CN111011278A - Breeding method for improving survival rate of procambarus clarkii bred in rice field - Google Patents

Breeding method for improving survival rate of procambarus clarkii bred in rice field Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111011278A
CN111011278A CN201911064939.3A CN201911064939A CN111011278A CN 111011278 A CN111011278 A CN 111011278A CN 201911064939 A CN201911064939 A CN 201911064939A CN 111011278 A CN111011278 A CN 111011278A
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water
shrimp
days
months
shrimps
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陈红莲
鲍俊杰
王永杰
张静
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Fisheries Research Institute of Anhui AAS
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Fisheries Research Institute of Anhui AAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/10Animal feeding-stuffs obtained by microbiological or biochemical processes
    • A23K10/12Animal feeding-stuffs obtained by microbiological or biochemical processes by fermentation of natural products, e.g. of vegetable material, animal waste material or biomass
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/30Animal feeding-stuffs from material of plant origin, e.g. roots, seeds or hay; from material of fungal origin, e.g. mushrooms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K20/00Accessory food factors for animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K20/10Organic substances
    • A23K20/163Sugars; Polysaccharides
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K50/00Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals
    • A23K50/80Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals for aquatic animals, e.g. fish, crustaceans or molluscs
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/34Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the microorganisms used
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/16Nitrogen compounds, e.g. ammonia
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2209/00Controlling or monitoring parameters in water treatment
    • C02F2209/22O2
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a breeding method for improving the survival rate of procambarus clarkii cultured in a rice field, which comprises the specific operation steps of parent shrimps, shrimp larva transportation and release, water grass planting, scientific feeding, density control, water quality and substrate regulation and control. According to the invention, a series of measures are taken to reduce the damage of transportation to the procambarus clarkia, a comprehensive environment beneficial to the healthy growth of the procambarus clarkia is created, the regulation and control of water quality and substrate are enhanced, the immunity of the procambarus clarkia is improved, and the purpose of preventing diseases is achieved in the critical period of disease prevention and control for 4-5 months. By adopting the comprehensive prevention and control method, the survival rate of the procambarus clarkia is improved to more than 90% from the original 60-70%, zero discharge of culture water is basically realized, and antibiotics are used in zero.

Description

Breeding method for improving survival rate of procambarus clarkii bred in rice field
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of aquaculture, in particular to a culture method for improving the survival rate of procambarus clarkii cultured in a rice field.
Background
Procambarus clarkii belongs to the genus Procambarus of the family Alaska of the suborder Procambarus of the class Crustacea, and is widely cultivated in more than ten provinces (cities) of Hubei, Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hunan, etc. The meat quality is tender and is deeply loved by consumers and is in short supply. Due to the unique life habits of the shrimps, the method can be perfectly combined with the planting industry to develop various modes such as rice shrimp symbiosis, lotus root shrimp symbiosis and the like, and particularly has huge comprehensive planting and breeding development space for rice shrimps.
At present, the prominent links for restricting the healthy development of the rice field procambarus clarkii breeding industry mainly focus on six aspects, namely, the injury of shrimps during transportation. The improper transportation mode causes the injury of the young and parent procambarus clarkii and the death of a large number of the procambarus clarkii after the cultivation. In a second aspect, high density cultivation. The procambarus clarkii has a unique life habit of holing and breeding, a breeding mode of self-breeding shrimp larvae self-culture is mainly adopted in the rice field, the breeding period of the procambarus clarkii is long (4-10 months), the specifications of the shrimps in the rice field are irregular, a large number of shrimp larvae bring difficulty to the evaluation and control of breeding density, and high-density breeding is easy to occur. In the third aspect, the water quality and the substrate are damaged. The large amount of excrement, uneaten feed and rotten rice stumps of the high-density cultivated shrimps accelerate the water quality and the bottom quality deterioration of the rice field. The water level of the shrimp-raising rice field is shallow, generally 30-40 cm, more phytoplankton exist in water, photosynthesis and respiration are strong, and the dissolved oxygen in water is supersaturated in sunny days and is seriously insufficient in rainy days. In a fourth aspect, shrimp immunity is reduced. When the feed is excessively fed, the water quality and the bottom materials are damaged, and the dissolved oxygen in the water is over-saturated or insufficient, so that the micro-ecological disorder of the intestinal tracts of the shrimps and the reduction of the immune function are caused. In the fifth aspect, disease control. Outbreak diseases such as white spot syndrome and enteritis are easy to occur in 4-6 months. In a sixth aspect, a concealment is absent. The procambarus clarkii is unshelled for about 1 time in 7 days, the grown procambarus clarkii needs to be unshelled for 11 times, and the procambarus clarkii is in a soft state when being unshelled, is easy to be eaten by other procambarus clarkii, needs to be concealed and is safe to pass through the unshelling period. In recent years, the failure of the procambarus clarkii culture in the rice field is increased, so that the transportation safety of the procambarus clarkii, the water and grass planting, the culture density control, the culture water quality and the substrate regulation and control are important, the immunity of the procambarus clarkii is improved, and a comprehensive disease prevention and control method is required to provide technical support for the whole culture process of the procambarus clarkii.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a culture method for improving the survival rate of procambarus clarkii cultured in a rice field, and aims to overcome the defects in the process of culturing the procambarus clarkii in the rice field in the prior art.
The invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
the invention provides a breeding method for improving the survival rate of procambarus clarkii bred in a rice field, which comprises the following steps:
planting aquatic weeds: planting water plants in the breeding field and ditch of the procambarus clarkii in 10 months each year until the water plant coverage area of the field and the ditch reaches 30-40%;
shrimp larvae transportation and release: the shrimp larvae are prevented from being damaged in the transportation process, and before being thrown, the shrimp larvae are repeatedly immersed in the field water for 2-3 times, 1-2 minutes each time, and then thrown;
a feed for feeding comprising:
feeding Procambrus clarkii compound feed with protein content of 26-32% when water temperature is higher than 15 ℃, wherein daily feeding amount is 1.0-5.0% of the weight of the pond shrimp in 3-10 months;
starting in 4 middle of the month every year, adding an immunopotentiator into the feed every other half month;
culture density control comprising:
controlling the shrimp culture density for the first time: the stocking density of the shrimp seedlings is 1.0-1.5 ten thousand tails/mu, and after the shrimp seedlings are raised for 40 days, the shrimp seedlings are alternately caught and come into the market;
controlling the shrimp density of the self-breeding shrimp seedling in the rice field: catching adult shrimps in 3-4 months, fishing excessive shrimp seedlings for sale, placing 4-6 cages per mu in 5 months, and fishing the shrimps at intervals of one week when the yield of commercial shrimps is lower than 2 kg/mu;
regulating and controlling water quality and substrate.
As a further optimized scheme of the present invention, the method for planting aquatic weeds in step S1 includes: the method comprises the steps of planting the waterweeds in the field and the ditch, keeping the row spacing of 2-3 meters and the plant spacing of 1 meter when planting the grass, and applying grass fertilizer after planting the grass for one week.
As a further optimized scheme of the present invention, the method for transporting and releasing young shrimps in step S2 includes:
and (3) transportation: putting a layer of waterweeds in a plastic shrimp basket, wherein each frame contains 5kg of young shrimps or parent shrimps to be transported, so that the shrimps are prevented from being directly sunned by the sun and transported by adopting a dry transportation mode, and the shrimps are rinsed once every 2 hours in the transportation process;
putting: when putting in, the shrimp frame is repeatedly put into the water of the field to be put in for 2-3 times, each time for 1-2 minutes, and then the shrimps are dispersed and put into the water of the field.
As a further optimized scheme of the present invention, the method for feeding the feed of step S3 includes: feeding the compound feed at the water temperature of more than 15 ℃, feeding the compound feed with the protein content of 30-32% in the last ten days of 3-4 months and in 7-10 months, wherein the daily feeding amount is 1.0-3.0% of the weight of the pond-stored shrimps; and feeding the compound feed with the protein content of 26-28% from the middle ten days of 4 months to 6 months, wherein the daily feeding amount accounts for 3% -5% of the weight of the shrimps in the pond, and the evening feeding amount accounts for 70%.
As a further optimized scheme of the invention, the immunopotentiator of step S3 comprises epimedium powder, bacillus subtilis and brown sugar, and the preparation method of the immunopotentiator comprises the following steps: mixing epimedium powder, brown sugar and water according to the proportion of 2: 1: 16, adding bacillus subtilis to a final concentration of 109Fermenting at 20-37 deg.C for 24-48 hr per ml.
