CN111034519A - Improved yellow peach planting method - Google Patents

Improved yellow peach planting method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111034519A
CN111034519A CN201911169016.4A CN201911169016A CN111034519A CN 111034519 A CN111034519 A CN 111034519A CN 201911169016 A CN201911169016 A CN 201911169016A CN 111034519 A CN111034519 A CN 111034519A
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branches
planting
fruits
soil
branch
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CN201911169016.4A
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Inventor
张吉浩
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Mayang Shiyang Xianzhuang Ecological Agriculture Comprehensive Development Co Ltd
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Mayang Shiyang Xianzhuang Ecological Agriculture Comprehensive Development Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201911169016.4A priority Critical patent/CN111034519A/en
Publication of CN111034519A publication Critical patent/CN111034519A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0237Devices for protecting a specific part of a plant, e.g. roots, trunk or fruits
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01HNEW PLANTS OR NON-TRANSGENIC PROCESSES FOR OBTAINING THEM; PLANT REPRODUCTION BY TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES
    • A01H1/00Processes for modifying genotypes ; Plants characterised by associated natural traits
    • A01H1/02Methods or apparatus for hybridisation; Artificial pollination ; Fertility

Abstract

The invention discloses an improved yellow peach planting method, which comprises the following steps: step one, orchard planning; selecting nursery stocks; step three, scientifically planting; fourthly, managing the garden; step five, preventing and controlling diseases and pests; selecting a land with moderate soil acidity and alkalinity and convenient irrigation and drainage as a plantation, wherein the topography of an orchard is higher, the soil is fertile, the soil is loose, the traffic is developed, and a drainage system is perfect, digging fixed planting holes with the length, width and depth of 1m respectively when planting on flat ground, carrying out ridging cultivation, digging white dots by lime before digging the holes, then digging the holes according to the dots, pouring sufficient farmyard manure, a proper amount of compound fertilizer and urea after digging, covering a layer of thin soil, and waiting for planting; selecting disease-resistant, dwarf, frost-resistant and drought-resistant varieties according to the climatic conditions of the locations; the method has the advantages of good management effect, high planting survival rate of the yellow peaches, low possibility of plant diseases and insect pests, high yield of the yellow peaches and good prevention and control effect on the diseases and the insect pests.

Description

Improved yellow peach planting method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of yellow peach planting, in particular to an improved yellow peach planting method.
Background
The yellow peaches contain rich fat, energy, protein, carotene, vitamins and the like, and can maintain the heat of the brain and regulate the fat metabolism in the body after being eaten frequently, so that the yellow peaches can be called as health-care fruits.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide an improved yellow peach planting method to solve the problems in the background technology.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
an improved yellow peach planting method comprises the following steps: step one, orchard planning; selecting nursery stocks; step three, scientifically planting; fourthly, managing the garden; step five, preventing and controlling diseases and pests;
in the first step, a land with moderate soil acidity and alkalinity and convenient irrigation and drainage is selected as a plantation, the topography of an orchard is high, the soil is fertile, loose in soil quality, developed in traffic and perfect in drainage system, when the land is planted on a flat ground, fixed planting holes with the length, width and depth of 1m respectively are dug, ridge forming cultivation is carried out, white points are made by lime before the holes are dug, then the holes are dug according to points, sufficient farmyard manure, a proper amount of compound fertilizer and urea are poured after the holes are dug, and a layer of thin soil is covered, so that the planting can be waited;
in the second step, according to the climatic conditions of the location, selecting disease-resistant, strong, frost-resistant and drought-resistant varieties, selecting about 80cm of seedlings when selecting the seedlings, completely healing the grafting openings, enabling the diameter of the seedlings to be larger than 1cm, enabling the main roots to be more than 4, enabling the main roots to be about 20cm long, enabling the root systems to be developed and uniform, and enabling the strong seedlings to be free of diseases and insect pests;
in the third step, the seedlings are planted in the period of autumn and winter or early spring at the end of winter, the planting time cannot be later than the bottom of two months, the row spacing is generally 3-5m, the plant spacing is 3-4m, and the planting density is reasonably planned according to different terrains and the fertility degree of soil;
