided into a first micro aerobic area, a second anaerobic area and a third aerobic area which are separated by a partition plate at intervals, and the volume ratio of the first micro aerobic area to the second anaerobic area to the third aerobic area is about 1:4: 1;
wherein the first microaerobic zone has: the first feed inlet is used for receiving organic biomass waste materials, and the first gas outlet is used for discharging gas in the first microaerobic zone;
the second anaerobic zone has: a second feed inlet for receiving material from the first microaerobic zone, a second gas outlet for discharging gas from the second anaerobic zone;
the third aerobic zone has: a third feed for receiving material from the second anaerobic zone, a third gas outlet for discharging gas from the third aerobic zone;
the three-section type fermentation reactor is also provided with a coaxial central stirring shaft penetrating through the first micro aerobic area, the second anaerobic area and the third aerobic area, and a plug flow structure is formed in the horizontal direction and is used for realizing simultaneous stirring of materials in the three areas and promoting mixing and moving of the materials.
Preferably, the spiral feeding and discharging device comprises a first spiral feeding and discharging device, a second spiral feeding and discharging device and a third spiral feeding and discharging device, one end of the first spiral feeding and discharging device extends into the first micro-aerobic area, the other end of the first spiral feeding and discharging device is connected with the second feeding hole of the second anaerobic area, the second spiral feeding and discharging device is used for conveying the materials in the first micro aerobic area to the second anaerobic area, one end of the second spiral feeding and discharging device extends into the second anaerobic area, the other end of the second spiral feeding and discharging device is connected with an extrusion dehydrator, the materials are dehydrated firstly, the extrusion dehydrator is connected with the third feeding hole of the third aerobic area, the third spiral feeding and discharging device is used for conveying the materials in the second anaerobic zone into the third aerobic zone, and one end of the third spiral feeding and discharging device extends into the third aerobic zone and is used for removing the materials in the third aerobic zone.
Preferably, the external circulation coil is a water circulation coil for circulating heat transfer between the first microaerobic zone, the second anaerobic zone and the third aerobic zone.
Preferably, the deodorization device is respectively connected to the first gas outlet of the first micro-aerobic zone, the second gas outlet of the second anaerobic zone and the third gas outlet of the third aerobic zone, and is used for removing gas odor.
Preferably, fixed stirring blades are arranged on the coaxial central stirring shaft at different positions vertical to the stirring shaft, the blade distance in the first micro aerobic area and the third aerobic area is set to be between 20 and 50cm, the blade distance in the second anaerobic area is set to be between 0.5 and 2m, and the blades are spirally distributed on the stirring shaft.
Preferably, the first micro-aerobic zone, the second anaerobic zone and the third aerobic zone are all provided with a pressure gauge, a thermometer, an oxygen concentration sensor and a dissolved oxygen concentration sensor.
Preferably, the third aerobic zone of the first micro-aerobic zone is provided with a perforated aerator pipe for blowing air or oxygen into the two zones.
Preferably, the three-stage fermentation reactor is cuboid or cylindrical or U-shaped, and is made of reinforced concrete structure, carbon steel or stainless steel.
Preferably, the treatment system according to the invention comprises biogas collection means for collecting biogas produced from the second anaerobic zone.
According to another aspect of the invention, a three-stage integrated treatment method for organic biomass garbage is provided, which comprises the following steps:
1) organic biomass garbage crushing
Directly crushing the organic biomass garbage containing impurities without a sorting process until the particle size is less than 100 mm;
2) microaerobic treatment
Adding the crushed particles with the particle size of less than 100mm in the step 1) into the first micro aerobic area in the three-section type fermentation reactor in the three-section type integrated treatment system of the organic biomass garbage, blowing air or pure oxygen, keeping the volume content of the oxygen in the first micro aerobic area at 1-10%, and carrying out micro aerobic treatment for 3-5 days at the fermentation temperature of 30-60 ℃. The oxygen concentration is monitored by an oxygen concentration sensor and the operating time of the blower is controlled accordingly, thereby controlling the oxygen content.
