CN111189390A - Machine tool geometric error measuring device based on laser interference principle - Google Patents

Machine tool geometric error measuring device based on laser interference principle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111189390A
CN111189390A CN202010022069.XA CN202010022069A CN111189390A CN 111189390 A CN111189390 A CN 111189390A CN 202010022069 A CN202010022069 A CN 202010022069A CN 111189390 A CN111189390 A CN 111189390A
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China
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working
measuring
telescopic rod
hinge
laser
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CN202010022069.XA
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李海涛
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Shaanxi University of Science and Technology
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Shaanxi University of Science and Technology
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Priority to CN202010022069.XA priority Critical patent/CN111189390A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B11/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of optical means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B5/00Measuring arrangements characterised by the use of mechanical means
    • G01B5/0002Arrangements for supporting, fixing or guiding the measuring instrument or the object to be measured
    • G01B5/0004Supports

Abstract

A machine tool geometric error measuring device based on a laser interference principle comprises a mechanical tracking device and a laser measuring device arranged on the mechanical tracking device; the mechanical tracking device comprises a laser interferometer, the laser interferometer is connected with a working billiard hinge through an interferometer adjusting holder, and the bottom of the working billiard hinge is arranged on a machine tool connecting table; the interferometer bearing holder is simultaneously arranged on a first telescopic rod and a second telescopic rod which are connected with an upper mounting seat and a lower mounting seat, a ball hinge and a linear reflector at the position of a tool bit are arranged on a connecting plate at the tail end of the telescopic rod, and a fixed rotating mirror and a linear interference mirror group are arranged on the first mounting seat and the second mounting seat on the telescopic rod; the measuring range of the laser interferometer is increased through the telescopic rod, the guarantee is provided for the adjustment of the space attitude of the laser interferometer through the spherical hinge, the measuring efficiency of the geometric error of the numerical control machining center is effectively improved, the measuring data is cooperatively processed through the computer, the measuring automation is realized, and the measuring device has the advantages of flexible movement, simplicity in operation and high measuring efficiency.

Description

Machine tool geometric error measuring device based on laser interference principle
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of machine tool geometric error measurement, in particular to a machine tool geometric error measuring device based on a laser interference principle.
Background
The existing geometric error measurement of a machine tool comprises instruments such as a laser tracker, a laser interferometer and the like, and the laser tracker is used for having timeliness during operation and measurement, but is expensive and too high in measurement cost; although the measurement of the laser interferometer has higher precision, the measurement of each error needs to be carried out again, which consumes time and labor.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the defects of the prior art, the invention aims to provide a machine tool geometric error measuring device based on a laser interference principle, which effectively improves the geometric error measuring efficiency of a numerical control machining center, realizes measurement automation by cooperatively processing measured data through a computer, and has the advantages of flexible movement, simple operation and high measurement efficiency.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that:
a machine tool geometric error measuring device based on a laser interference principle comprises a mechanical tracking device and a laser measuring device arranged on the mechanical tracking device;
the mechanical tracking device comprises a laser interferometer 1, the laser interferometer 1 is connected to an interferometer adjusting pan-tilt 2, the lower part of the interferometer adjusting pan-tilt 2 is connected with a working billiard hinge 4, and the bottom of the working billiard hinge 4 is installed on a machine tool connecting table 5; the interferometer adjusting pan-tilt 2 is fixed on an upper mounting seat 3 and a lower mounting seat III 23, the upper mounting seat 3 and the lower mounting seat 23 are inserted into a first telescopic rod 11 and a second telescopic rod 12, and the telescopic rods and the mounting seats are fixed by using set screws; the connecting plates 6 are arranged at the tail ends of the first telescopic rod 11 and the second telescopic rod 12, the connecting plates 6 are hollowed out so that light paths can pass through, the ball hinges 7 at the tool bit are arranged at the rear parts of the connecting plates 6, and when a machine tool performs feed motion, the spatial attitude adjustment of the laser interferometer 1 is realized through the rotation characteristics of the working billiard hinges 4 and the ball hinges 7 at the tool bit; the first telescopic rod 11 and the second telescopic rod 12 are passively stretched to realize following;