watering is carried out after field planting, the humidity of soil is kept, timely seedling supplement is achieved, reasonable stem fixing, bud picking and branch and leaf trimming are carried out in management of a young tree period, fertilizer application is carried out in an on-duty fertilizer application mode in the whole growth period of the young tree, nitrogen fertilizers are mainly used for promoting the growth of the young tree, in management of a fruiting period, fertilizer and water management is paid attention to the use amount of growth fertilizers, flower promoting fertilizers, fruit strengthening fertilizers and maintenance fertilizers, pruning, shaping and artificial pollination are paid attention to flower and fruit management, in management of old fruit trees, the service life of the yellow peach trees is prolonged through pruning, shaping, soil loosening, topdressing and the like, and the effect of not reducing yield is achieved;
in the fifth step, the prevention of the plant diseases and insect pests of the yellow peaches is mainly carried out, the pesticide is sprayed before the yellow peaches sprout to prevent the plant diseases and insect pests, the mineral pesticide and the high-efficiency low-toxicity low-residue pesticide are selected, and the pesticide is scientifically and alternately used; timely clearing the garden in winter and spring, loosening the soil, fertilizing, applying organic fertilizer or compound fertilizer, keeping the soil loose to facilitate root growth, properly applying lime or calcium superphosphate to improve acid soil, paying attention to ditching and draining in peach gardens with high underground water level, and timely and deeply turning over tree tray soil in winter, wherein the turning depth is 20-30 cm; in the dormancy stage of yellow peaches from 11 months to 2 months in the next year, cutting off branches and leaves of diseases and pests, scraping off rough and old diseased skins, coating white big branches and trunks, cleaning an orchard, and smearing wounds with 2-3 degrees of Be lime sulfur mixture to prevent invasion of germs; in the growing season, measures such as bud picking and tip wiping, core picking, tip twisting, branch thinning and the like are adopted to keep good ventilation and light transmission of the peach orchard; cleaning the dead fruits in time, cleaning fallen leaves and fallen fruits, combining fruit thinning and fruit setting, removing the worms and the fruits before the larvae drop the fruits, and performing centralized harmless destruction; the method is characterized in that honey crops such as green manure, clover, peanuts, soybeans and the like are planted among peach trees, the biological diversity of a peach orchard is improved, the ecological environment of the peach orchard is improved, the habitat suitable for natural enemies is created through measures such as raw grass cultivation and tree disc covering, the natural enemies are helped to move artificially, pests are controlled, and meanwhile, the pests are trapped and killed by adopting measures such as light trapping, yellow board trapping and killing and sugar wine vinegar trapping and killing.
According to the technical scheme, in the first step, the salt content of the soil needs to be controlled to be less than 0.1%, the organic matter content needs to be more than 1%, and the underground water level needs to be less than 1 m.
According to the technical scheme, in the first step, core soil and surface soil are separately stacked when the planting holes are dug, 2000kg of decomposed chicken manure, pig manure, cow dung and the like, 150kg of commercial organic fertilizer and 50-100kg of calcium superphosphate are applied to each mu, the surface soil and the base fertilizer are uniformly mixed and backfilled at the lower layer, and the core soil is built with a tree tray and slightly bulges.
According to the technical scheme, in the second step, the first generation yellow peach seedling is grafted as far as possible, and the multi-generation grafted peach seedling is avoided.
According to the technical scheme, in the fourth step, reasonable trimming and early crown trimming are carried out during pruning and shaping, the natural open heart shape is better, winter trimming is carried out in the first year, about 50cm short sections are reserved for the 3 main branches which are selected and reserved respectively, the short sections are flexibly mastered, if the main branches are inconsistent in growth vigor, the strong branches can be appropriately short-reserved, the weak branches can be appropriately long-reserved, 60cm short sections are reserved for the extended branches of the main branches in the second year of winter trimming, the 1 st-stage side branch is selected and reserved at a position 40-50cm away from the main branches, the selected and reserved side branch is short-reserved at a position 40cm away from the main branches, the main branches are continuously short-cut in the third year of winter trimming, the 2 nd-stage side branch is selected and reserved at a position 50cm away from the 1 st side branch, the same-stage side branch on each main branch is positioned at the same side, the upper and lower-stage side branches of the same main branch are positioned at opposite sides, and the long branches are weaker than the extended branches of the main branches, and the main branches are positioned at the same side branches, and, Small branches and branch groups are reserved on the lateral branches.