3) Anaerobic fermentation treatment
Conveying the material subjected to microaerobic treatment in the step 2) to the second anaerobic area through the first spiral feeding and discharging device, sealing the second anaerobic area, keeping the temperature at 35-65 ℃, performing anaerobic fermentation treatment, discharging generated biogas from the second gas outlet, deodorizing by the deodorizing device, collecting by the biogas collecting device, conveying the material subjected to anaerobic fermentation treatment to an extrusion dehydrator through the second spiral feeding and discharging device, performing online extrusion dehydration on the material, reducing the water content of the material to 40-60%, and refluxing filtrate to the inside of the second anaerobic area through an external circulating water pump.
4) Aerobic fermentation treatment
Conveying the material subjected to extrusion dehydration in the step 3) to the third aerobic area, and further degrading the material and reducing the water content under the action of aerobic microorganisms, wherein the temperature in the aerobic fermentation process is 50-60 ℃.
Preferably, the microaerobic treatment, the anaerobic fermentation treatment and the aerobic fermentation treatment in the treatment method according to the present invention are stirred with a coaxial central stirring shaft.
Preferably, in the treatment method according to the present invention, the microaerobic treatment and the aerobic fermentation treatment are supplied with oxygen or air by an air blower, and the oxygen or air is blown into the two zones according to the oxygen concentration and the temperature.
Preferably, the gas generated by the microaerobic treatment and the aerobic fermentation treatment in the treatment method according to the present invention is collected through a pipeline and then subjected to a deodorization treatment, and more preferably, the biogas generated by the anaerobic fermentation treatment is collected through the biogas collection device.
Preferably, the treatment method according to the invention adopts a water circulation coil pipe for heat transfer, and transfers heat generated by aerobic fermentation treatment to an anaerobic fermentation treatment area, so that heat preservation and temperature rise can be realized in the anaerobic fermentation process, and the energy consumption of the whole fermentation process is reduced.
Advantageous effects
According to the system, micro aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic processes are integrated, kitchen waste is subjected to micro aerobic pretreatment, and the problem of unstable operation caused by acidification in the anaerobic process is avoided; secondly, a horizontal plug flow and integrated slow stirring mode is adopted, so that the mass transfer and heat transfer efficiency in the fermentation process is improved, and no additional water is added in the anaerobic fermentation process; and thirdly, the materials are conveyed on line in the micro-aerobic, anaerobic and aerobic processes by adopting a multi-stage spiral conveying mode, the problems of poor material flow and blockage in the dry anaerobic fermentation process are solved, the sorting pretreatment of kitchen garbage is not needed, and the materials are directly crushed and then conveyed into the reactor by a spiral for treatment. Thereby providing a method and a device for non-sorting biological integrated treatment of urban kitchen garbage. The process has strong practicability, is continuous and efficient, well solves the environmental problem caused by the urban kitchen garbage, comprehensively utilizes the wastes as resources, and is suitable for environment-friendly treatment of easily biodegradable organic wastes.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a flow chart showing a processing method according to the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a side view of the three-stage fermentation reactor of the three-stage integrated treatment system for organic biomass waste according to the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a front view of the three-stage fermentation reactor of the three-stage integrated treatment system for organic biomass garbage according to the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic perspective view of the three-stage fermentation reactor of the three-stage integrated treatment system for organic biomass garbage according to the present invention.
Fig. 5 is a schematic material flow diagram of the three-stage fermentation reactor of the three-stage integrated treatment system for organic biomass garbage according to the present invention.
Fig. 6 is a schematic structural diagram of a water circulation coil of the three-stage integrated treatment system for organic biomass garbage according to the invention.
Reference numerals
1-three-section fermentation reactor, 2-spiral feeding and discharging device, 3-external circulating coil pipe, 4-deodorization device, 5-partition plate, 6-coaxial central stirring shaft, 7-paddle, 8-extrusion dehydrator, 9-perforated aeration pipe, 11-first microaerobic region, 12-second anaerobic region, 13-third aerobic region, 111-first feeding hole, 112-first gas outlet, 121-second feeding hole, 122-second gas outlet, 131-third feeding hole, 132-third gas outlet, 21-first spiral feeding and discharging device, 22-second spiral feeding and discharging device, and 23-third spiral feeding and discharging device.
