CN111156695A - Solar instant heating heat pump water heater - Google Patents

Solar instant heating heat pump water heater Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111156695A
CN111156695A CN202010016790.8A CN202010016790A CN111156695A CN 111156695 A CN111156695 A CN 111156695A CN 202010016790 A CN202010016790 A CN 202010016790A CN 111156695 A CN111156695 A CN 111156695A
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China
Prior art keywords
heat
solar
heat pump
port
water
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CN202010016790.8A
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CN111156695B (en
Inventor
徐荣吉
李印实
王瑞祥
胡文举
陈启超
钟洪伟
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Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture
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Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture
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Priority to CN202010016790.8A priority Critical patent/CN111156695B/en
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H4/00Fluid heaters using heat pumps
    • F24H4/02Liquid heaters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H9/00Details
    • F24H9/0005Details for water heaters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24HFLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL
    • F24H9/00Details
    • F24H9/20Arrangement or mounting of control or safety devices or methods
    • F24H9/2007Arrangement or mounting of control or safety devices or methods for water heaters
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S20/00Solar heat collectors specially adapted for particular uses or environments
    • F24S20/40Solar heat collectors combined with other heat sources, e.g. using electrical heating or heat from ambient air
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S50/00Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers

Abstract

The invention provides a solar instant heating heat pump water heater, which comprises: the solar energy device, the heat pump circulating system with the five-way reversing valve and the hot water heat exchanger; the solar device is connected in series on a pipeline between the heat supply expansion valve and the heat storage expansion valve in the heat pump circulating system; a condenser of the heat pump circulating system is arranged inside the hot water heat exchanger; and switching a circulation path of the heat pump circulation system through a five-way reversing valve. When the solar water heater is not used for bathing, the heat pump circulating system is switched to the heat storage circulating path, and the working medium in the cold water tank is heated by the solar heat collector and the heat pump circulating system, so that the heat collection temperature of the solar heat collector is reduced, the effective utilization of solar energy is realized, the running cost of the solar heat collector is further reduced, and the technical defect of low heating speed is overcome.

Description

Solar instant heating heat pump water heater
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of heat pump water heaters, in particular to a solar instant heating heat pump water heater.
Background
In daily life of people, daily hot water occupies a large proportion of daily water, and hot water heating devices are gradually popularized. The water heaters commonly used at present are of four types, namely an electric water heater, a solar water heater, a gas water heater and a heat pump water heater. The electric water heater is divided into two types, namely a heat storage electric water heater (comprising a hot water tank) and an instant electric water heater. The electric water heater heats water by generating heat under the power-on condition through the heating device, and controls the start and stop of heating through the temperature sensor, thereby realizing the regulation and control of water temperature. The electric water heater has low cost, simple installation and convenient use. The solar water heater consists of a solar heat collector, a water tank and an auxiliary heating part and mainly utilizes solar radiation to generate hot water. The solar water heater is safe and clean and has low energy consumption in operation. The gas water heater takes gas as fuel and prepares hot water by burning. The gas water heater occupies small area and can heat quickly. The heat pump water heater generally uses an air source as a main part, and heats water in a water tank by absorbing energy in the air and utilizing a heat pump technology.
However, each water heater suffers from certain technical drawbacks. For the electric water heater, from the energy-saving perspective, the energy utilization efficiency of the electric water heater is less than 1; from the safety perspective, the electric heating device of the electric water heater directly heats water, and leakage and electric shock accidents are easy to happen. For the instant electric water heater, the rated heating power is higher, generally more than 3kW, and the electric load with excessive power can heat the electric wire, causing fire accidents. The solar water heater has low operation cost, but has great dependence on sunlight. The gas water heater has the greatest advantage that the gas water heater can realize instant heating, but the gas water heater directly heats hot water by using gas, the gas belongs to high-quality fuel, and the hot water belongs to low-grade heat, and is also a waste of energy from the second law of thermodynamics. In addition, gas water heaters require installation at a specific location due to the need to exhaust fumes. The air source heat pump water heater has high energy utilization efficiency, and COP can reach 3-5. However, if the outdoor temperature is too low in winter, the outdoor unit is easily frosted, so that the efficiency is reduced, and even the outdoor unit cannot be operated. And the heat pump water heater, the solar water heater and the water storage type electric water heater store hot water through the hot water tank, and the temperature of the hot water is about 60 ℃ generally. Because the temperature of water in the hot water tank is higher than the ambient temperature, heat can be continuously released to the environment, and energy waste is caused.
