CN111116248A - Composting reactor capable of automatically adding compound microbial agent and method thereof - Google Patents

Composting reactor capable of automatically adding compound microbial agent and method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111116248A
CN111116248A CN202010125050.8A CN202010125050A CN111116248A CN 111116248 A CN111116248 A CN 111116248A CN 202010125050 A CN202010125050 A CN 202010125050A CN 111116248 A CN111116248 A CN 111116248A
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China
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composting
liquid
temperature
reactor
microbial
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Chinese (zh)
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吴东雷
陈威旺
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Zhejiang University ZJU
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Zhejiang University ZJU
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Priority to CN202010125050.8A priority Critical patent/CN111116248A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F9/00Fertilisers from household or town refuse
    • C05F9/02Apparatus for the manufacture
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F9/00Fertilisers from household or town refuse
    • C05F9/04Biological compost
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/20Fertilizers of biological origin, e.g. guano or fertilizers made from animal corpses
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10Process efficiency
    • Y02P20/133Renewable energy sources, e.g. sunlight

Abstract

The invention discloses a composting reactor and a method thereof, wherein the composting reactor is capable of automatically adding a compound microbial agent. The composting reactor consists of an aerobic composting bin, a percolate filter screen, a ventilation device, a temperature sensor, a stirring device, an exhaust port and the like. The solar cell panel converts solar energy into electric energy to provide electric energy for the power-on device of the integrated composting reactor; the compound microorganism bacterium liquid staged adding device respectively adds the high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid and the medium-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid at different composting stages; the temperature sensor and the liquid level height sensor can respectively detect the temperature in the compost bin and the liquid level height of the bacterial liquid in the bacterial liquid pool; the turning device and the aeration device turn and aerate the piles at regular time. The composting reactor capable of automatically adding the compound microbial agent can realize automatic bacterial liquid adding, turning and aeration in the composting process, simultaneously utilizes solar energy to supply power to the device, saves labor and energy, can effectively accelerate the composting process, improves the composting effect, is simple and convenient to operate, and can be widely applied to rural domestic garbage treatment.

Description

Composting reactor capable of automatically adding compound microbial agent and method thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of domestic garbage treatment and resource utilization, in particular to an aerobic composting device and method, and specifically relates to a composting reactor and a method for automatically adding a compound microbial agent.
Background
With the improvement of the living standard of rural residents in China, the generation amount of domestic garbage is increased, and the treatment of the domestic garbage becomes a more and more concerned problem in the face of the huge garbage generation amount. The aerobic composting process is mainly characterized by strip-pile composting, forced ventilation static stacking, trough composting, reactor composting and the like, wherein the reactor composting is popular due to the advantages of short composting period, small occupied area, easiness in control, less influence of weather on the composting process, no secondary pollution basically and the like. The nature of composting is a biochemical process of degrading easily degradable organic substances in a compost under the action of indigenous or exogenous aerobic microorganisms, promoting the temperature rise of the compost and gradually converting the easily degradable organic substances into decomposed and stable organic fertilizers, wherein the microbial activity directly determines the degradation speed and composting efficiency of organic matters, so that a plurality of researchers enhance the microbial action in the compost by adding functional degradation microbial inoculum in the compost. The traditional compound microbial inoculum is used in the initial composting stage, the compound microbial inoculum is added into a compost body at one time in a manual adding mode, time and labor are wasted, aerobic composting is generally divided into four stages of a heating period, a high-temperature period, a cooling period and a decomposing period, and after the compost body is rapidly heated to the high-temperature period, medium-temperature microorganisms in the compound microbial inoculum can be killed at high temperature, so that the medium-temperature microorganisms cannot well play the efficacy in the composting process, the composting effect is adversely affected, and the final composting quality is further affected.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to overcome the defects of the prior composting technology, the invention provides a composting reactor capable of automatically adding the compound microbial inoculum, on the basis of fully utilizing solar energy resources and saving the operation cost, the automatic staged addition of the medium-temperature compound microbial inoculum and the high-temperature compound microbial inoculum is realized through control equipment, time and labor are saved, the effect of the compound microbial inoculum can be better exerted in different stages of composting, and the purpose of improving the composting quality is achieved.