Detailed Description
Hereinafter, preferred embodiments of the present disclosure will be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. Before the description, it should be understood that the terms used in the specification and the appended claims should not be construed as limited to general and dictionary meanings, but interpreted based on the meanings and concepts corresponding to technical aspects of the present invention on the basis of the principle that the inventor is allowed to define terms appropriately for the best explanation. Accordingly, the description herein is of preferred examples for the purpose of illustration only and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, so it should be understood that other equivalent implementations and modifications could be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.
The terms "first", "second", and the like, as used herein are used to explain various constituent elements, and they are used only for the purpose of distinguishing one constituent element from another constituent element.
Also, the terms used herein are used only for explaining exemplary embodiments, and are not intended to limit the present invention. Singular references also include plural references unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Terms such as "comprising," "including," or "having," as used herein, are used to specify the presence of stated features, numbers, steps, components, or combinations thereof, and should be understood not to preclude the addition or presence of one or more other features, numbers, steps, components, or combinations thereof.
Also, if a layer or an element is referred to as being formed "on" or "over" a layer or an element, it means that each layer or element is directly formed on the layer or element, or other layers or elements may be formed between layers, bodies, or substrates.
In order to clarify the present invention, portions irrelevant to the description are omitted in the drawings, and the same or similar components are denoted by the same reference numerals throughout the specification.
In addition, the size and thickness of each component shown in the drawings are arbitrarily illustrated for convenience of explanation, and thus the present invention is not necessarily limited to those illustrated in the drawings.
Throughout the specification, when an element is referred to as being "connected" to another element, it includes not only "direct connection" but also "indirect connection" between other members. In addition, when an element is referred to as "comprising" a component, it means that the element may further comprise other components rather than excluding other components, unless expressly stated to the contrary.
The microbial fermentation treatment system of the present invention is described in detail below with reference to fig. 2 to 6, and the treatment system according to the present invention includes the following components:
a three-stage fermentation reactor 1, a spiral feeding and discharging device 2, an external circulating coil 3 and a deodorizing device 4 (part of the drawing is not shown);
the three-section type fermentation reactor 1 is divided into a first micro-aerobic area 11, a second anaerobic area 12 and a third aerobic area 13 which are separated from each other by a partition plate 5;
wherein the first microaerobic zone 11 has: a first feed inlet 111 for receiving organic biomass waste material, a first gas outlet 112 for discharging gas from said first microaerobic zone 11;
the second anaerobic zone 12 has: a second feed inlet 121 for receiving material from the first microaerobic zone 11, and a second gas outlet 122 for discharging gas from the second anaerobic zone 12;
the third aerobic zone 13 has: a third feed port 131 for receiving material from the second anaerobic zone 12, a third gas outlet 132 for discharging gas from the third aerobic zone 13;
the three-section type fermentation reactor 1 is also provided with a coaxial central stirring shaft 6 which penetrates through the first micro aerobic area 11, the second anaerobic area 12 and the third aerobic area 13, and forms a plug flow structure in the horizontal direction, so that materials in the three areas can be stirred simultaneously, and the mixing and moving of the materials are promoted.
Preferably, the spiral feeding and discharging device 2 comprises a first spiral feeding and discharging device 21, a second spiral feeding and discharging device 22 and a third spiral feeding and discharging device 23, wherein one end of the first spiral feeding and discharging device 21 extends into the first micro-aerobic zone 11, the other end of the first spiral feeding and discharging device is connected with the second feeding hole 121 of the second anaerobic zone 12 for conveying the material in the first micro-aerobic zone 11 to the second anaerobic zone 12, one end of the second spiral feeding and discharging device 22 extends into the second anaerobic zone 12, the other end of the second spiral feeding and discharging device is connected with an extrusion dehydrator 8 for dehydrating the material firstly, the extrusion dehydrator 8 is connected with the third feeding hole 131 of the third aerobic zone 13 for conveying the material in the second anaerobic zone 12 to the third aerobic zone 13, one end of the third spiral feeding and discharging device 23 extends into the third aerobic zone 13, for removing the contents of the third aerobic zone 13.