As a further optimization scheme of the invention, the fermentation time of the immunopotentiator satisfies the following conditions:
fermentation time (hour) — 900 (DEG C. hour) ÷ water temperature (DEG C)
As a further optimized scheme of the invention, the dosage of the immunopotentiator in the step S3 is 10 mg/kg of feed, and the immunopotentiator is added every half month according to the treatment course, wherein each treatment course is 5 days, and each time is 1 treatment course.
As a further optimization scheme of the present invention, the water quality and substrate control of step S5 includes:
water body disinfection: 4, in the middle ten days of the month to 5 months, the field water is disinfected once every 10 days, the field water is disinfected by using the iodine preparation in the morning on a sunny day, the using dose is 1.5 times of the dose of the iodine preparation product, the field water is disinfected by using chlorine dioxide on a rainy day, the using dose is 1.5 times of the dose of the chlorine dioxide product, and if the field water is continuously disinfected by using the chlorine dioxide on a rainy day, the disinfection operation is smoothly extended to the sunny day;
water quality regulation and control: 4-5 months, regulating and controlling water quality and substrate for 1 time at intervals of 7 days, using a microecological preparation in sunny days, using a bacillus preparation and a photosynthetic bacteria preparation in a matched manner according to a volume ratio of 1:1, using the bacillus preparation and the photosynthetic bacteria preparation according to the dosage of 1.5 times, using a sodium percarbonate preparation in rainy days, wherein the dosage of the sodium percarbonate preparation is 1.5 times of that of the sodium percarbonate preparation;
regulating and controlling water body dissolved oxygen: and in 4 to 5 months in the middle of the month, performing night field patrol in rainy days, and if most of the Procambrus clarkii climb to the shore or aquatic weeds, adding a sodium percarbonate preparation for oxygenation, wherein the dosage of the sodium percarbonate preparation is 2 times of that of a sodium percarbonate product.
As a further optimization scheme of the invention, in the water body disinfection process, the water body dissolved oxygen is not lower than 3 mg/L, and when chlorine dioxide is used for disinfection, the water body dissolved oxygen is not higher than 8 mg/L; in the water quality control process, the microorganism content in the microecological preparation is not less than 109And (2) per milliliter, when the microecological preparation is used, the dissolved oxygen in the water body is not less than 3 milligrams per liter, and a disinfectant is not used within 3 days before and after the microecological preparation is used.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
1) the damage of transportation to the procambarus clarkii is reduced, a comprehensive environment which is favorable for the healthy growth of the procambarus clarkii is created, the key period of disease prevention and control from 4 to 5 months is determined according to the survey of diseases of the procambarus clarkii cultured in the rice field for many years, and the regulation and control of water quality and substrate are enhanced, the immunity of the procambarus clarkii is improved, and the purpose of preventing diseases is achieved in the key period of disease prevention and control from 4 to 5 months. By adopting the comprehensive prevention and control method, the survival rate of the procambarus clarkia is improved to more than 90% from the original 60-70%, zero discharge of culture water is basically realized, and antibiotics are used in zero.
2) The immunopotentiator is prepared from the bacillus subtilis fermented epimedium powder, and the bacillus subtilis fermented epimedium powder can improve the epimedium polysaccharide content. The feed added with the immunopotentiator is fed according to the course of treatment, so that the stress capability of the procambarus clarkia against severe water temperature change, water quality deterioration and the like is improved, the growth of intestinal probiotics is promoted, the development of immune organs is promoted, the function of immune cells is improved, the invasion and the replication of pathogenic bacteria and viruses are resisted, and the diseases such as white spot syndrome, enteritis, hepatopancreatic necrosis and the like are prevented and controlled.
3) The waterweed planted by the invention can grow under the low temperature condition, thereby not only providing a hidden place for the molting of the young shrimps, avoiding the soft shrimps from being ingested by other shrimps and safely passing the molting period; also provides a palatable green feed for the shrimp. 30-40% of aquatic weeds are planted, and the shrimp fishing operation is facilitated.
4) The invention discloses a method for controlling the density of procambarus clarkii in a self-breeding shrimp fry rice field, which is one of the keys of success and failure of culture.
5) When the water quality and the substrate are conditioned, the bacillus preparation and the photosynthetic bacteria preparation are mixed for use, so that ammonia nitrogen in water is eliminated more quickly than 1 of the bacillus preparation and the photosynthetic bacteria preparation, and the consumption of dissolved oxygen in water is reduced.