According to the technical scheme, in the fourth step, a part of long and dense branches and leaves are pruned, long and good branches and leaves are reserved, and some branches and leaves which droop or are damaged by insects are pruned, so that proper growth density is ensured, and sufficient sunlight irradiation is realized.
According to the technical scheme, in the fourth step, when artificial pollination is performed, a robust peach tree is selected, open flowers are picked, the picked flowers are shaken by hands lightly, the anthers are separated from stamens, golden yellow pollen is obtained, and the pollen and clean talcum powder or fine dry starch are mixed according to the ratio of 1: 10-20, placing into a gauze bag, and pollinating with a special tool.
According to the technical scheme, in the fourth step, in flower and fruit management, bud thinning and flower thinning are carried out on the variety with more flower buds and high fruit setting rate, the reserved amount of the bud thinning and the flower thinning is 20-30% more than that of the flower thinning, flowers at the base of fruit branches are thinned firstly, flowers at the middle upper part are reserved, flowers at the middle upper part are thinned, single flowers are reserved, and full thinning on the branches is prepared; thinning fruits before the hard pit stage from two weeks after flower falling, wherein fruits are firstly thinned from the inside to the back, and are firstly thinned from the top to the bottom, except for small fruits, double fruits, malformed fruits and insect-infected fruits, secondly, fruits on the upward fruits and leafless fruit branches are selected and left, and the fruits with large and regular shapes are selected and left, and the fruits growing downwards on the two sides of the fruit branches are better; the spacing between fruits on the same bearing branch is 4-5cm, 3-4 fruits are left on long bearing branches, 2-3 fruits are left on middle bearing branches, 1 or no fruit is left on short bearing branches and bouquet-shaped bearing branches, 1-2 fruits are left on auxiliary tip bearing branches, no or little fruit is left on extension branches, and no fruit is left on preparation branches; after the fruits are fixed, bagging needs to be carried out in time, special bags for yellow peaches need to be used, proper time is selected, bagging needs to follow the principle that early ripening is followed by late ripening, the bag is taken out firstly, then the bag is taken out firstly, the single-layer bag needs to be opened before the bag is taken out, the bag is slowly removed, the outer layer needs to be firstly taken out by the double-layer bag, then the inner layer is taken out, and the bag cannot be taken out in the mature period of the fruits in certain rainwater concentrated areas.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that: selecting a proper orchard, selecting a proper variety and strong seedlings, reasonably planning the planting density according to different terrains and the fertility degree of soil, treating the core soil and the surface soil of a fixed planting hole, then performing intercarving management, performing different fertilization management on fruit trees in different growth periods, reasonably pruning and shaping the fruit trees, simultaneously performing reasonable artificial pollination and flower and fruit management, performing bud thinning, fruit thinning and bagging treatment on the fruit trees, improving the planting survival rate of yellow peaches, improving the yield of the yellow peaches, combining chemical control, agricultural control, ecological control and control with physicochemical induction control, performing yellow peach pest control by multiple measures, and improving the pest control effect.