The invention adopts the following specific technical scheme:
a composting reactor capable of automatically adding compound microbial inoculum comprises a compound microbial inoculum staged automatic adding device and an aerobic composting reactor;
the automatic composite microbial liquid staged feeding device comprises a main body, a feeding device and a feeding device, wherein the main body comprises a medium-temperature composite microbial liquid tank and a high-temperature composite microbial liquid tank which are separated by a liquid separation baffle; in each bacteria liquid pool, a bacteria liquid adding port is formed in the top of each bacteria liquid pool, a transfusion hose is arranged in each bacteria liquid pool, a composite microorganism liquid inlet at the front end of the transfusion hose is arranged at the bottom of the bacteria liquid pool, the composite microorganism liquid inlet is in a hollow round table shape, the bottom of the round table is attached to the bottom surface of the bacteria liquid pool, the top of the round table is communicated with the front end of the transfusion hose, and a filter screen is arranged on the side wall; the infusion hose is provided with a water pump for providing power, and the tail end of the infusion hose extends into the aerobic composting reactor and is connected with the composite microbial liquid spraying shower head for spraying the composite microbial liquid on the compost body; each bacteria liquid pool is also provided with a liquid level height sensor for detecting the liquid level height in the pool, and the liquid level height sensor and the water pump in each bacteria liquid pool are connected with a bacteria liquid adding control device;
the aerobic composting reactor main body is an aerobic composting bin, the outer wall of the aerobic composting bin adopts a double-layer hollow structure, and a heat-insulating material is filled in the hollow layer; the aerobic composting bin is divided into a composting area and a percolate collecting area by a percolate filter screen at the bottom; a ventilation device used for periodically ventilating and supplying oxygen to the stack body is arranged in the percolate collecting region, and comprises a blower and a ventilation pipe, and the ventilation pipe is connected with the blower for supplying air; a percolate drainage inclined plate is arranged at the bottom of the percolate collecting region, and a percolate collecting opening is formed in the side wall of the aerobic composting bin at the lowest end of the percolate drainage inclined plate; an exhaust port, a feed inlet and a discharge port are arranged on the side wall of the composting area; a temperature sensor for detecting the temperature in the pile body and a pile turning device for turning the pile body are arranged in the composting area; the air blower, the two bacteria liquid feeding control devices, the temperature sensor and the pile turning device are all connected with the master control device to form feedback control.
Preferably, the solar cell culture system further comprises a solar power supply device, the solar power supply device is formed by connecting a solar cell panel and a storage battery, and the air blower, the two bacteria liquid adding control devices, the temperature sensor, the pile turning device and the master control device are all electrically connected with the storage battery.
Preferably, the bacteria liquid adding control device comprises an automatic medium-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid adding control device and an automatic high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid adding control device, and the automatic medium-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid adding control device and the automatic high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid adding control device are respectively and independently connected with a water pump and a liquid level height sensor in the corresponding bacteria liquid pool.
Preferably, the pore size of the filter screen on the side of the liquid inlet of the compound microbial liquid is smaller than the size of the caked microbial cells of the compound microbial liquid.
Preferably, the discharge port, the feed port and the bacteria liquid adding port are all composed of a sealing cover and a handle, and the sealing cover is used for opening or closing an opening where the sealing cover is located under the control of the handle.
Preferably, a liquid level alarm device is arranged in the liquid level height sensor and used for giving an alarm when the liquid level height in the tank is lower than a limit value.
Preferably, the pile turning device consists of stirring blades and a driving motor, wherein the two stirring blades are oppositely arranged at an angle of 180 degrees and are connected with an output shaft of the driving motor through a transmission rod; the temperature sensor is arranged in a hollow rod transmission rod of the pile turning device.
Preferably, the ventilation device comprises a blower and a ventilation pipe, the ventilation pipe is made of PVC materials, and is led into a percolate collecting region of the aerobic composting bin by a main pipe connected with the blower and then divided into two branch pipes, the two branch pipes are provided with ventilation holes, and the ventilation holes are formed in the side surfaces of the branch pipes.
Preferably, the outer wall of the aerobic composting bin is made of stainless steel, and the heat insulation material filled in the aerobic composting bin is made of polyurethane heat insulation material; the inclination angle of the percolate drainage inclined plate at the bottom of the aerobic composting bin is 15-20 degrees.
The invention also aims to provide a composting method for automatically adding the compound microbial agent in the composting reactor based on any scheme, which comprises the following steps:
1) after sorting, removing impurities, squeezing, crushing and pretreating the household garbage, putting the household garbage into a composting area of an aerobic composting bin from a feed port of a composting reactor until the optimal composting capacity of the aerobic composting bin is reached, then closing the feed port, and keeping the interior of the bin sealed;
2) in the initial composting stage, a water pump switch of a high-temperature compound microbial liquid pool is turned on, the high-temperature compound microbial liquid is pumped out from a compound microbial liquid inlet, reaches a compound microbial liquid spraying shower head through a compound microbial liquid transfusion hose, starts to spray a set dose of high-temperature compound microbial liquid, then is turned off by a high-temperature compound microbial liquid automatic feeding control device, and meanwhile, a pile turning device is turned on by a main control device to turn the pile body so as to uniformly mix the domestic garbage and the high-temperature compound microbial liquid and start composting;
3) in the composting process, the blower regularly ventilates the materials in the aerobic composting bin to avoid the anaerobic fermentation phenomenon in the compost, the turning device regularly stirs and turns the compost, so as to achieve the effect of uniform and high-quality composting, the temperature sensor detects the temperature in the compost body in real time, when the temperature of the stack body is reduced to below 30 ℃ after the temperature rising period, the high temperature period and the temperature reduction period, the automatic feeding control device of the intermediate-temperature compound microbial liquid starts a water pump of the intermediate-temperature compound microbial liquid pool, starts to spray the intermediate-temperature compound microbial liquid with set dosage, then closes the water pump by the automatic feeding control device of the intermediate-temperature compound microbial liquid, meanwhile, the main control device opens the pile turning device, the household garbage and the medium-temperature compound microbial liquid are uniformly mixed, then the pile body is heated again, the temperature is reduced after a small peak value is reached, and the medium-temperature compound microbial liquid is not sprayed in the cooling process;
4) odor generated in the composting process is discharged from an exhaust port of the composting bin and then is treated in a centralized way, and generated leachate is drained to a leachate collecting port through a drainage inclined plate after being infiltrated by a filter screen and then is collected in a centralized way so as to be treated subsequently;
5) and after the composting is finished, opening the discharge port, taking out the completely decomposed materials from the discharge port, and preparing to start the next batch of composting.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
1) solar energy is used for supplying power to the composite microbial liquid staged automatic feeding device and the composting reactor, natural resources are fully utilized, the operation cost is saved, the problem of high energy consumption of the traditional composting reactor is solved, and the method can be widely applied to rural areas with underdeveloped economy.