Preferably, the external circulation coil 3 is a water circulation coil for circulating heat transfer between the first microaerobic zone 11, the second anaerobic zone 12 and the third aerobic zone 13.
Preferably, the deodorizing device 4 is connected to the first gas outlet 112 of the first micro-aerobic zone 11, the second gas outlet 122 of the second anaerobic zone 12 and the third gas outlet 132 of the third aerobic zone 13, respectively, for removing gas odor.
Preferably, fixed stirring blades 7 are arranged at different positions of the coaxial central stirring shaft 6, which are perpendicular to the stirring shaft, the distance between the blades 7 in the first microaerobic zone 11 and the third aerobic zone 13 is set to be 20-50cm, the distance between the blades 7 in the second anaerobic zone 12 is set to be 0.5-2m, and the blades 7 are spirally distributed on the stirring shaft 6.
Preferably, the first microaerobic zone 11, the second anaerobic zone 12 and the third aerobic zone 13 are provided with a pressure gauge, a thermometer, an oxygen concentration sensor and a dissolved oxygen concentration sensor (not shown in the figure).
Preferably, the first microaerobic zone 11 and the third aerobic zone 13 are each provided with perforated aeration pipes 9 for blowing air or oxygen into both zones.
Preferably, the three-stage fermentation reactor 1 is a cuboid or a cylinder, and is made of a reinforced concrete structure, carbon steel or stainless steel.
Preferably, the treatment system according to the present invention comprises biogas collection means (not shown) for collecting biogas produced from the second anaerobic zone 12.
The three-stage integrated treatment method of organic biomass waste according to the present invention is described in detail below with reference to fig. 1 and 5, and comprises the following steps:
1) organic biomass garbage crushing
The kitchen garbage is inevitably mixed with other garbage of different types, such as plastic bags, plastic bottles, bottle caps and the like, and the conventional aerobic or anaerobic fermentation process often causes blockage in the garbage conveying process or damage to equipment such as pumps and the like due to different adopted process equipment. However, in the treatment system according to the invention, the conveying of the material is carried out by means of a closed screw conveyor, and even if these impurities are present in the waste, the conveying of the material is not affected. Therefore, the grain size of the smashed kitchen waste is only required to be less than 100mm before the micro-aerobic pretreatment is carried out, and the normal operation of the equipment is not influenced by impurities such as plastic bags contained in the smashed materials.
2) Microaerobic treatment
The kitchen waste enters the micro-aerobic area 11 after being primarily crushed, and in the micro-aerobic fermentation pretreatment process, the micro-molecular substances which are easy to acidify and decompose are quickly utilized by microorganisms, and simultaneously heat is generated, and the temperature of the materials is raised to 50-60 ℃. Other cellulose which is difficult to degrade enters the next anaerobic treatment stage for anaerobic fermentation to produce methane. Therefore, the micro-aerobic pretreatment has the function of quickly decomposing organic micromolecular substances and preventing the materials entering the anaerobic process from being acidified to influence the biogas yield. Introducing air into the bottom of the micro aerobic area 11, controlling the oxygen volume content in the fermentation process to be 1-10% (air oxygen content), carrying out micro aerobic treatment for 3-5 days, and fermenting at the temperature of 30-60 ℃. The working time of the blower is controlled by the oxygen concentration electrode, so that the oxygen content is controlled. The heat generated in the fermentation process heats the materials, and the biogas can be directly generated without heating after entering the next anaerobic fermentation stage, so that the biogas yield is improved, and the heat consumption in the process is reduced. After the micro-aerobic fermentation is finished, the materials are conveyed into the second anaerobic area 12 through the closed first spiral feeding and discharging device 21.