How to provide an energy-saving safe instant water heater becomes a technical problem to be solved urgently.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a solar instant heating heat pump water heater, which makes full use of the advantages of a solar water heater and a heat pump water heater, avoids the defects of the solar water heater and the heat pump water heater and provides an energy-saving safe instant heating water heater.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following scheme:
a solar instant heat pump water heater, the heat pump water heater comprising:
the solar energy device, the heat pump circulating system with the five-way reversing valve and the hot water heat exchanger;
the solar device is connected in series on a pipeline between the heat supply expansion valve and the heat storage expansion valve in the heat pump circulating system;
the condenser of the heat pump circulating system is arranged inside the hot water heat exchanger;
the water inlet of the hot water heat exchanger is connected with the water outlet of a tap water pipe, the water outlet of the hot water heat exchanger is connected with the first water inlet of the water mixing valve, the second water inlet of the water mixing valve is connected with the water outlet of the tap water pipe, and the water outlet of the water mixing valve is connected with a shower nozzle;
the five-way reversing valve is used for switching a circulating path of the heat pump circulating system; the circulation path is a heat supply circulation path when showering or a heat storage circulation path when not showering.
Optionally, the solar device is a solar thermal collector.
Optionally, the solar device is a photo-thermal integrated device, and the photo-thermal integrated device sequentially comprises glass, a first EVA film, a crystalline silicon battery, a second EVA film and a solar thermal collector from top to bottom.
Optionally, the heat pump water heater further comprises a storage battery; the crystal silicon battery is connected with the storage battery, and the storage battery is connected with the power input end of the compressor of the heat pump circulating system.
Optionally, the solar thermal collector is structured as a microchannel or a blown sheet.
Optionally, the microchannel includes a liquid distribution tube, a liquid collection tube and a tube array, the tube diameters of the liquid distribution tube and the liquid collection tube range from 6mm to 50mm, and the parallel flow channel size range of the tube array ranges from 0.2mm × 0.2mm to 4mm × 4 mm;
one end of the tube array is connected with the liquid distribution tube, and the other end of the tube array is connected with the liquid collection tube.
Optionally, the heat pump circulating system includes an evaporative condenser, a cold water tank, a five-way reversing valve, a compressor, a condenser, a heat supply expansion valve and a heat storage expansion valve;
working media are filled in the cold water tank; the evaporative condenser is arranged in the cold water tank;
the first port of the evaporative condenser is connected with the port e of the five-way reversing valve, the port d of the five-way reversing valve is connected with the inlet of the compressor, the outlet of the compressor is connected with the port a of the five-way reversing valve, the port b of the five-way reversing valve is connected with the inlet of the condenser, and the port c of the five-way reversing valve is communicated with the second port of the heat supply expansion valve;
the outlet of the condenser is connected with the first port of the heat supply expansion valve, the second port of the heat supply expansion valve is connected with the first port of the heat storage expansion valve, and the second port of the heat storage expansion valve is connected with the second port of the evaporative condenser;
when the five-way reversing valve is in a conduction state of the port e and the port d, and the port a and the port b are conducted, the circulation path is a heat supply circulation path;
when the five-way reversing valve is in a conduction state that the port a is communicated with the port e, and the port c is communicated with the port d, the circulating path is a heat storage circulating path.
Optionally, the heat pump water heater further comprises a photosensitive sensor and a control system;
the photosensitive sensor is arranged on the solar device;
the signal output end of the photosensitive sensor is connected with the input end of the control system, and the output end of the control system is connected with the control end of the five-way reversing valve;
the control system is used for comparing an illumination intensity signal detected by the photosensitive sensor with a preset illumination intensity value when a circulating path of the heat pump circulating pipeline is a heat storage circulating path, and controlling the conduction state of the five-way reversing valve to be switched to the conduction of the port c and the port e when the illumination intensity signal is greater than the preset illumination intensity value, so that the compressor exits the heat storage circulating path.
Optionally, the heat pump water heater further comprises a water temperature sensor and a control system;
the water temperature sensor is arranged in a water outlet pipeline of the hot water heat exchanger and connected with an input end of the control system, an output end of the control system is connected with a control end of the compressor, and the control system is used for adjusting the rotating speed of the compressor according to the water temperature in the water outlet pipeline of the hot water heat exchanger measured by the water temperature sensor when a circulating path of a heat pump circulating pipeline is a heat supply circulating path.