2) In the composting process, the medium-temperature compound microbial inoculum and the high-temperature compound microbial inoculum are respectively and automatically added in stages at the initial composting stage and the temperature reduction stage, so that the time and the labor are saved, different types of microbial inoculants can fully exert the maximum efficacy in different composting stages, and the best composting effect is achieved.
3) The compound microorganism fungus liquid inlet adopts round platform shape design, and the round platform side is the filter screen, can increase the fungus liquid suction area on the one hand, prevents that the inlet from blockking up, and on the other hand can prevent to inhale the caking thallus, blocks up compound microorganism fungus liquid and spouts shower head, and in addition, compound microorganism fungus liquid inlet all adopts the detachable form with spouting shower head to regularly wash in convenient for.
4) The sealing cover of the garbage discharge port, the garbage feed port and the medium-high temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid adding port of the aerobic composting bin are respectively provided with a handle so as to be convenient for opening and closing.
5) In addition, the side wall of the aerobic composting bin adopts a double-layer hollow design, and polyurethane heat-insulating materials are filled in the aerobic composting bin, so that the temperature loss of a compost body can be effectively prevented.
In conclusion, the composting reactor capable of automatically adding the compound microbial inoculum can fully and reasonably utilize natural resources, saves the operation cost, realizes intelligent management and control of the staged automatic addition of the microbial inoculum in the composting process, is time-saving, labor-saving and simple and convenient to operate, can enable the microbial inoculum to exert the maximum effect, achieves an ideal composting effect, and is environment-friendly household garbage treatment equipment suitable for large-scale popularization and use in rural areas.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of a composting reactor with automatic compound microbial agent feeding.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged schematic view of an aerobic composting bin of the composting reactor.
Fig. 3 is a schematic view of the specific structure of the ventilation pipe of the ventilation device.
FIG. 4 is a schematic top view of a complex microorganism liquid pool.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged view of the connection between the composite microorganism liquid inlet and the composite microorganism liquid transfusion hose.
Reference numbers in the figures: the device comprises a solar cell panel 1, a storage battery 2, a master control device 3, a blower 4, a feed inlet handle 5, a feed inlet sealing cover 6, a bacteria liquid adding port handle 7, a bacteria liquid adding port sealing cover 8, a composite microorganism liquid inlet 9, a composite microorganism liquid transfusion hose 10, a water pump 11, an automatic middle-temperature composite microorganism liquid adding control device 12, a liquid level height sensor 13, a composite microorganism liquid spray shower head 14, a temperature sensor 15, a pile turning device 16, an automatic high-temperature composite microorganism liquid adding control device 17, a middle-temperature composite microorganism liquid pool 18, an outlet 18-1 of a middle-temperature composite microorganism liquid transfusion tube, an inlet 18-2 of a middle-temperature composite microorganism liquid transfusion tube, a high-temperature composite microorganism liquid pool 19, an inlet 19-1 of a high-temperature composite microorganism liquid transfusion tube, an outlet 19-, The composting device comprises a composting bin exhaust port 20, an aerobic composting bin 21, a discharge port sealing cover 22, a discharge port handle 23, a percolate filter screen 24, a vent pipe 25, a vent pipe vent 25-1, a percolate drainage inclined plate 26, a percolate collecting port 27 and a liquid partition plate 28.
Detailed Description
The present invention is described in further detail below with reference to the attached drawings.
As shown in fig. 1, 2, 3 and 4, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a composting reactor for automatically adding a complex microbial inoculum is provided, and the reactor mainly comprises a staged automatic adding device for complex microbial inoculum and an aerobic composting reactor.