Experiments prove that two functions can be realized through the pretreatment of the microaerobic process, firstly, the acidification of the anaerobic high-concentration fermentation process is avoided, on the other hand, the methane production efficiency of the next anaerobic fermentation stage is improved, and the volume gas production rate of the second anaerobic region 12 can reach 2-3m3/(m3·d)。
3) Anaerobic fermentation treatment
Conveying the material subjected to microaerobic treatment in the step 2) to the second anaerobic area 12 through the first spiral feeding and discharging device 21, sealing the second anaerobic area 12 and keeping the temperature at 35-65 ℃. The decomposition process of the kitchen garbage in the anaerobic stage is divided into two stages of hydrolysis acidification and methane production, and when the rates of hydrolysis acidification and methane production are balanced, the whole system cannot be acidified. Because the micromolecule and easily degradable substances are decomposed in the microaerobic stage, the decomposition speed of cellulose, fat and the like is low in the anaerobic stage, and the acidification stage and the methanogenesis stage are easy to balance. The water content of the materials in the anaerobic fermentation treatment is about 60-80%, the generated biogas is discharged from the second gas outlet 122, the biogas is collected by the biogas collecting device after being deodorized by the deodorizing device 4, the materials after the anaerobic fermentation treatment are conveyed to the extruding dehydrator 8 through the second spiral material inlet and outlet device 22, the materials are firstly extruded and dehydrated on line, the water content of the materials is reduced to 40-60%, the filtrate flows back to the inside of the second anaerobic area 12 through an external circulating water pump, so that the pH value in the methane production stage is increased, and the internal reflux is favorable for balancing the pH value in the whole anaerobic process and inoculating the initial materials.
4) Aerobic fermentation treatment
Most organic matters are decomposed after anaerobic fermentation, part of water is released, the water content of an anaerobic fermentation section is about 60-80%, in order to further decompose the organic matters and reduce the garbage, the fermentation materials in an anaerobic area are conveyed to an extrusion dehydrator through a screw, residues after the anaerobic fermentation are extruded and dehydrated in the dehydrator to reduce the water content of the materials, and then the materials are conveyed to an aerobic fermentation stage, wherein the aerobic fermentation process is a biological drying process, the temperature of the fermentation process is increased to 50-60 ℃ through the action of aerobic microorganisms, and the materials are further degraded and the water content is reduced under the action of heat generated in the fermentation process and bottom ventilation.
Preferably, the microaerobic treatment, the anaerobic fermentation treatment and the aerobic fermentation treatment in the treatment method according to the present invention are stirred with a coaxial central stirring shaft.
Preferably, in the treatment method according to the present invention, the microaerobic treatment and the aerobic fermentation treatment are supplied with oxygen or air by an air compressor, and oxygen or air is blown into both regions according to the oxygen concentration and the temperature.
Preferably, the gas generated by the microaerobic treatment, the anaerobic fermentation treatment and the aerobic fermentation treatment in the treatment method according to the present invention is collected through a pipe and then subjected to a deodorization treatment, and more preferably, the biogas generated by the anaerobic fermentation treatment is collected by the biogas collection device.
Preferably, the treatment method according to the invention adopts a water circulation coil pipe for heat transfer, and transfers heat generated by aerobic fermentation treatment to an anaerobic fermentation treatment area, so that heat preservation and temperature rise can be realized in the anaerobic fermentation process, and the energy consumption of the whole fermentation process is reduced.
Example 1
A three-stage integrated treatment system and a treatment method for organic biomass garbage,
wherein the processing system comprises: three-section type fermentation reactor, spiral feeding and discharging device, external circulation coil pipe and deodorizing device. The three-section type fermentation reactor is divided into a first micro aerobic area, a second anaerobic area and a third aerobic area which are separated by partition plates at intervals and connected into an integral structure, the overall dimension of the equipment is 30 multiplied by 6m, and the effective volume is 1080m3Wherein the volumes of the first micro-aerobic zone and the third aerobic zone are respectively 180m3Volume of the second anaerobic zone 720m3. The three-section type fermentation reactor is also provided with a coaxial central stirring shaft which penetrates through the first micro aerobic area, the second anaerobic area and the third aerobic area, and a plug flow structure is formed in the horizontal flow direction, so that materials in the three areas can be stirred simultaneously, and the flow of the materials is promoted.