According to the specific embodiment provided by the invention, the invention discloses the following technical effects:
the invention provides a solar instant heating heat pump water heater, which comprises: the solar energy device, the heat pump circulating system with the five-way reversing valve and the hot water heat exchanger; the solar device is connected in series on a pipeline between the heat supply expansion valve and the heat storage expansion valve in the heat pump circulating system; the condenser of the heat pump circulating system is arranged inside the hot water heat exchanger; and switching a circulation path of the heat pump circulation system through a five-way reversing valve. According to the solar energy heat collector and the heating method thereof, when bathing, the heat pump circulating system is switched to the heat supply circulating path, the water of the hot water heat exchanger is rapidly heated by the heat pump circulating system, so that instant heating is realized, when not bathing, the heat pump circulating system is switched to the heat storage circulating path, the working medium in the cold water tank is heated by the solar energy heat collector and the heat pump circulating system, the heat collection temperature of the solar energy heat collector is reduced, the effective utilization of solar energy is realized, the running cost of the solar energy heat collector is further reduced, and the technical defect of low heating speed is overcome.
The solar device can be a solar heat collector, the micro-channel or the inflation plate structure of the solar heat collector can be balcony rails or the outer surface of a building, and the solar heat collector can be arranged in a single row or multiple rows according to specific requirements, so that the technical defect that the indoor light is influenced when the solar heat collector is arranged outdoors is overcome, and the building materials are saved.
The solar device can be a photo-thermal integrated device, and realizes the purpose of generating power by utilizing solar high-frequency photons and heating by utilizing solar low-frequency photons.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings needed to be used in the embodiments will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious for those skilled in the art to obtain other drawings without inventive exercise.
FIG. 1 is a structural view of a solar instant heat pump water heater provided by the invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural view of a solar collector with a micro-channel structure according to the present invention; fig. 2b is a front view of a solar collector of a micro-channel structure, fig. 2c is a right side view of the solar collector of a micro-channel structure, and fig. 2a is a cross-sectional view of fig. 2b in the direction a-a;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural view of a solar collector of a blown-sheet structure according to the present invention; figure 3a is a front view of a solar collector of the blown-up sheet structure and figure 3b is a top view of a solar collector of the blown-up sheet structure;
FIG. 4 is a schematic structural view of the photothermal integration device provided in the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a schematic structural view of a photothermal integration device of a solar collector with a micro-channel structure provided by the invention;
FIG. 6 is a schematic structural view of a photothermal integration device of a solar collector of a blown-sheet structure according to the present invention;
description of the drawings: the solar energy heat pump water heater comprises a compressor 1, a five-way reversing valve 2, a condenser 3, a heat supply expansion valve 4a, a heat storage expansion valve 4b, a solar device 5, an evaporative condenser 6, a cold water tank 7, a temperature sensor 8a, a photosensitive sensor 8b, a hot water heat exchanger 9, a water mixing valve 10 and a shower nozzle 11, wherein the five-way reversing valve is arranged on the compressor; 51, glass, 52 is a first EVA film, 53 is a crystalline silicon battery, 54 is a second EVA film, 55 is a solar heat collector; 551 is a liquid separating pipe, 552 is a pipe array, and 553 is a liquid collecting pipe.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
The invention aims to provide a solar instant heating heat pump water heater, which makes full use of the advantages of different solar water heaters and heat pump water heaters, avoids the defects of the solar water heaters and the heat pump water heaters and provides an energy-saving safe instant heating water heater.