The automatic adding device for the compound microorganism liquid by stages mainly comprises a medium-temperature compound microorganism liquid pool 18 and a high-temperature compound microorganism liquid pool 19 which are used for storing medium-temperature resistant and high-temperature resistant compound microorganism liquid respectively, and the two liquid pools are separated by a liquid separation baffle 28. The top in two fungus liquid ponds has all been seted up the fungus liquid and has been added the mouth, is equipped with fungus liquid on the fungus liquid and adds a mouthful handle 7 and the sealed lid 8 of fungus liquid interpolation mouth, and the sealed lid 8 of fungus liquid interpolation mouth can seal the fungus liquid interpolation mouth, and fungus liquid adds a mouthful handle 7 and sets up on the sealed lid 8 of fungus liquid interpolation mouth for open the sealed lid 8 of fungus liquid interpolation mouth according to the operation needs, add the material to in the fungus liquid pond. The top cover of the medium-temperature compound microbial liquid pool 18 is also provided with an outlet 18-1 of a medium-temperature compound microbial liquid infusion tube and an inlet 18-2 of the medium-temperature compound microbial liquid infusion tube, and the medium-temperature compound microbial liquid infusion tube is used for installing the infusion tube. The high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid pool 19 is also provided with a high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid infusion tube inlet 19-1 and a high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid infusion tube outlet 19-2, and is also used for installing an infusion tube.
And a group of bacteria liquid automatic feeding devices are respectively arranged in the two bacteria liquid pools, and each group of bacteria liquid automatic feeding devices comprises a water pump 11, a composite microorganism liquid inlet 9, a liquid level height sensor 13 and a bacteria liquid feeding control device. In this embodiment, taking the medium-temperature complex microorganism liquid pool 18 as an example, an infusion hose 10 is disposed in the microorganism liquid pool, and a complex microorganism liquid inlet 9 at the front end of the infusion hose 10 is disposed at the bottom of the microorganism liquid pool. As shown in fig. 5, the composite microbial liquid inlet 9 is made into a hollow round table shape, the interior of the hollow round table is a cavity, the bottom of the round table is attached to the bottom surface of the microbial liquid pool, the top of the round table is communicated with the front end of the infusion hose 10, and the side surface of the round table is provided with a filter screen, so that the bacterial liquid suction area can be increased, and the blockage of the composite microbial liquid spray shower head 15 due to the suction of caked bacteria can. Therefore, the pore diameter of the filter screen on the side of the liquid inlet 9 of the composite microbial liquid is smaller than the size of the caked microbial body of the composite microbial liquid. The infusion hose 10 is provided with a water pump 11 for providing power, and the tail end of the infusion hose 10 extends into the aerobic composting reactor and is connected with a composite microorganism bacterium liquid spray shower head 14. Under the power action of the water pump 11, the composite microbial liquid is sprayed on the compost body of the compost reaction bin through the infusion hose 10 and the composite microbial liquid spraying shower head 14. The water pump 11 may be a peristaltic pump capable of quantitatively delivering bacteria liquid so as to control the adding amount of bacteria liquid. In order to detect the liquid level in the bacteria liquid pool in real time, a liquid level height sensor 13 is also specially arranged in the intermediate-temperature compound microorganism bacteria liquid pool 18. The liquid level height sensor 13 may be provided with a liquid level alarm device for alarming when the liquid level height in the tank is lower than a limit value. When the bacterium liquid is lower than the limited height in the pool, an alarm sound can be given to remind the worker to add the bacterium liquid. And a liquid level height sensor 13 in the medium-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid pool 18 is connected with a water pump 11 and an automatic medium-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid adding control device 12, and the automatic medium-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid adding control device 12 can receive liquid level data detected by the liquid level height sensor 13 and can control the running state of the water pump 11.
Similarly, a group of same bacteria liquid automatic feeding devices are also arranged in the high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid pool 19 and are controlled by the high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic feeding control device 17, and the high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic feeding control device 17 can receive liquid level data detected by the liquid level height sensor 13 in the high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid pool 19 and can control the running state of the water pump 11 in the high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid pool 19.
In the composting process, two groups of bacteria liquid automatic feeding devices in two bacteria liquid pools independently operate, the automatic feeding of the compound microorganism liquid in stages is intelligently managed by an intermediate-temperature compound microorganism liquid automatic feeding control device 12 and a high-temperature compound microorganism liquid automatic feeding control device 17, and the automatic operation of the whole composting process is realized. The automatic feeding control device 12 for the medium-temperature compound microbial bacteria liquid and the automatic feeding control device 17 for the high-temperature compound microbial bacteria liquid can be realized by adopting equipment such as a single chip microcomputer and a PLC, and the connection mode of the automatic feeding control device with the sensor and the water pump can adopt a wiring mode recommended by the equipment as long as the control function of the automatic feeding control device can be realized.