the laser measuring device comprises a first lower mounting seat 21 and a second lower mounting seat 22, the first lower mounting seat 21 and the second lower mounting seat 22 are mounted on a first telescopic rod 11 and a second telescopic rod 12, a first magnet matching block 13 and a second magnet matching block 17 are adsorbed on the first lower mounting seat 21 and the second lower mounting seat 22, the upper part of the first magnet matching block 13 is connected with a second lens group mounting block 14 through a second lens group mounting rod 15, and a fixed rotating mirror 16 is mounted on the second lens group mounting block 14; a third lens group mounting block 19 is connected below the second magnet positioning block 17 through a third lens group mounting rod 18, and a linear interference lens group 20 is mounted on the third lens group mounting block 19; the linear interference mirror group 20 and the fixed rotating mirror 16 are vertically arranged;
the front end of the connecting plate 6 is provided with a first lens group mounting rod 9, the first lens group mounting rod 9 is connected with a first lens group mounting block 8, and the first lens group mounting block 8 is provided with a linear reflector 10;
in the measuring process, the centers of the ball hinge 7 at the tool bit and the working billiard ball hinge 4 are always coincided with the centers of the linear reflector 10 and the linear interference mirror group 20.
The working billiard hinge 4 comprises a working billiard hinge upper cover 25 and a working billiard hinge lower seat 26 connected with the working billiard hinge upper cover 25, and the working billiard hinge ball head 24 is wrapped after the working billiard hinge upper cover 25 is connected with the working billiard hinge lower seat 26 to form a ball hinge pair.
The linear interference mirror group 20 comprises a spectroscope 27 at the front part and a linear reflector II 28 at the rear part, the spectroscope 27 is connected with the linear reflector II 28 through a screw to form the linear interference mirror group, and the linear interference mirror group and the linear reflector I10 together form an interference light path for measurement.
A measuring method of a machine tool geometric error measuring device based on a laser interference principle comprises the following steps:
two optical precision balls are respectively arranged at the lower side of the laser interferometer 1 and the rear side of the linear reflecting mirror 10, wherein the spherical centers of the two optical precision balls are collinear with the centers of the spectroscope 27 and the linear reflecting mirror 10, and the distance L between the spherical center of the optical precision ball 1 and the center of the spectroscope 271Distance L between the center of the linear reflector-10 and the center of the optical precision sphere-23,Li1For laser interferometer readings, where L-Li1=L1+L3=LTThe laser is reflected by the fixed rotating mirror 16 and vertically enters the beam splitter 27, the light beam enters the beam splitter 27 and the linear reflector-10 and then returns to the laser head interface through the fixed rotating mirror 16, interference is formed in the period, and a measured value L is recordedi1L is obtained by solving the equationTFurther, the distance L between the centers of the two optical precision balls is obtained;
when the device is used, the machine tool is controlled to perform feed motion in a given working space, and when the main shaft moves, the working billiard hinge 4 drives the device to rotate so as to realize angle following motion; meanwhile, the first telescopic rod 11 and the second telescopic rod 12 are passively stretched to adapt to measurement of different lengths, so that distance following movement is realized; real-time recording and reading of measurement by computer measurement software in measurement processNumber Li1
4 coordinates of the center of the sphere of the working billiard ball hinged head 4 at different positions are read from the surface plate of the machine and are marked as P1(x1,y1,z1)P2(x2,y2,z2)P3(x3,y3,z3)P4(x4,y4,z4) Selecting a machine tool measuring point A (x, y, z), and then utilizing the GPS positioning principle to list the following equations:
wherein:
Li1the distance between the point i and the point A of the laser interferometer is shown;
LTis the distance L between the center of the optical precision ball 1 and the center of the spectroscope 271And the distance L between the center of the linear reflector I10 and the center of the optical precision ball 23Summing;
Pi(xi,yi,zi) Is the ith base station point coordinate;
e is the total error, exError of x-axis, eyAs error of Y axis, ezIs the Z axis error;
after solving the equation, obtaining the actual coordinate A '(x', y ', z') of the point A, subtracting the theoretical coordinate to obtain the total error of each linear axis of the machine tool, and then separating the geometric error of each linear axis of the machine tool by an error separation principle.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
the invention realizes distance measurement by using a laser interferometry, provides guarantee for the space attitude adjustment of the laser interferometer by adopting the double-spherical-hinge kinematic pair, and realizes following by the passive stretching of the telescopic rod. The device has the advantages of meeting the requirements of high-precision measurement, three-dimensional space measurement, dynamic measurement and the like, being flexible in movement, simple in operation and high in measurement efficiency, effectively improving the efficiency of measuring the geometric error of the numerical control machining center, overcoming the problem of overhigh measurement cost of the conventional measuring device and method, and realizing measurement automation by cooperatively processing measured data through a computer.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a machine tool geometric error measuring device based on a laser interference principle.