In order to make the aforementioned objects, features and advantages of the present invention comprehensible, embodiments accompanied with figures are described in further detail below.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a solar instant heat pump water heater, as shown in fig. 1, the heat pump water heater comprising: the solar energy device 5, a heat pump circulating system with a five-way reversing valve and a hot water heat exchanger 9; the solar device 5 is arranged on a pipeline between the heat supply expansion valve 4a and the heat storage expansion valve 4b in the heat pump circulating system; the condenser 3 of the heat pump circulating system is connected in series inside the hot water heat exchanger 9; the water inlet of the hot water heat exchanger 9 is connected with the water outlet of a tap water pipe, the water outlet of the hot water heat exchanger 9 is connected with the first water inlet of a water mixing valve 10, the second water inlet of the water mixing valve 10 is connected with the water outlet of the tap water pipe, and the water outlet of the water mixing valve 10 is connected with a shower nozzle 11; the five-way reversing valve is used for switching a circulating path of the heat pump circulating system; the circulation path is a heat supply circulation path (a solid arrow in an attached drawing 1) during showering, the evaporative condenser 6 at the moment is used as an evaporator, refrigerant of the evaporative condenser 6 absorbs heat in the cold water tank and then is sucked into the condenser 3 through the compressor 1 to heat and refrigerate water in the hot water heat exchanger, the refrigerated refrigerant is throttled to the solar heat collector 5 through the heating expansion valve 4a to absorb heat, the heat-absorbed refrigerant enters the evaporative condenser 6 through the heat storage expansion valve 4b which is not in operation to absorb heat, and heat supply circulation is completed; or a heat storage circulation path (dotted line arrow in figure 1) when the shower is not taken, the evaporative condenser 6 at the moment is used as a condenser, refrigerant in the evaporative condenser 6 after absorbing heat and refrigerating by working medium in the cold water tank is throttled to the solar heat collector 5 through the heat storage expansion valve 4b to absorb heat and then enters the evaporative condenser 6 through the compressor 1 to heat the working medium in the cold water tank, and the heat storage circulation is completed. The temperature of the working medium in the cold water tank 7 is slowly increased until the temperature is close to or equal to the ambient temperature. According to the intensity of solar radiation, the working medium in the cold water tank is continuously heated by the solar heat collector, so that the temperature of the working medium is further increased.
The heat pump circulating system comprises an evaporative condenser 6, a cold water tank 7, a five-way reversing valve 2, a compressor 1, a condenser 3, a heat supply expansion valve 4a and a heat storage expansion valve 4 b; working media are filled in the cold water tank 7; the evaporative condenser 6 is arranged in the cold water tank 7; a first port of the evaporative condenser 6 is connected with a port e of the five-way reversing valve 2, a port d of the five-way reversing valve is connected with an inlet of the compressor 1, an outlet of the compressor 1 is connected with a port a of the five-way reversing valve, a port b of the five-way reversing valve is connected with an inlet of the condenser 3, and a port c of the five-way reversing valve is communicated with a second port of the heat supply expansion valve 4 a; the outlet of the condenser 3 is connected with the first port of the heat supply expansion valve 4a, the second port of the heat supply expansion valve 4a is connected with the first port of the heat storage expansion valve 4b, and the second port of the heat storage expansion valve 4b is connected with the second port of the evaporative condenser 6. When the port e and the port d of the five-way reversing valve 2 are communicated, and the port a and the port b are communicated, the circulating path is a heat supply circulating path; the course of the duty cycle is shown by the solid arrows in fig. 1. When the port a and the port e of the five-way reversing valve 2 are communicated and the port c and the port d are communicated, the circulating path is a heat storage circulating path. The course of the duty cycle is shown by the dashed arrow in fig. 1.
The solar device is a solar heat collector or a photo-thermal integrated device.
When the solar device is a solar collector, the structure of the solar collector is a microchannel (as shown in fig. 2) or an inflatable plate (as shown in fig. 3); as shown in fig. 2, the microchannel includes a liquid dividing pipe 551, a liquid collecting pipe 553, and a pipe row 552. The microchannel or the inflation plate structure of the solar heat collector can be balcony rails or the outer surface of a building, and can be arranged into a single row or multiple rows according to specific needs, so that the technical defect that the solar heat collector is arranged outdoors to influence indoor light is avoided, and building materials are saved.
When the solar device is a photo-thermal integrated device as shown in fig. 4, the photo-thermal integrated device sequentially comprises, from top to bottom, a glass 51, a first EVA film 52, a crystalline silicon cell 53, a second EVA film 54, and a solar thermal collector 55; as shown in fig. 5, when the solar heat collector is a microchannel, the structure of the photothermal integration device is adopted; as shown in fig. 6, when the solar collector is a blown sheet, the photothermal integration device is used. The photo-thermal integrated device provided by the invention realizes the purpose of generating power by using solar high-frequency photons and heating by using solar low-frequency photons.