The aerobic composting reactor main body is an aerobic composting bin 21, the outer wall of the composting bin 21 adopts a double-layer hollow structure, and polyurethane heat-insulating materials are filled in the hollow layer. Considering that the composting environment is corrosive, the outer wall of the aerobic composting bin 21 and the stirring device 16 are made of acid-resistant and alkali-resistant stainless steel materials, so that the service life of the aerobic composting bin is prolonged. The aerobic composting bin 21 is divided into a composting area and a leachate collecting area by a leachate filter screen 24 at the bottom, and the leachate filter screen 24 is circumferentially fixed at a certain height from the bottom of the aerobic composting bin 21 and should cross the cross section of the whole aerobic composting bin 21. The material is supported by the percolate filter screen 24, and the mesh size of the percolate filter screen 24 should be such that the material particles do not fall off directly. The composting area is used for stacking materials to carry out decomposition reaction, and the percolate collecting area is mainly used for collecting percolate generated in the composting area.
In the composting area, the side wall of the composting area is provided with an air outlet 20, a feeding hole and a discharging hole, wherein the air outlet 20 is arranged on the uppermost part of the side wall of one side of the composting area and is used for discharging odor generated in the composting process. The feed inlet sets up in the opposite side lateral wall top in compost district, and the discharge gate sets up in the lateral wall below in compost district. The temperature sensor 15 and the pile turning device 16 are arranged in the composting area, and the temperature sensor 15 and the pile turning device 16 are respectively used for detecting the temperature in the pile body and turning the pile body regularly so as to detect the composting state of the pile body in real time and feed back the composting state of the pile body in time and control the composite microbial liquid to be added in stages. The turning device 16 is composed of two acid-resistant and alkali-resistant stainless steel stirring blades, the two blades are oppositely arranged at an included angle of 180 degrees, are connected with an output shaft of a driving motor through a hollow transmission rod and are driven by the driving motor to work. The temperature sensor 15 is arranged in the support hollow transmission rod of the pile turning device, so that the temperature sensor 15 can be inserted into the pile body to reflect the actual temperature of the pile body, and the temperature sensor 15 can be prevented from being smashed by the stirring blades of the pile turning device 16.
In the percolate collecting region, a percolate drainage inclined plate 26 is arranged at the bottom of the percolate collecting region and is used for draining percolate generated in the composting process so as to facilitate the discharge and collection of the percolate and the subsequent treatment of the percolate. The percolate drainage inclined plate 26 is continuously inclined from one side to the other side, the inclination angle is about 15-20 degrees, and a percolate collecting opening 27 is formed in the side wall of the aerobic composting bin 21 at the lowest end, so that percolate can be completely discharged from the percolate collecting opening 27. In order to facilitate the feeding and the taking out of the materials when the composting starts and ends, a feed inlet sealing cover 6 is specially arranged on a feed inlet of the aerobic composting bin 21, and a sealing door handle 5 which is convenient for opening and closing the feed inlet sealing cover is arranged on the feed inlet sealing cover. Similarly, a discharge port sealing door 22 and a discharge port handle 23 are also arranged on the discharge port. In this embodiment, the leachate collecting zone is provided with a ventilation device for periodically ventilating and supplying oxygen to the stack, the ventilation device comprises a blower 4 for periodically ventilating and supplying oxygen to the stack and a ventilation pipe 25, and the ventilation pipe 25 is connected with the blower 4 for supplying air so as to prevent anaerobic fermentation inside the stack. The ventilation pipe is made of PVC material, and is divided into two branch pipes after being led in by the main pipe connected with the air blower 4, so that the oxygen supply of the reactor body can be ensured to be uniform, and the two branch pipes are provided with ventilation holes 25-1. Since the position of the vent pipe 25 is continuously infiltrated by high-concentration percolate which may contain a large amount of impurities and drops on the vent pipe 25 to easily cause the blockage of the vent hole 25-1, the vent hole 25-1 is preferably arranged at the left side and the right side of the branch pipe, but not at the upper side and the lower side, so as to prevent the percolate from blocking the vent hole 25-1.
In this embodiment, a master control device 3 is further provided, and the master control device 3 is respectively connected with the blower 4, the medium-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic feeding control device 12, the high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic feeding control device 17, the temperature sensor 15, and the pile turning device 16 to form feedback control, so as to realize the overall control of the compound microorganism bacterium liquid staged automatic feeding device and the aerobic composting reactor.
In addition, in order to fully utilize natural resources and take solar energy as a power source of the whole device, the solar power supply device is particularly arranged and comprises a solar cell panel 1 and a storage battery 2 which are connected, and a blower 4, a medium-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic adding control device 12, a high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic adding control device 17, a temperature sensor 15, a pile turning device 16 and a main control device 3 are all electrically connected with the storage battery 2. The electric energy converted from solar energy can be used for supplying the electricity demand of the composite microorganism liquid staged automatic feeding device and the composting device, and the generated surplus electric energy can be stored in the storage battery 2 for later use, thereby achieving the purposes of saving energy and reducing consumption. Of course, in consideration of the operational reliability, when continuous rainy days occur, the solar energy power supply can be matched with the mains supply to supply power alone or mixed with the solar energy to supply power.