6) According to the special characteristics of water quality and substrate of the shrimp-culturing paddy field, periodic disinfection is carried out, and the water quality and the substrate are continuously regulated and controlled. The water level of the shrimp-raising rice field is generally 30-40 cm, more phytoplankton exists in water, photosynthesis and respiration are strong, dissolved oxygen in the field water is easy to oversaturate in a sunny day and is insufficient in a rainy day, so that a non-oxygen-increasing preparation is used in the sunny day when water quality and substrate are regulated, and an oxygen-increasing chemical reagent is used in the rainy day to alleviate the reduction of shrimp immunity caused by the fact that the dissolved oxygen is supersaturated or insufficient in the water. In the whole culture process, the content of ammonia nitrogen in the water body is less than or equal to 0.30 mg/L, and the content of nitrite is less than or equal to 0.05 mg/L, so that zero discharge of culture wastewater and zero use of antibiotics are realized.
Detailed Description
The following examples are given for the detailed implementation and specific operation of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited to the following examples.
Example 1
The embodiment provides a breeding method for improving the survival rate of procambarus clarkii cultured in a rice field, wherein the breeding area of the procambarus clarkii seedlings cultured in the rice field is 40 mu. An annular ditch is dug along the inner side of the ridge of the rice field, the width of the ditch is 2.5 meters, the depth of the ditch is 0.8 meter, the ridge is higher than the surface of the field by more than 0.8 meter, and the width of the top of the ridge is 3.5 meters. The rice field adopts a rice and shrimp continuous cropping mode, after most procambarus clarkii are harvested in 2018, 6 and 5 days, parent shrimp cultivation is started in an annular ditch, and the field is ready for rice planting.
The method specifically comprises the following steps:
step S1, transporting and releasing parent shrimps
7 months and 15 days in 2017, 400 kg of wild procambarus clarkii with the specification of 25-35 g/lake is purchased. Putting a layer of float grass in a plastic shrimp frame, screening strong parent shrimps, and loading 5kg of the parent shrimps in each frame to avoid direct sunning in the sun, and transporting the shrimps to a paddy field to be cultivated within 1.5 hours by adopting a dry transportation method. When the shrimp is put in the field, the shrimp frame is repeatedly put into the field water for 3 times, each time lasts for 1-2 minutes, and then the shrimps are scattered and lightly put into the field water to reduce the stress reaction of the shrimps and enable the shrimps to adapt to a new culture environment quickly.
Step S2, planting aquatic weeds
And (4) planting the elodea nutans in the rice field and the ditch thereof in 2017, 10 months and 15 days, keeping the row spacing of 2-3 meters and the plant spacing of 1 meter when planting the grass, and applying grass fertilizer after planting the grass for one week.
Step S3, scientifically feeding the feed
Step S301, feeding the feed
Feeding Procambarus clarkii compound feed when the water temperature is higher than 15 ℃, wherein the feed can be selected from a product of Procambarus clarkii compound feed produced by Tongweikongmo, and the compound feed comprises two specifications of 28% and 32% of protein content (mass ratio); feeding in the last ten days of 3-4 months and 7-8 months by using a compound feed with the protein content of 32 percent, wherein the daily feeding amount is 1.0-3.0 percent by mass; in the middle ten days of 4 months to 6 months, the compound feed with the protein content of 28 percent is used for feeding, and the daily feeding amount is 3.0 to 5.0 percent by mass.
Step S302, adding immunopotentiator for feeding
The rice field isolation gauze was evenly divided into 4 regions A, B, C, D, and shrimp larvae were evenly distributed into 4 regions. Starting at 15 days 4, a course of immunopotentiator feeding is added every 15 days for procambarus clarkii in the area B, C, D, specifically: and (2) mixing an immunopotentiator into the feed for feeding, wherein the dosage of the immunopotentiator is 10 mg/kg of the feed, each course of treatment is 5 days, the area A is used as a blank control, and the immunopotentiator is not added.