As a preferred embodiment, the heat pump water heater of the present invention further comprises a photosensitive sensor 8b, a control system (not shown in fig. 1); the photosensitive sensor is arranged on the solar device;
the signal output end of the photosensitive sensor is connected with the input end of the control system, and the output end of the control system is connected with the control end of the five-way reversing valve; the control system is used for comparing an illumination intensity signal detected by the photosensitive sensor with a preset illumination intensity value when a circulating path of the heat pump circulating pipeline is a heat storage circulating path, and controlling the conduction state of the five-way reversing valve to be switched to the conduction of the port c and the port e when the illumination intensity signal is greater than the preset illumination intensity value, so that the compressor exits the heat storage circulating path.
When the photosensitive sensor 8b detects that the solar radiation is low (less than or equal to 300W/m2), the compressor 1 is started, the port a and the port e in the five-way reversing valve are communicated, and the evaporative condenser 6 is used as a condenser for heating the working medium in the cold water storage tank 7. The refrigerant is throttled by the heat storage expansion valve 4b to the solar heat collector 5 to absorb heat and then is sucked into the compressor to complete the heat storage cycle. At this time, the heat storage cycle COP is higher because the water tank temperature is low and the solar heat collector temperature is high. When the solar radiation is high, the compressor 1 can be not started, and the working medium in the cold water storage tank 7 is directly heated by the solar heat collector. The port e in the five-way reversing valve is communicated with the port c, and at the moment, the evaporative condenser, the heat storage expansion valve 4b and the solar heat collector 5 form a closed loop heat pipe. The refrigerant absorbs heat in the solar heat collector 5, evaporates, releases heat in the cold water storage tank 7, condenses, and then returns to the solar heat collector 5 by gravity. The temperature of the working medium in the cold water storage tank 7 is slowly raised until it approaches or equals the ambient temperature. When the temperature is higher than the ambient temperature, the working medium in the cold water tank is continuously heated by the solar heat collector according to the intensity of solar radiation, so that the temperature of the working medium is further increased.
As a preferred embodiment, the heat pump water heater of the present invention further comprises a water temperature sensor 8a and a control system; the water temperature sensor 8a is arranged in a water outlet pipeline of the hot water heat exchanger 9, the water temperature sensor 8a is connected with an input end of the control system, an output end of the control system is connected with a control end of the compressor 1, and the control system is used for adjusting the rotating speed of the compressor according to the water temperature in the water outlet pipeline of the hot water heat exchanger measured by the water temperature sensor when a circulating path of a heat pump circulating pipeline is a heat supply circulating path.
As a preferred embodiment, in the process of heat absorption in the cold water tank of the evaporator, the phase transformation rate of the working medium in the cold water tank is 20% to 60%. The condensing evaporator 6 can absorb sensible heat of temperature change and latent heat of phase change of the working medium in the cold water tank 7, when the condensing evaporator 6 is used, the working medium can be changed into a solid state after being absorbed by the condensing evaporator 6, the phase change rate is less than or equal to 80%, preferably 20% -60%, the capacity of the cold water tank is different according to different using people, 1-2 people is 30L, 2-3 people is 50L, 3-4 people is 60L, 5-6 people is 70L, and 6-10 people is 100L. In order to realize a larger number of continuous bathings when the volume is fixed, a heater may be provided in the cold water tank.
As a preferred embodiment, the heat pump water heater of the present invention has a pasteurization mode once a month for a duration of two hours. When the water heater is not used, namely hot water is not provided, the compressor is started circularly, the temperature in the hot water heat exchanger 6 is controlled to be 60 ℃, and the duration is not less than 2 hours, so that legionella is killed in the high-temperature environment.
The heat pump water heater has the working principle that the heat pump technology is utilized, the evaporative condenser is placed in the cold water tank to directly contact with working media for heat exchange, the condenser directly carries out heat convection with tap water, the heat exchange coefficients at two sides are high, the heat exchange temperature difference is low, compared with an air source heat pump water heater, the heat pump has small temperature difference between the operating evaporation temperature and the condensing temperature, and the COP is higher than that of an air source heat pump water heater; and the working medium temperature in the cold water tank is not influenced by the external environment, the temperature fluctuation is small, and the water heater works more stably. Through thermodynamic calculation, under a typical working condition in summer, the temperature of tap water is 20 ℃, the temperature of outlet water is 37 ℃, and the COP of the system is 4.26; under typical working conditions in winter, the temperature of tap water is 10 ℃, the temperature of outlet water is 40 ℃, and the COP of the system is 3.