Fig. 2 is a left side view of fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a schematic view of a working cue hinge 4 of the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the linear interference mirror assembly 20 of the present invention.
Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of a measuring light path of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Referring to fig. 1 and 2, a machine tool geometric error measuring device based on a laser interference principle comprises a mechanical tracking device and a laser measuring device arranged on the mechanical tracking device;
the mechanical tracking device comprises a laser interferometer 1, the laser interferometer 1 is fixedly connected to an interferometer adjusting pan-tilt 2 through threads, the lower part of the interferometer adjusting pan-tilt 2 is connected with a working billiard hinge 4, and the bottom of the working billiard hinge 4 is installed on a machine tool connecting table 5; the interferometer adjusting pan-tilt 2 is fixed on an upper mounting seat 3 and a lower mounting seat III 23, the upper mounting seat 3 and the lower mounting seat 23 are inserted into a first telescopic rod 11 and a second telescopic rod 12, and the telescopic rods and the mounting seats are fixed by using set screws; the connecting plates 6 are arranged at the tail ends of the first telescopic rod 11 and the second telescopic rod 12, the connecting plates 6 are made into hollow shapes as shown in figure 2 so that light paths can pass through, the ball hinges 7 at the tool bits are arranged at the rear parts of the connecting plates 6, and when a machine tool performs feed motion, the spatial attitude adjustment of the laser interferometer 1 is realized through the rotation characteristics of the working billiard hinges 4 and the ball hinges 7 at the tool bits; the following is realized through the passive stretching of the first telescopic rod 11 and the second telescopic rod 12.
The laser measuring device comprises a first lower mounting seat 21 and a second lower mounting seat 22, wherein the first lower mounting seat 21 and the second lower mounting seat 22 are mounted at a third section of a first telescopic rod 11 and a third section of a second telescopic rod 12 through set screws, and the first telescopic rod 11 and the second telescopic rod 12 are two three-section telescopic rods; a magnet positioning block I13 and a magnet positioning block II 17 are attracted to the lower mounting seat I21 and the lower mounting seat II 22 through magnetic force, a lens group mounting block II 14 is connected above the magnet positioning block I13 through a lens group mounting rod II 15, and a fixed rotating mirror 16 is mounted on the lens group mounting block II 14; a third lens group mounting block 19 is connected below the second magnet positioning block 17 through a third lens group mounting rod 18, and a linear interference lens group 20 is mounted on the third lens group mounting block 19; the linear interference mirror group 20 and the fixed rotating mirror 16 are vertically arranged;
the front end of the connecting plate 6 is provided with a first lens group mounting rod 9, the first lens group mounting rod 9 is connected with a first lens group mounting block 8, and the first lens group mounting block 8 is provided with a first linear reflector 10;
in the measuring process, the centers of the ball hinge 7 at the tool bit and the working billiard ball hinge 4 are always coincided with the centers of the linear reflector 10 and the linear interference mirror group 20.
Referring to fig. 3, the working billiard hinge 4 includes a working billiard hinge upper cover 25 and a working billiard hinge lower seat 26 connected with the working billiard hinge upper cover 25 through a screw, and the working billiard hinge ball head 24 is wrapped after the working billiard hinge upper cover 25 and the working billiard hinge lower seat 26 are connected to form a ball hinge pair.