It should be noted that the high-temperature complex microbial bacteria solution and the medium-temperature complex microbial bacteria solution described in the present invention are bacterial solutions prepared by a high-temperature complex microbial bacteria agent and a medium-temperature complex microbial bacteria agent, respectively. In the invention, the medium-temperature compound microbial agent is as follows: the microbial agent is obtained by separating and screening from rural perishable household garbage piles at the temperature of 30 ℃, and is prepared by identifying dominant microbial bacteria which are not antagonistic to each other pairwise, wherein the microbial agent can comprise starch degrading bacteria, fat degrading bacteria, protein degrading bacteria, cellulose degrading bacteria and the like; the high-temperature compound microbial agent comprises: the microbial agent is obtained by separating and screening from rural perishable household garbage piles at 50 ℃, and is prepared by identifying dominant microbial bacteria which are not antagonistic to each other pairwise, wherein the microbial agent comprises starch degrading bacteria, fat degrading bacteria, protein degrading bacteria, cellulose degrading bacteria and the like. Of course, in actual use, the medium temperature and the high temperature are relative concepts, and can be adjusted appropriately according to actual conditions based on the specific temperature, and the specific microbial inoculum can be a commercially available product or a self-made microbial inoculum.
Based on the composting reactor, the composting method capable of automatically adding the compound microbial agent in stages can be provided, and the method comprises the following steps:
1) the household garbage which is pretreated by sorting, impurity removing, squeezing, crushing and the like is thrown into an aerobic composting bin 21 from a feed port of a composting reactor until the optimal composting capacity of the aerobic composting bin 21 is reached, then a feed port sealing cover 6 is closed, and the bin is kept sealed;
2) in the initial composting stage, a switch of a water pump 11 of a high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid pool 19 is turned on, the high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid is pumped out from a compound microorganism bacterium liquid inlet 9, reaches a compound microorganism bacterium liquid spray shower head 14 through a compound microorganism bacterium liquid transfusion hose 10, starts to spray a proper amount of high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid, then a high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic feeding control device 17 turns off the water pump 11, meanwhile, a total control device 3 turns on a pile turning device 16 to turn over a pile body, so that household garbage and the high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid are uniformly mixed, and composting is started;
3) in the composting process, the blower 4 regularly ventilates the materials in the aerobic composting bin 21 to avoid the anaerobic fermentation phenomenon in the compost, the turning device 16 regularly stirs and turns the compost, so as to achieve the effect of uniform and high-quality composting, the temperature sensor 15 detects the temperature in the compost body in real time, when the temperature of the stack body is reduced to below 30 ℃ after the temperature rising period, the high temperature period and the temperature reduction period, the automatic feeding control device for the intermediate-temperature compound microbial liquid starts the water pump 11 of the intermediate-temperature compound microbial liquid pool 18, starts to spray the intermediate-temperature compound microbial liquid with proper dosage, then the automatic feeding control device 12 for the intermediate-temperature compound microbial liquid closes the water pump 11, meanwhile, the main control device 3 opens the pile turning device 16, the domestic garbage and the medium-temperature compound microbial liquid are uniformly mixed, then the pile body is heated again, and the temperature begins to be reduced after a small peak value is reached. In order to prevent the medium-temperature compound microbial liquid from being sprayed for multiple times in the process of one batch of compost, the automatic medium-temperature compound microbial liquid adding control device 12 is set to enable the temperature feedback information of the single batch of compost to be effective for one time, so that the medium-temperature compound microbial liquid is not sprayed in the cooling process.
4) Odor generated in the composting process is discharged from an exhaust port 20 of the composting bin and then is treated in a centralized way, and generated percolate is drained to a percolate collecting port through a drainage inclined plate 26 after being infiltrated by a filter screen 24 and is collected in a centralized way so as to be treated subsequently;
5) after composting is finished, the sealing cover 22 of the discharge hole is opened, and the completely decomposed materials are taken out from the discharge hole to prepare for starting the next batch of composting.
The sunlight composting room designed by the invention has the following advantages:
solar energy is used for supplying power to the composite microbial liquid staged automatic feeding device and the composting reactor, natural resources are fully utilized, the operation cost is saved, the problem of high energy consumption of the traditional composting reactor is solved, and the method can be widely applied to rural areas with underdeveloped economy.
In the composting process, the medium-temperature compound microbial bacteria liquid and the high-temperature compound microbial bacteria liquid are respectively and automatically added in stages in the initial composting stage and the temperature reduction stage, so that time and labor are saved, different types of microbial agents can fully exert the maximum efficacy in different composting stages, and the best composting effect is achieved.