An evaporative condenser 6 of the heat pump water heater is placed in a cold water tank 7, working media (water or phase-change materials) with the temperature less than or equal to the ambient temperature are stored in the cold water tank 7, the preferred phase-change temperature range is 5-15 ℃, when the heat pump water heater works, a refrigerant in the evaporative condenser 6 absorbs heat of the water or the phase-change materials in the water tank, tap water flowing through the condenser 3 is heated by utilizing heat pump circulation, and further the tap water is mixed with the tap water by utilizing a water mixing valve 10 to reach the shower temperature.
The mixing valve 10 controls the flow and proportion of cold and hot water. When the mixing valve is opened and hot water is needed at the hot water side, the temperature sensor 12 detects whether the temperature of the hot water reaches a set temperature. Wherein the temperature range is set to be (35-60 ℃), which is different from the use habit, and the preferred value is 38-45 ℃. When the deviation between the hot water temperature and the set temperature is detected to be large, the temperature sensor 12 inputs a detected temperature signal into the control system, the control system controls the running frequency of the compressor to be increased, when the hot water temperature is close to the set temperature, the control system reduces the frequency of the compressor, and when the hot water temperature is the same as the set temperature, the pressure control system controls the compressor to run at the rated rotating speed. The invention controls the running frequency of the compressor through the water temperature.
And after the shower is finished, switching to a heat storage circulation working state. On one hand, the evaporative condenser 6 absorbs the heat of the working medium in the cold water tank 7, so that the temperature of the working medium in the cold water tank 7 is lower than the ambient temperature, and at the moment, the temperature of the working medium in the cold water tank 7 can absorb the heat of the ambient temperature and is slowly increased; on the other hand, when the photosensor 8b detects low solar radiation (< 300W/m)2) The compressor 1 is started, the port a and the port e in the five-way reversing valve are communicated, and the evaporative condenser 6 is used as a working medium for heating the cold storage water tank 7 by the condenser. The refrigerant is throttled by the heat storage expansion valve 4b to the solar heat collector 5 to absorb heat and then is sucked into the compressor to complete the heat storage cycle. At this time, the heat storage cycle COP is higher because the water tank temperature is low and the solar heat collector temperature is high. When the solar radiation is high, the compressor 1 can be not started, and the working medium in the cold water storage tank 7 is directly heated by the solar heat collector. The port e in the five-way reversing valve is communicated with the port c, and at the moment, the evaporative condenser, the heat storage expansion valve 4b and the solar heat collector 5 form a closed loop heat pipe. The refrigerant absorbs heat in the solar heat collector 5 and evaporates, releases heat in the cold storage water tank 7 and then condenses, and then returns by gravityTo the solar collector 5. The temperature of the working medium in the cold water storage tank 7 is slowly raised until it approaches or equals the ambient temperature. When the temperature is higher than the ambient temperature, the working medium in the cold water tank is continuously heated by the solar heat collector according to the intensity of solar radiation, so that the temperature of the working medium is further increased. The heat insulating layer of the cold water tank is determined by the temperature rising process, and the time for the heat insulating layer to raise the temperature of the working medium in the water tank from low temperature to the ambient temperature is 10-18 hours, so that the problem that the temperature of the water tank is raised too fast to generate great influence on the room temperature of the shower space is avoided. And this effect is reduced by a slow temperature rise process.