Referring to fig. 4, the linear interference mirror group 20 includes a front beam splitter 27 and a rear linear reflector two 28, the beam splitter 27 is connected with the linear reflector two 28 through screws to form the linear interference mirror group, and forms an interference light path for measurement together with the linear reflector 10.
Referring to fig. 5, the working principle of the present invention is:
during assembly: firstly, the laser interferometer 1 is fixed on the interferometer adjusting pan-tilt 2 through screw connection, and the interferometer adjusting pan-tilt 2 can realize the adjustment of the pitch angle and the horizontal distance of the laser interferometer 1 so as to realize the alignment of the optical path. Fixing an interferometer adjusting pan-tilt 2 on an upper mounting seat 3 and a lower mounting seat III 23 by using threaded connection, fixing a working billiard hinge 4 below the interferometer adjusting pan-tilt 2, installing the working billiard hinge 4 on a machine tool connecting table 5, and fixing the device on a machine tool working table through the machine tool connecting table 5; the ball hinge 7 at the tool bit is arranged on the connecting plate 6 through a bottom screw, and the ball hinge 7 at the tool bit is butted with a main shaft of the machine tool;
then, the first magnet matching block 13 and the second magnet matching block 17 are attracted to the first magnet matching block 11 and the second magnet matching block 17 by magnetic force and are arranged on the first telescopic rod 11 and the second telescopic rod 12 through the fastening screws, the second lens group mounting rod 15 is arranged on the first magnet matching block 13, the second lens group mounting block 14 is tightly fixed on the second lens group mounting rod 15 and is connected with the fixed rotating mirror 16, the horizontal direction of the fixed rotary mirror 16 can be adjusted by adjusting the relative angle between the second lens group mounting block 14 and the second lens group mounting rod 15, a linear interference mirror group 20 fixed by a mirror group mounting rod III 18 and a mirror group mounting rod III 19 is arranged below the magnet positioning block II 17, a spherical hinge 7 at a tool bit is mounted on the connecting plate 6 through a bottom screw, a linear reflector I10 is mounted on the connecting plate 6 through a mirror group mounting block I8 and a mirror group mounting rod I9, the connecting plate 6 is in butt joint with a telescopic rod I11 and a telescopic rod II 12;
finally, the working billiard hinge 4 is arranged on a machine tool connecting table 5, and the device is fixed on the machine tool workbench through the machine tool connecting table 5; the ball hinge 7 at the tool bit is arranged on the connecting plate 6 through a bottom screw, and the ball hinge 7 at the tool bit is in butt joint with a main shaft of the machine tool to complete the installation of the measuring device on the machine tool.
The optical path calibration comprises the following steps:
1) preheating the laser interferometer 1;
2) moving the first magnet positioning block 13 and the second magnet positioning block 17 to align the centers of the fixed rotating mirror 16 and the linear interference mirror group 20, and then adjusting the angle between the fixed rotating mirror 16 and the linear interference mirror group 20 to make the bottom surfaces of the fixed rotating mirror 16 and the linear interference mirror group 20 parallel; then, fine adjustment is carried out on the laser interferometer 1, and a light path is calibrated;
3) and adjusting the height and the angle of the first linear reflector 10 to align the first linear reflector with the center of the linear interference mirror group 20, and then finely adjusting the laser interferometer 1 to enable the reflection light path to coincide with the laser path.