Drawings
The accompanying drawings, which are included to provide a further understanding of the invention and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification, illustrate embodiments of the invention and together with the description serve to explain the principles of the invention and not to limit the invention. In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a flow chart of the method of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Referring to fig. 1, the present invention provides a technical solution:
an improved yellow peach planting method comprises the following steps: step one, orchard planning; selecting nursery stocks; step three, scientifically planting; fourthly, managing the garden; step five, preventing and controlling diseases and pests;
in the first step, a land with moderate soil acidity and alkalinity and convenient irrigation and drainage is selected as a plantation, the topography of an orchard is high, the soil is fertile, loose in soil quality, developed in traffic and perfect in drainage system, when the land is planted on a flat ground, fixed planting holes with the length, width and depth of 1m respectively are dug, ridge forming cultivation is carried out, white points are made by lime before the holes are dug, then the holes are dug according to points, sufficient farmyard manure, a proper amount of compound fertilizer and urea are poured after the holes are dug, and a layer of thin soil is covered, so that the planting can be waited;
in the second step, according to the climatic conditions of the location, selecting disease-resistant, strong, frost-resistant and drought-resistant varieties, selecting about 80cm of seedlings when selecting the seedlings, completely healing the grafting openings, enabling the diameter of the seedlings to be larger than 1cm, enabling the main roots to be more than 4, enabling the main roots to be about 20cm long, enabling the root systems to be developed and uniform, and enabling the strong seedlings to be free of diseases and insect pests;
in the third step, the seedlings are planted in the period of autumn and winter or early spring at the end of winter, the planting time cannot be later than the bottom of two months, the row spacing is generally 3-5m, the plant spacing is 3-4m, and the planting density is reasonably planned according to different terrains and the fertility degree of soil;
watering is carried out after field planting, the humidity of soil is kept, timely seedling supplement is achieved, reasonable stem fixing, bud picking and branch and leaf trimming are carried out in management of a young tree period, fertilizer application is carried out in an on-duty fertilizer application mode in the whole growth period of the young tree, nitrogen fertilizers are mainly used for promoting the growth of the young tree, in management of a fruiting period, fertilizer and water management is paid attention to the use amount of growth fertilizers, flower promoting fertilizers, fruit strengthening fertilizers and maintenance fertilizers, pruning, shaping and artificial pollination are paid attention to flower and fruit management, in management of old fruit trees, the service life of the yellow peach trees is prolonged through pruning, shaping, soil loosening, topdressing and the like, and the effect of not reducing yield is achieved;
in the fifth step, the prevention of the plant diseases and insect pests of the yellow peaches is mainly carried out, the pesticide is sprayed before the yellow peaches sprout to prevent the plant diseases and insect pests, the mineral pesticide and the high-efficiency low-toxicity low-residue pesticide are selected, and the pesticide is scientifically and alternately used; timely clearing the garden in winter and spring, loosening the soil, fertilizing, applying organic fertilizer or compound fertilizer, keeping the soil loose to facilitate root growth, properly applying lime or calcium superphosphate to improve acid soil, paying attention to ditching and draining in peach gardens with high underground water level, and timely and deeply turning over tree tray soil in winter, wherein the turning depth is 20-30 cm; in the dormancy stage of yellow peaches from 11 months to 2 months in the next year, cutting off branches and leaves of diseases and pests, scraping off rough and old diseased skins, coating white big branches and trunks, cleaning an orchard, and smearing wounds with 2-3 degrees of Be lime sulfur mixture to prevent invasion of germs; in the growing season, measures such as bud picking and tip wiping, core picking, tip twisting, branch thinning and the like are adopted to keep good ventilation and light transmission of the peach orchard; cleaning the dead fruits in time, cleaning fallen leaves and fallen fruits, combining fruit thinning and fruit setting, removing the worms and the fruits before the larvae drop the fruits, and performing centralized harmless destruction; the method is characterized in that honey crops such as green manure, clover, peanuts, soybeans and the like are planted among peach trees, the biological diversity of a peach orchard is improved, the ecological environment of the peach orchard is improved, the habitat suitable for natural enemies is created through measures such as raw grass cultivation and tree disc covering, the natural enemies are helped to move artificially, pests are controlled, and meanwhile, the pests are trapped and killed by adopting measures such as light trapping, yellow board trapping and killing and sugar wine vinegar trapping and killing.
According to the technical scheme, in the first step, the salt content of the soil needs to be controlled to be below 0.1%, the organic matter content needs to be above 1%, and the underground water level needs to be below 1 m.