The composite microbial liquid inlet 9 is designed in a circular truncated cone shape, the side surface of the circular truncated cone is provided with a filter screen, on one hand, the bacterial liquid suction area can be increased, the liquid inlet is prevented from being blocked, on the other hand, caking thalli can be prevented from being sucked, the composite microbial liquid spray shower head is blocked, and in addition, the composite microbial liquid inlet 9 and the spray shower head 14 both adopt detachable forms so as to be cleaned regularly.
The sealing cover of the garbage discharge port, the garbage feed port and the medium-high temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid adding port of the aerobic composting bin are respectively provided with a handle so as to be convenient for opening and closing.
Considering that the aerobic composting is a corrosive environment, the aerobic composting bin 21 and the turning device 16 are made of acid-resistant, alkali-resistant and corrosion-resistant stainless steel materials so as to prolong the service life of the reactor, and in addition, the side wall of the aerobic composting bin 21 adopts a double-layer hollow design and is internally filled with polyurethane heat-insulating materials so as to effectively prevent the temperature of a compost body from losing.
The above-described embodiments are merely preferred embodiments of the present invention, which should not be construed as limiting the invention. Various changes and modifications may be made by one of ordinary skill in the pertinent art without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. Therefore, the technical scheme obtained by adopting the mode of equivalent replacement or equivalent transformation is within the protection scope of the invention.

Claims (10)

1. A compost reactor capable of automatically adding compound microbial agents is characterized in that: comprises a composite microorganism bacterium liquid staged automatic feeding device and an aerobic composting reactor;
the automatic composite microbial liquid staged feeding device comprises a medium-temperature composite microbial liquid tank (18) and a high-temperature composite microbial liquid tank (19), wherein the two microbial liquid tanks are separated by a liquid separation baffle (28); in each bacteria liquid pool, a bacteria liquid adding port is formed in the top of each bacteria liquid pool, a transfusion hose (10) is arranged in each bacteria liquid pool, a composite microorganism bacteria liquid inlet (9) at the front end of the transfusion hose (10) is arranged at the bottom of each bacteria liquid pool, the composite microorganism bacteria liquid inlet (9) is in a hollow round table shape, the bottom of each round table is attached to the bottom surface of each bacteria liquid pool, the top of each round table is communicated with the front end of the corresponding transfusion hose (10), and the side wall of each round; a water pump (11) for providing power is arranged on the infusion hose (10), and the tail end of the infusion hose (10) extends into the aerobic composting reactor and is connected with a composite microbial liquid spraying shower head (14) for spraying the composite microbial liquid on the compost body; a liquid level height sensor (13) for detecting the liquid level height in each bacteria liquid pool is also arranged in each bacteria liquid pool, and the liquid level height sensor (13) and the water pump (11) in each bacteria liquid pool are both connected with a bacteria liquid adding control device;
the aerobic composting reactor main body is an aerobic composting bin (21), the outer wall of the aerobic composting bin (21) adopts a double-layer hollow structure, and heat insulation materials are filled in the hollow layer; the aerobic composting bin (21) is divided into a composting area and a percolate collecting area by a percolate filter screen (24) at the bottom; a ventilation device used for periodically ventilating and supplying oxygen to the stack body is arranged in the percolate collecting region, the ventilation device comprises a blower (4) and a ventilation pipe (25), and the ventilation pipe (25) is connected with the blower (4) for supplying air; a percolate drainage inclined plate (26) is arranged at the bottom of the percolate collecting region, and a percolate collecting opening (27) is formed in the side wall of the aerobic composting bin (21) at the lowest end of the percolate drainage inclined plate (26); an exhaust port (20), a feed inlet and a discharge outlet are arranged on the side wall of the composting area; a temperature sensor (15) for detecting the temperature in the compost and a pile turning device (16) for turning the compost are arranged in the composting area; the air blower (4), the two bacteria liquid adding control devices, the temperature sensor (15) and the pile turning device (16) are all connected with the master control device (3) to form feedback control.
2. The composting reactor of claim 1, wherein the composting reactor is capable of automatically adding complex microbial agents, and comprises: still include solar power supply unit, solar power supply unit is formed by solar cell panel (1) and battery (2) linking to each other, air-blower (4), two fungus liquid throw with controlling means, temperature sensor (15), turn over a heap device (16) and total controlling means (3) all with battery (2) electricity and be connected.
3. The composting reactor of claim 1, wherein the composting reactor is capable of automatically adding complex microbial agents, and comprises: the bacteria liquid adding control device comprises a medium-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic adding control device (12) and a high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic adding control device (17), and the medium-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic adding control device and the high-temperature compound microorganism bacterium liquid automatic adding control device are respectively and independently connected with a water pump (11) and a liquid level height sensor (13) in a corresponding bacterium liquid pool.
4. The composting reactor of claim 1, wherein the composting reactor is capable of automatically adding complex microbial agents, and comprises: the pore diameter of the filter screen on the side of the liquid inlet (9) of the composite microbial liquid is smaller than the size of the caked bacteria of the composite microbial liquid.