A measuring method of a machine tool geometric error measuring device based on a laser interference principle comprises the following steps:
two optical precision balls are respectively arranged at the lower side of the laser interferometer 1 and the rear side of the linear reflector I10, wherein the spherical centers of the two optical precision balls are collinear with the centers of the spectroscope 27 and the linear reflector I10, and the distance L between the spherical center of the optical precision ball 1 and the center of the spectroscope 271Distance L between the center of the linear reflector-10 and the center of the optical precision sphere-23,Li1For laser interferometer readings, where L-Li1=L1+L3=LTWhen a measuring light path is established, the fixed rotating mirror 16 is perpendicular to the beam splitter 27, the fixed rotating mirror 16 and the beam splitter 27 are respectively and vertically fixed, laser is reflected by the fixed rotating mirror 16 and vertically enters the beam splitter 27, a light beam enters the beam splitter 27 and the linear reflector I10 and then returns to a laser head interface through the fixed rotating mirror 16, interference is formed in the period, and a measuring value L is recordedi1L is obtained by solving the equationTFurther, the distance L between the centers of the two optical precision balls is obtained;
when the device is used, the machine tool is controlled to perform feed motion in a given working space, and when the main shaft moves, the working billiard hinge 4 drives the device to rotate so as to realize angle following motion; meanwhile, when the machine tool main shaft moves to the far end of the laser interferometer 1, the first telescopic rod 11 and the second telescopic rod 12 are pulled out, when the main shaft moves to the near end of the laser interferometer 1, the first telescopic rod 11 and the second telescopic rod 12 retract, and the first telescopic rod 11 and the second telescopic rod 12 are in passive stretching movement to adapt to different length measurement, so that distance following movement is realized; the measurement reading L is recorded in real time by computer measurement software in the measurement processi1
4 coordinates of the center of the sphere of the working billiard ball hinged head 4 at different positions are read from the surface plate of the machine and are marked as P1(x1,y1,z1)P1(x2,y2,z2)P1(x3,y3,z3)P1(x4,y4,z4) Selecting a machine tool measuring point A (x, y, z), and then utilizing the GPS positioning principle to list the following equations:
wherein:
Li1the distance between the point i and the point A of the laser interferometer is shown;
LTis the distance L between the center of the optical precision ball 1 and the center of the spectroscope 271And the distance L between the center of the linear reflector I10 and the center of the optical precision ball 23Summing;
Pi(xi,yi,zi) Is the ith base station point coordinate;
e is the total error, exError of x-axis, eyAs error of Y axis, ezIs the Z axis error;
after solving the equation, obtaining the actual coordinates A '(x', y ', z') of the point A, subtracting the theoretical coordinates to obtain the total error of each linear axis of the machine tool, and then separating the geometric error of each linear axis of the machine tool according to the error separation principle. The device has good precision, can effectively complete the geometric precision measurement of the high-speed numerical control machine tool, and has simple assembly and convenient operation.

Claims (4)

1. The utility model provides a lathe geometric error measuring device based on laser interference principle which characterized in that: comprises a mechanical tracking device and a laser measuring device arranged on the mechanical tracking device;
the mechanical tracking device comprises a laser interferometer (1), wherein the laser interferometer (1) is connected to an interferometer adjusting pan-tilt (2), the lower part of the interferometer adjusting pan-tilt (2) is connected with a working billiard hinge (4), and the bottom of the working billiard hinge (4) is arranged on a machine tool connecting table (5); the interferometer adjusting pan-tilt (2) is fixed on the upper mounting seat (3) and the lower mounting seat (23), the upper mounting seat (3) and the lower mounting seat (23) are inserted into the first telescopic rod (11) and the second telescopic rod (12), and the telescopic rods are fixed with the mounting seats by using set screws; a connecting plate (6) is installed at the tail ends of the first telescopic rod (11) and the second telescopic rod (12), the connecting plate (6) is hollowed out so that a light path can pass through, a ball hinge (7) at the position of a tool bit is installed at the rear part of the connecting plate (6), and when a machine tool performs feed motion, the spatial attitude adjustment of the laser interferometer (1) is realized through the rotation characteristics of a working billiard ball hinge (4) and the ball hinge (7) at the position of the tool bit; the first telescopic rod (11) and the second telescopic rod (12) are passively stretched to realize following;
the laser measuring device comprises a first lower mounting seat (21) and a second lower mounting seat (22), wherein the first lower mounting seat (21) and the second lower mounting seat (22) are mounted on a first telescopic rod (11) and a second telescopic rod (12), a first magnet matching block (13) and a second magnet matching block (17) are adsorbed on the first lower mounting seat (21) and the second lower mounting seat (22), a second mirror group mounting block (14) is connected above the first magnet matching block (13) through a second mirror group mounting rod (15), and a fixed rotating mirror (16) is mounted on the second mirror group mounting block (14); a third mirror group mounting block (19) is connected below the second magnet matching block (17) through a third mirror group mounting rod (18), and a linear interference mirror group (20) is mounted on the third mirror group mounting block (19); the linear interference mirror group (20) and the fixed rotating mirror (16) are vertically arranged;
a first lens group mounting rod (9) is mounted at the front end of the connecting plate (6), a first lens group mounting block (8) is connected to the first lens group mounting rod (9), and a first linear reflector (10) is mounted on the first lens group mounting block (8);
in the measuring process, the centers of the ball hinge (7) at the tool bit and the working billiard ball hinge (4) are always coincided with the centers of the first linear reflector (10) and the first linear interference mirror group (20).