After the shower is finished, the low-temperature working medium in the cold water tank absorbs the environmental energy, and the temperature slowly rises until the temperature is close to the environmental temperature. The heat absorption capacity of the fluid in the temperature rising process is as follows:
QW=mIγ+cmW(TE-T0) (1)
wherein m ishMass of the working medium subjected to phase change; gamma is latent heat of phase change of the working medium; c is the specific heat of the working medium; m isWIs the total mass of the working medium; t isEThe temperature is the temperature of the working medium after the temperature rise is finished; t is0The temperature is the temperature of the working medium at the beginning of temperature rise;
the energy equation of the temperature rise process is as follows:
wherein Q isWThe heat absorption capacity of the working medium in the cold water tank in the temperature rise process is obtained by equation (1); a is the heat exchange area between the working medium in the cold water tank and air; t isaIs ambient temperature; t isWIs the temperature of the water in the water tank, which changes with time and is a function of time; t is the temperature rise time of water in the water tank;
k is the heat exchange coefficient between the working medium in the cold water tank and the air, and the natural convection heat exchange coefficient and the radiation heat exchange coefficient from the environment to the outer surface of the cold water tank1Wall heat conductivity coefficient K of cold water tank2And the natural convection heat exchange coefficient K of the inner wall surface of the cold water tank and the working medium in the cold water tank3And calculating to obtain:
wall heat conductivity coefficient K of cold water tank2The heat conduction of the inner wall surface and the outer wall surface and the heat conduction of the heat insulation layer are calculated to obtain:
wherein, delta123The thicknesses of the inner wall surface, the heat insulation layer and the outer wall surface of the cold water tank are respectively set;
λ123the heat conductivity coefficients of the inner wall surface, the heat insulation layer and the outer wall surface of the cold water tank are respectively;
according to the equation (1-4), when all structural parameters are determined, material physical parameters are known, the environment temperature is known, and the temperature rise starting and ending temperature is known, the thickness of the cold water tank heat-insulating layer and the temperature rise time t are in a single-value function relationship. In order to prevent the heating process from affecting the comfort level by affecting the ambient temperature of the shower room too much, the heating time is 10-20 hours, preferably 10-18 hours, so that the thickness of the heat-insulating layer can be determined. In order to further reduce the influence of the temperature rise of the cold water tank on the environment temperature of the toilet, the heat-insulating layer can be thickened properly according to the working quality of the cold water tank, and the thickness can be reduced properly due to the fact that the heating process of the solar heat collector on the working medium in the cold water tank is considered.
The working medium in the cold water tank 7 is water or a phase-change material, and the temperature of the working medium is less than or equal to the ambient temperature; the phase change temperature of the phase change material is less than the ambient temperature and greater than 0 ℃; if the internal working medium is water, the water can be frozen, and the freezing rate is up to 80 percent so as to utilize the phase change latent heat of the water.
According to the specific embodiment provided by the invention, the invention discloses the following technical effects:
the invention provides a solar instant heating heat pump water heater, which comprises: the solar energy device, the heat pump circulating system with the five-way reversing valve and the hot water heat exchanger; the solar device is connected in series on a pipeline between the heat supply expansion valve and the heat storage expansion valve in the heat pump circulating system; the condenser of the heat pump circulating system is arranged inside the hot water heat exchanger; and switching a circulation path of the heat pump circulation system through a five-way reversing valve. According to the solar energy heat collector and the heating method thereof, when bathing, the heat pump circulating system is switched to the heat supply circulating path, the water of the hot water heat exchanger is rapidly heated by the heat pump circulating system, so that instant heating is realized, when not bathing, the heat pump circulating system is switched to the heat storage circulating path, the working medium in the cold water tank is heated by the solar energy heat collector and the heat pump circulating system, the heat collection temperature of the solar energy heat collector is reduced, the effective utilization of solar energy is realized, the running cost of the solar energy heat collector is further reduced, and the technical defect of low heating speed is overcome.
The solar device can be a solar heat collector, the micro-channel or the inflation plate structure of the solar heat collector can be balcony rails or the outer surface of a building, and the solar heat collector can be arranged in a single row or multiple rows according to specific requirements, so that the technical defect that the indoor light is influenced when the solar heat collector is arranged outdoors is overcome, and the building materials are saved.
The solar device can be a photo-thermal integrated device, and realizes the purpose of generating power by utilizing solar high-frequency photons and heating by utilizing solar low-frequency photons.
The equivalent embodiments in the present specification are described in a progressive manner, each embodiment focuses on differences from other embodiments, and the same and similar parts between the equivalent embodiments can be referred to each other.