According to the technical scheme, in the first step, core soil and surface soil are separately stacked when the planting hole is dug, 2000kg of decomposed chicken manure, pig manure, cow dung and the like, 150kg of commercial organic fertilizer and 50-100kg of calcium superphosphate are applied to each mu, the surface soil and the base fertilizer are uniformly mixed and backfilled at the lower layer, and the core soil is built to form a tree tray and is slightly raised.
According to the technical scheme, in the second step, the first generation yellow peach seedling is grafted as far as possible, and the multi-generation grafted peach seedling is avoided.
According to the technical scheme, in the fourth step, reasonable trimming and early crown trimming are carried out during pruning and shaping, the natural open heart shape is better, winter trimming is carried out in the first year, about 50cm short sections are reserved for the 3 main branches which are selected and reserved respectively, the short sections are flexibly mastered, if the main branches are inconsistent in growth vigor, the strong branches can be appropriately shortened and the weak branches can be appropriately lengthened, 60cm short sections are reserved for the extended branches of the main branches in the second year of winter trimming, the 1 st-level lateral branches are selected and reserved at positions 40-50cm away from the main branches, the selected and reserved lateral branches are shortened at positions 40cm away from the main branches, the extended branches on the main branches are continuously shortened in the third year of winter trimming, the 2 nd-level lateral branches are selected and reserved at positions 50cm away from the 1 st lateral branches, the same-level lateral branches on the main branches are positioned at the same side, the upper and lower-level lateral branches of the same main branches are positioned at opposite sides, and the long branches are weaker than the extended branches of the main branches, the long branches are positioned at the same side of the same side, and the upper branches are positioned at the same side, Small branches and branch groups are reserved on the lateral branches.
According to the technical scheme, in the fourth step, a part of long and dense branches and leaves are pruned, long and good branches and leaves are reserved, and some branches and leaves which droop or are damaged by insects are pruned, so that proper growth density is ensured, and sufficient sunlight is irradiated.
According to the technical scheme, in the fourth step, when artificial pollination is carried out, a strong peach tree is selected, open flowers are picked, the picked flowers are shaken by hands lightly, the anthers are separated from stamens, golden yellow pollen is obtained, and the pollen and clean talcum powder or fine dry starch are mixed according to the ratio of 1: 10-20, placing into a gauze bag, and pollinating with a special tool.
According to the technical scheme, in the fourth step, in flower and fruit management, bud thinning and flower thinning are carried out on the variety with more flower buds and high fruit setting rate, the reserved amount of the bud thinning and the flower thinning is 20-30% more than that of the flower thinning, flowers at the base of fruit branches are thinned firstly, flowers at the middle upper parts are reserved, flowers at the middle upper parts are thinned, single flowers are reserved, and full thinning on the branches is prepared; thinning fruits before the hard pit stage from two weeks after flower falling, wherein fruits are firstly thinned from the inside to the back, and are firstly thinned from the top to the bottom, except for small fruits, double fruits, malformed fruits and insect-infected fruits, secondly, fruits on the upward fruits and leafless fruit branches are selected and left, and the fruits with large and regular shapes are selected and left, and the fruits growing downwards on the two sides of the fruit branches are better; the spacing between fruits on the same bearing branch is 4-5cm, 3-4 fruits are left on long bearing branches, 2-3 fruits are left on middle bearing branches, 1 or no fruit is left on short bearing branches and bouquet-shaped bearing branches, 1-2 fruits are left on auxiliary tip bearing branches, no or little fruit is left on extension branches, and no fruit is left on preparation branches; after the fruits are fixed, bagging needs to be carried out in time, special bags for yellow peaches need to be used, proper time is selected, bagging needs to follow the principle that early ripening is followed by late ripening, the bag is taken out firstly, then the bag is taken out firstly, the single-layer bag needs to be opened before the bag is taken out, the bag is slowly removed, the outer layer needs to be firstly taken out by the double-layer bag, then the inner layer is taken out, and the bag cannot be taken out in the mature period of the fruits in certain rainwater concentrated areas.