5. The composting reactor of claim 1, wherein the composting reactor is capable of automatically adding complex microbial agents, and comprises: the discharge port, the feed port and the bacteria liquid adding port are all composed of a sealing cover and a handle, and the sealing cover is used for opening or closing an opening where the sealing cover is located under the control of the handle.
6. The composting reactor of claim 1, wherein the composting reactor is capable of automatically adding complex microbial agents, and comprises: and a liquid level alarm device is arranged in the liquid level height sensor (13) and is used for giving an alarm when the liquid level height in the tank is lower than a limit value.
7. The composting reactor of claim 1, wherein the composting reactor is capable of automatically adding complex microbial agents, and comprises: the pile turning device (16) consists of stirring blades and a driving motor, wherein the two stirring blades are oppositely arranged at an angle of 180 degrees and are connected with an output shaft of the driving motor through a transmission rod; the temperature sensor (15) is arranged inside a hollow rod transmission rod of the pile turning device (16).
8. The composting reactor of claim 1, wherein the composting reactor is capable of automatically adding complex microbial agents, and comprises: among the ventilation unit, including air-blower (4) and ventilation pipe (25), ventilation pipe (25) adopt the PVC material, introduce the leachate collecting region of good oxygen compost storehouse (21) by the person in charge who connects air-blower (4) and shunt into two spinal branch pipes again, open on two spinal branch pipes and have the ventilation hole, and the ventilation hole is opened in the branch pipe side.
9. The composting reactor of claim 1, wherein the composting reactor is capable of automatically adding complex microbial agents, and comprises: the outer wall of the aerobic composting bin (21) is made of stainless steel, and the heat insulation material filled in the aerobic composting bin is made of polyurethane heat insulation material; the inclination angle of the percolate drainage inclined plate (26) at the bottom of the aerobic composting bin (21) is 15-20 degrees.
10. A composting method based on the composting reactor as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9 and capable of automatically adding compound microbial agents, which is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) after the domestic garbage is subjected to sorting, impurity removal and squeezing crushing pretreatment, the domestic garbage is put into a composting area of an aerobic composting bin (21) from a feed port of a composting reactor until the optimal composting capacity of the aerobic composting bin (21) is reached, then the feed port is closed, and the bin is kept sealed;
2) in the initial composting stage, a switch of a water pump (11) of a high-temperature compound microbial liquid pool (19) is turned on, the high-temperature compound microbial liquid is pumped out from a compound microbial liquid inlet (9), reaches a compound microbial liquid spray shower head (14) through a compound microbial liquid transfusion hose (10), starts to spray the high-temperature compound microbial liquid with a set dosage, then a high-temperature compound microbial liquid automatic feeding control device (17) turns off the water pump (11), and meanwhile, a pile turning device (16) is turned on by a master control device (3) to turn the pile body so as to uniformly mix the domestic garbage and the high-temperature compound microbial liquid and start composting;
3) in the composting process, a blower (4) periodically ventilates materials in an aerobic composting bin (21) to avoid the anaerobic fermentation phenomenon in the compost, a composting device (16) periodically stirs and turns the compost to achieve the uniform and high-quality composting effect, a temperature sensor (15) detects the temperature in the compost in real time, when the compost passes through a heating period and a high-temperature period and enters a cooling period, and the temperature of the compost is reduced to be below 30 ℃, an automatic middle-temperature compound microbial liquid feeding control device starts a water pump (11) of a middle-temperature compound microbial liquid pool (18) to start spraying of middle-temperature compound microbial liquid with a set dosage, then the water pump (11) is closed by a middle-temperature compound microbial liquid automatic feeding control device (12), meanwhile, a master control device (3) opens the composting device (16) to uniformly mix the domestic garbage and the middle-temperature compound microbial liquid, and then the compost is heated again, cooling after a small peak value is reached, and no spraying of medium-temperature compound microorganism liquid is needed in the cooling process;
4) odor generated in the composting process is discharged from an exhaust port (20) of the composting bin and then is subjected to centralized treatment, and generated leachate is drained to a leachate collecting port through a drainage inclined plate (26) for centralized collection after being infiltrated by a filter screen (24) so as to be subjected to subsequent treatment;
5) and after the composting is finished, opening the discharge port, taking out the completely decomposed materials from the discharge port, and preparing to start the next batch of composting.
CN202010125050.8A 2020-02-27 2020-02-27 Composting reactor capable of automatically adding compound microbial agent and method thereof Pending CN111116248A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112830835A (en) * 2021-01-25 2021-05-25 赵柯柯 Temperature-detecting device for organic fertilizer compost
CN114181001A (en) * 2021-12-24 2022-03-15 内蒙古工业大学 Passive ventilation type aerobic composting reactor device and use method thereof

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112830835A (en) * 2021-01-25 2021-05-25 赵柯柯 Temperature-detecting device for organic fertilizer compost
CN114181001A (en) * 2021-12-24 2022-03-15 内蒙古工业大学 Passive ventilation type aerobic composting reactor device and use method thereof

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