The principle and the implementation manner of the present invention are explained by applying specific examples, the above description of the embodiments is only used to help understanding the method of the present invention and the core idea thereof, the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, not all embodiments, and all other embodiments obtained by a person of ordinary skill in the art based on the embodiments of the present invention without creative efforts belong to the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. A solar instant heat pump water heater, characterized in that the heat pump water heater comprises: the solar energy device, the heat pump circulating system with the five-way reversing valve and the hot water heat exchanger;
the solar device is connected in series on a pipeline between the heat supply expansion valve and the heat storage expansion valve in the heat pump circulating system;
the condenser of the heat pump circulating system is arranged inside the hot water heat exchanger;
the water inlet of the hot water heat exchanger is connected with the water outlet of a tap water pipe, the water outlet of the hot water heat exchanger is connected with the first water inlet of the water mixing valve, the second water inlet of the water mixing valve is connected with the water outlet of the tap water pipe, and the water outlet of the water mixing valve is connected with a shower nozzle;
the five-way reversing valve is used for switching a circulating path of the heat pump circulating system; the circulation path is a heat supply circulation path when showering or a heat storage circulation path when not showering.
2. The solar-instant heat pump water heater according to claim 1, said solar device being a solar collector.
3. The solar instant heat pump water heater according to claim 1, wherein the solar device is a photo-thermal integrated device comprising, from top to bottom, glass, a first EVA film, a crystalline silicon cell, a second EVA film and a solar thermal collector.
4. The solar-instantaneous heat pump water heater of claim 3, characterized in that the heat pump water heater further comprises a battery; the crystal silicon battery is connected with the storage battery, and the storage battery is connected with the power input end of the compressor of the heat pump circulating system.
5. The solar instant heat pump water heater according to claim 2 or 3, wherein the solar collector is structured as a microchannel or a blown sheet.
6. The solar instant heat pump water heater according to claim 5, wherein the micro-channel comprises a liquid distribution pipe, a liquid collection pipe and a pipe array, the pipe diameters of the liquid distribution pipe and the liquid collection pipe range from 6mm to 50mm, and the parallel flow channel size of the pipe array ranges from 0.2mm x 0.2mm to 4mm x 4 mm;
one end of the tube array is connected with the liquid distribution tube, and the other end of the tube array is connected with the liquid collection tube.
7. The solar instant heat pump water heater according to claim 1, wherein the heat pump circulation system comprises an evaporative condenser, a cold water tank, a five-way reversing valve, a compressor, a condenser, a heat supply expansion valve and a heat storage expansion valve;
working media are filled in the cold water tank; the evaporative condenser is arranged in the cold water tank;
the first port of the evaporative condenser is connected with the port e of the five-way reversing valve, the port d of the five-way reversing valve is connected with the inlet of the compressor, the outlet of the compressor is connected with the port a of the five-way reversing valve, the port b of the five-way reversing valve is connected with the inlet of the condenser, and the port c of the five-way reversing valve is communicated with the second port of the heat supply expansion valve;
the outlet of the condenser is connected with the first port of the heat supply expansion valve, the second port of the heat supply expansion valve is connected with the first port of the heat storage expansion valve, and the second port of the heat storage expansion valve is connected with the second port of the evaporative condenser;
when the five-way reversing valve is in a conduction state of the port e and the port d, and the port a and the port b are conducted, the circulation path is a heat supply circulation path;
when the five-way reversing valve is in a conduction state that the port a is communicated with the port e, and the port c is communicated with the port d, the circulating path is a heat storage circulating path.
8. The solar-instant heat pump water heater of claim 7, wherein the heat pump water heater further comprises a photosensitive sensor, a control system;
the photosensitive sensor is arranged on the solar device;
the signal output end of the photosensitive sensor is connected with the input end of the control system, and the output end of the control system is connected with the control end of the five-way reversing valve;
the control system is used for comparing an illumination intensity signal detected by the photosensitive sensor with a preset illumination intensity value when a circulating path of the heat pump circulating pipeline is a heat storage circulating path, and controlling the conduction state of the five-way reversing valve to be switched to the conduction of the port c and the port e when the illumination intensity signal is greater than the preset illumination intensity value, so that the compressor exits the heat storage circulating path.
9. The solar-instant heat pump water heater of claim 7, wherein the heat pump water heater further comprises a water temperature sensor and control system;
the water temperature sensor is arranged in a water outlet pipeline of the hot water heat exchanger and connected with an input end of the control system, an output end of the control system is connected with a control end of the compressor, and the control system is used for adjusting the rotating speed of the compressor according to the water temperature in the water outlet pipeline of the hot water heat exchanger measured by the water temperature sensor when a circulating path of a heat pump circulating pipeline is a heat supply circulating path.
CN202010016790.8A 2020-01-08 2020-01-08 Solar instant heating heat pump water heater Active CN111156695B (en)

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