The immunopotentiator used in the area B comprises epimedium powder, bacillus subtilis (Weifang pesticide pilot plant of Chinese academy of agricultural sciences) and brown sugar, and the preparation method of the immunopotentiator comprises the following steps: mixing epimedium powder, brown sugar and water according to the proportion of 2: 1: 16, adding bacillus subtilis to a final concentration of 109Fermenting for 24-48 hours at 20-37 ℃ per milliliter, wherein the specific fermentation time is related to the water temperature and meets the following requirements: the fermentation time (hour) was 900 (. degree.C.hr). water temperature (. degree.C.).
The immunopotentiator used in the region C comprises the components of bacillus subtilis and brown sugar, and the preparation method of the immunopotentiator comprises the following steps: mixing brown sugar and water according to the weight ratio of 1: 16, adding bacillus subtilis to a final concentration of 109And (2) activating the bacillus subtilis by brown sugar for 2-3 hours, and directly using the activated bacillus subtilis as an immunopotentiator.
The immunopotentiator adopted by the region D comprises epimedium powder, wherein the epimedium powder and water are mixed according to the weight ratio of 1: 8, and is used as an immunopotentiator.
Step S4, cultivation density control
And (4) from 3 and 25 in 2018 to 4 and the last ten days in the same year, carrying out round-turn catching by using a ground cage, and capturing the shrimps and the excessive shrimp fries with hardened shells for sale. And (4-6 ground cages with the diameter of 5 meters are placed in each mu in the same year for 5 months, the shrimp is harvested and sold, and when the yield of commodity shrimp is lower than 2 kilograms per mu, the fishing is suspended for one week.
Step S5, regulating and controlling water quality and substrate
Step S501, water disinfection
And beginning in 2018, 4 and 15 days, and disinfecting the water body every 10 days. In the morning of fine days, the product is disinfected by compound iodine (trade name: compound iodine, the dosage in the product specification is 60 ml for each mu of water depth), and 90 ml for each mu of water depth. Chlorine dioxide powder is used in rainy days (Henan south China Qianmen Murray Biotech limited, the dosage in the product specification is about 150 g for disinfection, 220 g is used in water depth per mu. in continuous rainy days, the disinfection operation is smoothly prolonged until sunny days, and in the water disinfection process, the dissolved oxygen in water is not lower than 3 mg/L, and in the disinfection process by chlorine dioxide, the dissolved oxygen in water is not higher than 8 mg/L.
Step S502, water quality regulation and control
4-5 months, and regulating and controlling the water quality and the substrate for 1 time at intervals of 7 days. In the morning of sunny days, bacillus preparation and photosynthetic bacteria preparation (Lin \29463, Heng Jun Biotechnology limited, county, trade names: bacillus raw powder and photosynthetic bacteria raw powder) are enriched according to the product specification, and then are mixed according to the volume ratio of 1:1 to prepare the microecological preparation, and the microecological preparation is used for regulating and controlling water quality and substrate, and the dosage is 1.5 times of the conventional dosage of the product. Sodium percarbonate (produced by Shanghai Fishery-an Biotechnology Limited company, trade name: high-efficiency granular oxygen) is used in rainy days, and the water depth per mu is 200 g, which is 1.5 times of the instruction dosage of the sodium percarbonate preparation product. In the water quality control process, the microorganism content in the microecological preparation is not less than 109And (2) per milliliter, when the microecological preparation is used, the dissolved oxygen in the water body is not less than 3 milligrams per liter, and a disinfectant is not used within 3 days before and after the microecological preparation is used.
Step S503, regulating and controlling dissolved oxygen in water body
Beginning at 4 months and 10 days, performing night field patrol on rainy days, and applying a sodium percarbonate preparation (produced by Shanghai Fishery-Lian-Biotech limited, trade name: high-efficiency granular oxygen) for oxygenating water when a large amount of shrimps climb onto the bank or aquatic weeds, wherein the water depth per mu of meter is 250 g, and the dosage is 2 times of the specification dosage of the sodium percarbonate product.
By utilizing the method, the cumulative yield of the whole year is counted in 8 months in 2018, and the result shows that by utilizing the comprehensive breeding method, the cumulative yield of the procambarus clarkii per mu in the rice field is 170 kilograms, and the survival rate of the procambarus clarkii reaches 92.3 percent. Wherein the yield of the area A, B, C, D is 139 kg, 170 kg, 160 kg and 150 kg respectively, and the survival rate of the procambarus clarkii is 75.6%, 92.3%, 87.5% and 80.5% respectively.