2. A machine tool geometric error measuring device based on laser interference principle according to claim 1, characterized in that: the working billiard hinge (4) comprises a working table ball hinge upper cover (25) and a working table ball hinge lower seat (26) connected with the working table ball hinge upper cover, and the working table ball hinge upper cover (25) is connected with the working table ball hinge lower seat (26) and then wraps a working billiard hinge ball head (24) to form a ball hinge pair.
3. A machine tool geometric error measuring device based on laser interference principle according to claim 1, characterized in that: the linear interference mirror group (20) comprises a spectroscope (27) at the front part and a linear reflector II (28) at the rear part, the spectroscope (27) is connected with the linear reflector II (28) through screws to form the linear interference mirror group, and the linear interference mirror group and the linear reflector I (10) jointly form an interference light path for measurement.
4. The measuring method of the machine tool geometric error measuring device based on the laser interference principle according to the claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps:
two optical precision balls are respectively arranged at the lower side of the laser interferometer (1) and the rear side of the linear reflector I (10), wherein the spherical centers of the two optical precision balls are collinear with the centers of the spectroscope (27) and the linear reflector I (10), and the distance L between the spherical center of the optical precision ball 1 and the center of the spectroscope (27)1Distance L between the center of the first (10) linear reflector and the center of the optical precision sphere 23,Li1For laser interferometer readings, where L-Li1=L1+L3=LTThe laser is reflected by a fixed rotating mirror (16) and vertically enters a spectroscope (27), the light beam enters the spectroscope (27) and a linear reflector I (10) and then returns to a laser head interface through the fixed rotating mirror (16), interference is formed in the process, and a measured value L is recordedi1L is obtained by solving the equationTFurther, the distance L between the centers of the two optical precision balls is obtained;
when the device is used, the machine tool is controlled to perform feed motion in a given working space, and when the main shaft moves, the working billiard hinge (4) drives the device to rotate so as to realize angle following motion; meanwhile, the first telescopic rod (11) and the second telescopic rod (12) are in passive stretching motion to adapt to measurement of different lengths, so that distance following motion is realized; the measurement reading L is recorded in real time by computer measurement software in the measurement processi1
4 coordinates of the center of the sphere of the working billiard ball hinged head (4) at different positions are read from the surface plate of the machine and are marked as P1(x1,y1,Z1)P1(x2,y2,Z2)P1(x3,y3,Z3)P1(x4,y4,Z4) Selecting a machine tool measuring point A (x, y, z), and then utilizing the GPS positioning principle to list the following equations:
wherein:
Li1the distance between the point i and the point A of the laser interferometer is shown;
LTis the distance L between the sphere center of the optical precision sphere 1 and the center of the spectroscope (27)1And the distance L between the center of the first (10) linear reflector and the center of the optical precision ball 23Summing;
Pi(xi,yi,zi) Is the ith base station point coordinate;
e is the total error, exError of x-axis, eyAs error of Y axis, ezIs the Z axis error;
after solving the equation, obtaining the actual coordinates A '(x', y ', z') of the point A, subtracting the theoretical coordinates to obtain the total error of each linear axis of the machine tool, and then separating the geometric error of each linear axis of the machine tool according to the error separation principle.
CN202010022069.XA 2020-01-09 2020-01-09 Machine tool geometric error measuring device based on laser interference principle Pending CN111189390A (en)

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