Based on the above, the invention has the advantages that by planning the orchard, selecting a proper orchard, selecting the variety with disease resistance, dwarf, frost resistance and drought resistance, developed and uniform root system and strong seedlings without plant diseases and insect pests according to the climatic conditions of the location, reasonably planning the planting density according to different terrains and soil fertility degrees, processing the core soil and the surface soil of a fixed planting hole, then performing inter-garden management, performing different fertilization management on fruit trees in different growth periods, performing reasonable pruning and shaping on the fruit trees, performing reasonable artificial pollination and flower and fruit management simultaneously, performing bud thinning, fruit thinning and bagging on the fruit trees, improving the planting survival rate of yellow peaches, improving the yield of the yellow peaches, spraying a medicament to prevent plant diseases and insect pests before the yellow peaches sprout, selecting a mineral pesticide, a high-efficiency low-toxicity low-residue pesticide, scientifically and alternately using the pesticide, carrying out chemical prevention and control; timely clearing the garden in winter and spring, loosening the soil, fertilizing, applying organic fertilizer or compound fertilizer, keeping the soil loose to facilitate root growth, properly applying lime or calcium superphosphate to improve acid soil, paying attention to ditching and draining in peach gardens with high underground water level, and timely and deeply turning over tree tray soil in winter, wherein the turning depth is 20-30 cm; in the dormancy stage of yellow peaches from 11 months to 2 months in the next year, cutting off branches and leaves of diseases and pests, scraping off rough and old diseased skins, coating white big branches and trunks, cleaning an orchard, and smearing wounds with 2-3 degrees of Be lime sulfur mixture to prevent invasion of germs; in the growing season, measures such as bud picking and tip wiping, core picking, tip twisting, branch thinning and the like are adopted to keep good ventilation and light transmission of the peach orchard; cleaning the dead fruits in time, cleaning fallen leaves and fallen fruits, combining fruit thinning and fruit setting, removing the worms and the fruits before the larvae drop the fruits, and performing centralized harmless destruction for agricultural control; the method is characterized in that honey crops such as green manure, clover, peanuts, soybeans and the like are planted among peach tree rows, the biological diversity of a peach orchard is improved, the ecological environment of the peach orchard is improved, a habitat environment suitable for natural enemies is created through measures such as raw grass cultivation and tree disc covering, the natural enemies are moved artificially, pests are controlled, ecological regulation and control are carried out, meanwhile, the pests are trapped and killed by adopting measures such as light trapping and killing, yellow board trapping and killing and sugar wine vinegar trapping and killing, physical and chemical trapping and control are carried out, yellow peach pest control is carried out through multiple measures, and the pest control effect is improved.
It is noted that, herein, relational terms such as first and second, and the like may be used solely to distinguish one entity or action from another entity or action without necessarily requiring or implying any actual such relationship or order between such entities or actions. Also, the terms "comprises," "comprising," or any other variation thereof, are intended to cover a non-exclusive inclusion, such that a process, method, article, or apparatus that comprises a list of elements does not include only those elements but may include other elements not expressly listed or inherent to such process, method, article, or apparatus.