The three-section type fermentation reactor adopts an integral horizontal structure, the stirring resistance is reduced, the solid content is improved to 20-25%, the stirring paddle has a plug flow effect on materials in the rotating process, the requirement on material pretreatment is low, the materials do not need to be crushed, and the materials are coarsely crushed until the particle size is less than 100 mm.
Firstly, sorting organic domestic garbage through a sorting table, sorting other garbage which cannot be decomposed, conveying the materials to a feeding port of a shredder for crushing, conveying the crushed materials to the first micro-aerobic area 11 by a screw conveyor or a belt for fermentation, after 3-5 days of micro-aerobic fermentation, conveying the materials to the second anaerobic area 12 by a screw conveying of a first screw feeding and discharging device 21, keeping the solid content of the second anaerobic area 12 at 20-25%, keeping the solid content for 15-20 days, and ensuring that the biogas yield reaches 2-3m3/(m3D), the pH fluctuation range during anaerobic fermentation operation is 7-8.5, and continuous operation is not acidified. Extruding the material after anaerobic fermentationDewatering by a dewatering machine 8 until the water content is reduced to 60 percent, conveying to a third aerobic area 13 by a third spiral feeding and discharging device 23 for aerobic fermentation for 3 to 10 days at the fermentation temperature of 55 to 70 ℃, reducing the water content to 40 percent, and finishing harmless and recycling treatment of the kitchen waste.
Although the invention has been described in detail hereinabove by way of general description, specific embodiments and experiments, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that many modifications and improvements can be made thereto based on the invention. Accordingly, such modifications and improvements do not depart from the spirit of the invention and are intended to be included within the scope of the invention.

Claims (10)

1. A three-section integrated treatment system for organic biomass garbage comprises the following parts:
the device comprises a three-section type fermentation reactor, a spiral feeding and discharging device, an external circulating coil and a deodorizing device;
the three-section type fermentation reactor is divided into a first micro aerobic area, a second anaerobic area and a third aerobic area which are separated from each other at intervals by a partition plate;
wherein the first microaerobic zone has: the first feed inlet is used for receiving organic biomass garbage materials, and the first gas outlet is used for discharging gas in the first micro aerobic area;
the second anaerobic zone has: a second feed inlet for receiving material from the first microaerobic zone, a second gas outlet for discharging gas from the second anaerobic zone;
the third aerobic zone has: the third material inlet is used for receiving materials from the second anaerobic area, the third gas outlet is used for discharging gas in the third aerobic area, and the third material outlet is used for discharging materials in the third aerobic area;
the three-section type fermentation reactor is also provided with a coaxial central stirring shaft penetrating through the first micro aerobic area, the second anaerobic area and the third aerobic area, and a plug flow structure is formed in the horizontal direction and used for stirring materials in the three areas simultaneously and promoting the mixing and moving of the materials.
2. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the screw feeder comprises a first screw feeder having one end penetrating the first microaerobic zone and the other end connected to the second feed inlet of the second anaerobic zone for feeding the material in the first microaerobic zone to the second anaerobic zone, and a second screw feeder having one end penetrating the second anaerobic zone and the other end connected to an extruder-dehydrator for dehydrating the material first, the extruder-dehydrator being connected to the third feed inlet of the third aerobic zone for feeding the material in the second anaerobic zone to the third aerobic zone.
3. The treatment system of claim 1, wherein the external circulation coil is a water circulation coil for circulating heat transfer between the first microaerobic zone, the second anaerobic zone, and the third aerobic zone.
4. The treatment system according to claim 1, wherein the deodorizing means is connected to the first gas outlet of the first micro-aerobic zone and the third gas outlet of the third aerobic zone, respectively, for deodorizing the gas.