Example 2
The embodiment provides another breeding method for improving the survival rate of the procambarus clarkii cultured in the rice field, the rice field is used for culturing the procambarus clarkii for the first time, the area of the rice field is 20 mu, the middle of the rice field is separated by a ridge and is divided into two independent culture fields I and II, annular ditches are dug on the inner sides of the two ridge of the rice field, the width of each ditch is 1.5 meters, and the depth of each ditch is 0.8 meter. The ridge is higher than the field surface by more than 0.7 m, and the top of the ridge is 2.5 m wide. The two rice fields adopt a rice and shrimp continuous cropping mode, the vast majority of procambarus clarkii are harvested in 2017 in 6 months and 2 days, the parent shrimp culture is started in the annular ditch, and the field is ready for rice planting.
The method specifically comprises the following steps:
step S1, planting aquatic weeds
In 2017, 10 and 6 days, the waterweeds are planted in the two fields and the ditches, the row spacing is kept about 2.5 meters and the plant spacing is kept about 1 meter when the grass is planted, and the grass fertilizer is applied after the grass is planted for one week.
Step S2, shrimp larvae transporting and releasing
And (3) buying shrimp seeds 3 and 28 days in 2018, wherein the shrimp seeds are about 5 g/shrimp, placing a layer of water plants in a plastic shrimp basket, filling 5kg of strong shrimp seeds in each basket, avoiding direct sunning of the shrimp seeds by the sun, adopting a dry transportation mode, transporting the shrimp seeds to a rice field within 2 hours, spraying the shrimps once every 2 hours if the transportation time exceeds 2 hours, repeatedly immersing the shrimp baskets in the water of the field for 3 times, and 1-2 minutes each time, and then evenly dispersing and lightly placing the shrimps into two pieces of field water.
Step S3, scientifically feeding the feed (two farmlands feed according to the same method and dosage)
Step S301, feeding the feed
The procambarus clarkii is fed with the compound feed (product name: crayfish compound feed, 28% protein content, manufactured by Tongwei feed Co., Ltd.). In the last ten days of 3-4 months, the daily feeding amount is 1.0-3.0%, in the middle ten days of 4 months-6 months, the daily feeding amount is 3.0-5.0%.
Step S302, adding immunopotentiator for feeding
Starting at 4 months and 15 days, adding an immunopotentiator for one treatment course every 15 days for feeding, wherein the immunopotentiator comprises the components of epimedium powder, bacillus subtilis and brown sugar, and the weight ratio of the epimedium powder to the brown sugar to water is 2: 1: 16, adding bacillus subtilis to a final concentration of 109Fermenting for 24-48 hours at 20-37 ℃ per milliliter, wherein the specific fermentation time is related to the water temperature and meets the following requirements: the fermentation time (hour) was 900 (. degree.C.hr). water temperature (. degree.C.). The immunopotentiator is used in a dose of 10 ml/kg of feed, and the course of treatment is 5 days.
Step S4, cultivation density control
The density of the Procambarus clarkii released and cultured per mu is 1.2 thousands, and adult shrimps begin to be captured and sold after 20 days in 5 months. And 4 land cages with 10 meters are placed in each mu, and fishing is suspended for one week when the number of finished shrimps is small.
Step S5, regulating and controlling water quality and substrate
Step S501, water disinfection
And beginning in 2018, 4 and 15 days, and disinfecting the water body every 10 days. Wherein:
the water body disinfection method for the rice field I comprises the following steps: 9 in the morning on a sunny day: 00 sterilizing with compound iodine (trade name: compound iodine) in water depth of 90 ml/mu. The product is sterilized by chlorine dioxide powder (Henan Hua Qian mu Biotech Co., Ltd.) in rainy days, and the concentration is 220 g/mu deep. The continuous disinfection operation is smooth in rainy days.
The water body disinfection method of the rice field II comprises the following steps: 9 in the morning on a sunny day: 00 Disinfection was performed with complex iodine (trade name: complex iodine, Kunshiong lotus Biotech Co., Ltd.) in a water depth of 60 ml/mu (product instruction dose). Chlorine dioxide powder (Henan Hua Qian mu Biotech Co., Ltd.) was used for disinfection in rainy days at 150 g/mu depth (product specification dose). The continuous disinfection operation is smooth in rainy days.