Although embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that changes, modifications, substitutions and alterations can be made in these embodiments without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is defined in the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims (8)

1. An improved yellow peach planting method comprises the following steps: step one, orchard planning; selecting nursery stocks; step three, scientifically planting; fourthly, managing the garden; step five, preventing and controlling diseases and pests; the method is characterized in that:
in the first step, a land with moderate soil acidity and alkalinity and convenient irrigation and drainage is selected as a plantation, the topography of an orchard is high, the soil is fertile, loose in soil quality, developed in traffic and perfect in drainage system, when the land is planted on a flat ground, fixed planting holes with the length, width and depth of 1m respectively are dug, ridge forming cultivation is carried out, white points are made by lime before the holes are dug, then the holes are dug according to points, sufficient farmyard manure, a proper amount of compound fertilizer and urea are poured after the holes are dug, and a layer of thin soil is covered, so that the planting can be waited;
in the second step, according to the climatic conditions of the location, selecting disease-resistant, strong, frost-resistant and drought-resistant varieties, selecting about 80cm of seedlings when selecting the seedlings, completely healing the grafting openings, enabling the diameter of the seedlings to be larger than 1cm, enabling the main roots to be more than 4, enabling the main roots to be about 20cm long, enabling the root systems to be developed and uniform, and enabling the strong seedlings to be free of diseases and insect pests;
in the third step, the seedlings are planted in the period of autumn and winter or early spring at the end of winter, the planting time cannot be later than the bottom of two months, the row spacing is generally 3-5m, the plant spacing is 3-4m, and the planting density is reasonably planned according to different terrains and the fertility degree of soil;
watering is carried out after field planting, the humidity of soil is kept, timely seedling supplement is achieved, reasonable stem fixing, bud picking and branch and leaf trimming are carried out in management of a young tree period, fertilizer application is carried out in an on-duty fertilizer application mode in the whole growth period of the young tree, nitrogen fertilizers are mainly used for promoting the growth of the young tree, in management of a fruiting period, fertilizer and water management is paid attention to the use amount of growth fertilizers, flower promoting fertilizers, fruit strengthening fertilizers and maintenance fertilizers, pruning, shaping and artificial pollination are paid attention to flower and fruit management, in management of old fruit trees, the service life of the yellow peach trees is prolonged through pruning, shaping, soil loosening, topdressing and the like, and the effect of not reducing yield is achieved;
in the fifth step, the prevention of the plant diseases and insect pests of the yellow peaches is mainly carried out, the pesticide is sprayed before the yellow peaches sprout to prevent the plant diseases and insect pests, the mineral pesticide and the high-efficiency low-toxicity low-residue pesticide are selected, and the pesticide is scientifically and alternately used; timely clearing the garden in winter and spring, loosening the soil, fertilizing, applying organic fertilizer or compound fertilizer, keeping the soil loose to facilitate root growth, properly applying lime or calcium superphosphate to improve acid soil, paying attention to ditching and draining in peach gardens with high underground water level, and timely and deeply turning over tree tray soil in winter, wherein the turning depth is 20-30 cm; in the dormancy stage of yellow peaches from 11 months to 2 months in the next year, cutting off branches and leaves of diseases and pests, scraping off rough and old diseased skins, coating white big branches and trunks, cleaning an orchard, and smearing wounds with 2-3 degrees of Be lime sulfur mixture to prevent invasion of germs; in the growing season, measures such as bud picking and tip wiping, core picking, tip twisting, branch thinning and the like are adopted to keep good ventilation and light transmission of the peach orchard; cleaning the dead fruits in time, cleaning fallen leaves and fallen fruits, combining fruit thinning and fruit setting, removing the worms and the fruits before the larvae drop the fruits, and performing centralized harmless destruction; the method is characterized in that honey crops such as green manure, clover, peanuts, soybeans and the like are planted among peach trees, the biological diversity of a peach orchard is improved, the ecological environment of the peach orchard is improved, the habitat suitable for natural enemies is created through measures such as raw grass cultivation and tree disc covering, the natural enemies are helped to move artificially, pests are controlled, and meanwhile, the pests are trapped and killed by adopting measures such as light trapping, yellow board trapping and killing and sugar wine vinegar trapping and killing.
2. The improved yellow peach planting method according to claim 1, wherein the improved yellow peach planting method comprises the following steps: in the first step, the salt content of the soil needs to be controlled below 0.1%, the organic matter content needs to be above 1%, and the groundwater level needs to be below 1 m.
3. The improved yellow peach planting method according to claim 1, wherein the improved yellow peach planting method comprises the following steps: in the first step, core soil and surface soil are separately stacked when a planting hole is dug, 2000kg of decomposed chicken manure, pig manure, cow dung and the like, 150kg of commercial organic fertilizer and 50-100kg of calcium superphosphate are applied to each mu of land, the surface soil and the base fertilizer are uniformly mixed and backfilled at the lower layer, and the core soil builds a tree tray and slightly bulges.