5. The treatment system according to claim 1, wherein fixed stirring blades are arranged on the coaxial central stirring shaft at different positions of the vertical stirring shaft, the blade spacing in the first microaerobic zone and the third aerobic zone is set to be between 20 and 50cm, the blade spacing in the second anaerobic zone is set to be between 0.5 and 2m, and the blades are spirally distributed on the stirring shaft;
preferably, the first micro aerobic area, the second anaerobic area and the third aerobic area are all provided with a pressure gauge, a thermometer, an oxygen concentration sensor and a dissolved oxygen concentration sensor;
preferably, the third aerobic zone of the first micro-aerobic zone is provided with a perforated aeration pipe for blowing air or oxygen into the two zones;
preferably, the three-stage fermentation reactor is cuboid, cylindrical or U-shaped, and is made of reinforced concrete structure, carbon steel or stainless steel;
preferably, the treatment system according to the invention comprises a biogas collection device for collecting biogas produced from the second anaerobic zone.
6. A three-stage integrated treatment method for organic biomass garbage comprises the following steps:
1) organic biomass garbage crushing
Directly crushing the organic biomass garbage containing impurities without a sorting process until the particle size is less than 100 mm;
2) microaerobic treatment
Adding the crushed particles with the particle size of less than 100mm in the step 1) into the first micro aerobic area in the three-section type fermentation reactor in the organic biomass garbage three-section type integrated treatment system, blowing air or pure oxygen, keeping the volume content of the oxygen in the first micro aerobic area at 1-10%, carrying out micro aerobic treatment for 3-5 days, and carrying out fermentation at the temperature of 30-60 ℃. The oxygen concentration is monitored by an oxygen concentration sensor and the operating time of the blower is controlled accordingly, thereby controlling the oxygen content.
3) Anaerobic fermentation treatment
Conveying the material subjected to microaerobic treatment in the step 2) to the second anaerobic area through the first spiral feeding and discharging device, sealing the second anaerobic area, keeping the temperature between 35 and 65 ℃, performing anaerobic fermentation treatment, discharging generated biogas from the second gas outlet, deodorizing by the deodorizing device, collecting by the biogas collecting device, conveying the material subjected to anaerobic fermentation treatment to the extrusion dehydrator through the second spiral feeding and discharging device, performing online extrusion dehydration on the material to reduce the water content of the material to 40 to 60 percent, and refluxing filtrate to the inside of the second anaerobic area through the second spiral feeding and discharging device.
4) Aerobic fermentation treatment
Conveying the material subjected to extrusion dehydration in the step 3) to the third aerobic area, and further degrading the material and reducing the water content under the action of aerobic microorganisms, wherein the temperature in the aerobic fermentation process is 50-65 ℃.
7. The process according to claim 6, wherein the microaerobic, anaerobic fermentation and aerobic fermentation treatments are stirred by a coaxial central stirring shaft, wherein fixed stirring blades are arranged at different positions of the coaxial central stirring shaft perpendicular to the stirring shaft, the blade pitch in the first microaerobic zone and the blade pitch in the third aerobic zone are set to be between 20 and 50cm, the blade pitch in the second anaerobic zone is set to be between 0.5 and 2m, and the blades are spirally distributed on the stirring shaft.
8. A process according to claim 6, wherein oxygen or air is supplied to the microaerobic treatment and the aerobic fermentation treatment by a blower, and oxygen or air is blown into both zones depending on the oxygen concentration and temperature.
9. The treatment method as claimed in claim 6, wherein the gases generated by the microaerobic, anaerobic fermentation and aerobic fermentation treatments are collected through a pipeline and then subjected to a deodorization treatment, and more preferably, the biogas generated by the anaerobic fermentation treatment is collected by the biogas collection device.
10. The process of claim 6, wherein the heat transfer is performed by a water circulation coil pipe, and the heat generated by the aerobic fermentation process is transferred to the anaerobic fermentation treatment area, so as to preserve the temperature and raise the temperature of the anaerobic fermentation process and reduce the energy consumption of the whole fermentation process.
CN202010030577.2A 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 Three-stage integrated treatment system and method for organic biomass garbage Pending CN111215432A (en)

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