In the water body disinfection process, the water body dissolved oxygen is not lower than 3 mg/L, and in the disinfection process by using chlorine dioxide, the water body dissolved oxygen is not higher than 8 mg/L.
Step S502, water quality regulation and control
4-5 months, and regulating and controlling the water quality and the substrate for 1 time at intervals of 7 days. Wherein:
the water quality control method of the rice field I comprises the following steps: in the morning of sunny days, bacillus preparations (Lin \29463, manufactured by Hengjun Biotechnology Co., Ltd., county, trade name of bacillus raw powder) and photosynthetic bacteria preparations (Lin \29463, manufactured by Hengjun Biotechnology Co., Ltd., county, trade name of bacillus raw powder) were enriched according to the product specifications, and then the ratio of the bacillus preparations to the photosynthetic bacteria was increased according to 1:1 volume ratio, and the dosage is 1.5 times of the product specification. In rainy days, a sodium percarbonate preparation (produced by Shanghai Yulian Biotechnology Limited, trade name: high-efficiency granular oxygen) is applied, and the water depth per mu is 200 g (1.5 times dosage in the specification).
The water quality regulation and control method of the rice field II comprises the following steps: in the morning of sunny days, bacillus preparations (Lin \29463, manufactured by Hengjun Biotechnology Co., Ltd., county, trade name of bacillus raw powder) and photosynthetic bacteria preparations (Lin \29463, manufactured by Hengjun Biotechnology Co., Ltd., county, trade name of bacillus raw powder) were enriched according to the product specifications, and then the ratio of the bacillus preparations to the photosynthetic bacteria was increased according to 1:1 volume ratio and using according to the product instruction. In rainy days, a sodium percarbonate preparation (produced by Shanghai Yulian Biotechnology Limited, trade name: high-efficiency granular oxygen) is applied, and the water depth per mu is 130 g (normal dosage).
In the water quality control process, the microorganism content in the microecological preparation is not less than 109And (2) per milliliter, when the microecological preparation is used, the dissolved oxygen in the water body is not less than 3 milligrams per liter, and a disinfectant is not used within 3 days before and after the microecological preparation is used.
Step S503, regulating and controlling dissolved oxygen in water body
Beginning at 4 months and 10 days, performing night field patrol on rainy days, and applying a sodium percarbonate preparation (produced by Shanghai Fishery-Lian-Biotech limited, trade name: high-efficiency granular oxygen) to perform water oxygenation when a large amount of shrimps climb to the shore or aquatic weeds are found, wherein the rice field I is applied according to the water depth of 250 g per mu m, and the rice field II is applied according to the water depth of 125 g per mu m.
By utilizing the method, the cumulative yield of the whole year is counted in 8 months in 2018, and the comprehensive breeding method disclosed by the embodiment is found that the cumulative yield of the procambarus clarkii in the rice field I per mu is 120 kg, the survival rate of the procambarus clarkii is 93.5%, the cumulative yield of the procambarus clarkii in the rice field I per mu is 120 kg, the survival rate of the procambarus clarkii in the rice field I is 93.5%, the cumulative yield of the procambarus clarkii in the rice field II per mu is 112 kg, and the survival rate of the procambarus clarkii is 87.5%.
The above is a detailed embodiment and a specific operation process of the present invention, which are implemented on the premise of the technical solution of the present invention, but the protection scope of the present invention is not limited to the above-mentioned examples.

Claims (9)

1. A cultivation method for improving the survival rate of procambarus clarkii cultivated in a rice field comprises the steps of planting waterweeds, transporting and putting shrimp larvae, feeding feed, controlling cultivation density and regulating and controlling water quality and substrate, and is characterized in that:
the aquatic weed planting comprises: planting water plants in the breeding field and ditch of the procambarus clarkii in 10 months each year until the water plant coverage area of the field and the ditch reaches 30-40%;
shrimp larvae transports and puts in including: the shrimp larvae are prevented from being damaged in the transportation process, and before being thrown, the shrimp larvae are repeatedly immersed in the field water for 2-3 times, 1-2 minutes each time, and then thrown;
the feed feeding comprises the following steps:
feeding Procambrus clarkii compound feed with protein content of 26-32% when water temperature is higher than 15 ℃, wherein daily feeding amount is 1.0-5.0% of the weight of the pond shrimp in 3-10 months;
starting in 4 middle of the month every year, adding an immunopotentiator into the feed every other half month;
the culture density control comprises the following steps:
controlling the shrimp culture density for the first time: the stocking density of the shrimp seedlings is 1.0-1.5 ten thousand tails/mu, and after the shrimp seedlings are raised for 40 days, the shrimp seedlings are alternately caught and come into the market;
controlling the shrimp density of the self-breeding shrimp seedling in the rice field: catching adult shrimps in 3-4 months, fishing excessive shrimp seedlings for sale, placing 4-6 cages per mu in 5 months, and fishing the shrimps at intervals of one week when the yield of commercial shrimps is lower than 2 kg/mu.