4. The improved yellow peach planting method according to claim 1, wherein the improved yellow peach planting method comprises the following steps: in the second step, the first generation of yellow peach grafting seedlings are selected as much as possible, and the use of multi-generation grafted peach seedlings is avoided.
5. The improved yellow peach planting method according to claim 1, wherein the improved yellow peach planting method comprises the following steps: in the fourth step, the reasonable pruning is carried out during the pruning and shaping, the early-formed crown is better trimmed by the natural open heart shape, the winter pruning is carried out in the first year, about 50cm short sections are reserved for the selected 3 main branches respectively, the short sections are flexibly mastered, if the main branches are inconsistent in length, the strong branches can be properly kept short, the weak branches can be properly kept long, the extended branches of each main branch are required to be kept short by 60cm when the main branches are cut in winter in the second year, selecting and reserving the 1 st grade lateral branch at a position 40-50cm away from the main branch, cutting the selected and reserved lateral branch at a position 40cm away from the main branch, continuously cutting the extension branch on the main branch when cutting in winter in the third year, and selecting and reserving 2-level lateral branches at a position 50cm away from the 1 st lateral branch, wherein the lateral branches of the same level selected and reserved on each main branch are at the same side, the upper and lower lateral branches of the same main branch are on opposite sides, and the lateral branches are weaker than the extension branches of the main branch, shorter than the extension branches of the main branch, and require more small branches and branch groups on the main branch and the lateral branches.
6. The improved yellow peach planting method according to claim 1, wherein the improved yellow peach planting method comprises the following steps: in the fourth step, a part of long and dense branches and leaves are pruned, long and good branches and leaves are reserved, and some branches and leaves which droop or are damaged by insects are pruned, so that proper growth density is ensured, and sufficient sunlight is also irradiated.
7. The improved yellow peach planting method according to claim 1, wherein the improved yellow peach planting method comprises the following steps: in the fourth step, during artificial pollination, a robust peach tree is selected, open flowers are picked, the picked flowers are shaken by hands lightly, the anthers are separated from stamens, golden yellow pollen is obtained, and the pollen and clean talcum powder or fine dry starch are mixed according to the ratio of 1: 10-20, placing into a gauze bag, and pollinating with a special tool.
8. The improved yellow peach planting method according to claim 1, wherein the improved yellow peach planting method comprises the following steps: in the fourth step, in the management of the flowers and fruits, carrying out bud thinning and flower thinning on the variety with more flower buds and high fruit setting rate, wherein the reserved amount of the bud thinning and the flower thinning is 20-30% more than that of the flower thinning, firstly, thinning the flower at the base part of a fruit branch, reserving the flower at the middle upper part, thinning double flowers at the middle upper part, reserving single flowers, and preparing for full thinning on the branch; thinning fruits before the hard pit stage from two weeks after flower falling, wherein fruits are firstly thinned from the inside to the back, and are firstly thinned from the top to the bottom, except for small fruits, double fruits, malformed fruits and insect-infected fruits, secondly, fruits on the upward fruits and leafless fruit branches are selected and left, and the fruits with large and regular shapes are selected and left, and the fruits growing downwards on the two sides of the fruit branches are better; the spacing between fruits on the same bearing branch is 4-5cm, 3-4 fruits are left on long bearing branches, 2-3 fruits are left on middle bearing branches, 1 or no fruit is left on short bearing branches and bouquet-shaped bearing branches, 1-2 fruits are left on auxiliary tip bearing branches, no or little fruit is left on extension branches, and no fruit is left on preparation branches; after the fruits are fixed, bagging needs to be carried out in time, special bags for yellow peaches need to be used, proper time is selected, bagging needs to follow the principle that early ripening is followed by late ripening, the bag is taken out firstly, then the bag is taken out firstly, the single-layer bag needs to be opened before the bag is taken out, the bag is slowly removed, the outer layer needs to be firstly taken out by the double-layer bag, then the inner layer is taken out, and the bag cannot be taken out in the mature period of the fruits in certain rainwater concentrated areas.
CN201911169016.4A 2019-11-25 2019-11-25 Improved yellow peach planting method Pending CN111034519A (en)

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