2. The method for improving the survival rate of the procambarus clarkii cultured in the rice field according to claim 1, wherein the method for planting the aquatic weeds comprises the following steps: the method comprises the steps of planting the waterweeds in the field and the ditch, keeping the row spacing of 2-3 meters and the plant spacing of 1 meter when planting the grass, and applying grass fertilizer after planting the grass for one week.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the method for transporting and releasing the young shrimps comprises:
and (3) transportation: putting a layer of waterweeds in a plastic shrimp basket, wherein each frame contains 5kg of young shrimps or parent shrimps to be transported, so that the shrimps are prevented from being directly sunned by the sun and transported by adopting a dry transportation mode, and the shrimps are rinsed once every 2 hours in the transportation process;
putting: when putting in, the shrimp frame is repeatedly put into the water of the field to be put in for 2-3 times, each time for 1-2 minutes, and then the shrimps are dispersed and put into the water of the field.
4. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the method of feeding comprises: feeding the compound feed at the water temperature of more than 15 ℃, feeding the compound feed with the protein content of 32% in the last ten days of 3-4 months and in 7-10 months, wherein the daily feeding amount is 1.0-3.0% of the weight of the pond shrimp; and feeding the compound feed with the protein content of 26% from the middle ten days of 4 months to 6 months, wherein the daily feeding amount is 3% -5% of the weight of the shrimps in the pond, and the evening feeding amount accounts for 70%.
5. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the immunopotentiator comprises herba Epimedii powder, Bacillus subtilis and brown sugar, and is prepared by the steps of: mixing epimedium powder, brown sugar and water according to the proportion of 2: 1: 16, adding bacillus subtilis to a final concentration of 109Is/areMl, fermenting at 20-37 ℃.
6. The method as claimed in claim 5, wherein the fermentation time of the immunopotentiator is satisfied as follows:
fermentation time (hour) — 900 (DEG C. hour) ÷ water temperature (DEG C)
7. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the immunopotentiator is administered in an amount of 10 mg/kg feed, and is administered every half month as a course of treatment, with 5 days per course of treatment and 1 course of treatment.
8. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the water quality and substrate control comprises:
water body disinfection: 4, in the middle ten days of the month to 5 months, the field water is disinfected once every 10 days, the field water is disinfected by using the iodine preparation in the morning on a sunny day, the using dose is 1.5 times of the dose of the iodine preparation product, the field water is disinfected by using chlorine dioxide on a rainy day, the using dose is 1.5 times of the dose of the chlorine dioxide product, and if the field water is continuously disinfected by using the chlorine dioxide on a rainy day, the disinfection operation is smoothly extended to the sunny day;
water quality regulation and control: 4-6 months, regulating and controlling water quality and substrate for 1 time at intervals of 7 days, using a microecological preparation in sunny days, using a bacillus preparation and a photosynthetic bacteria preparation in a matched manner according to a volume ratio of 1:1, using the bacillus preparation and the photosynthetic bacteria preparation according to the dosage of 1.5 times, using sodium percarbonate in rainy days, and using the sodium percarbonate in a dosage of 1.5 times of the dosage of the sodium percarbonate product;
regulating and controlling water body dissolved oxygen: and in 4 to 5 months in the middle of the month, performing night field patrol in rainy days, and if most of procambarus clarkii climb to the shore or aquatic weeds, adding sodium percarbonate for oxygenation, wherein the dosage of the sodium percarbonate is 2 times of that of a sodium percarbonate product.
9. The method as claimed in claim 8, wherein the method comprises culturing procambarus clarkii in the rice field to increase the survival rate thereofCharacterized in that the dissolved oxygen in the water body is not less than 3 mg/L in the disinfection process of the water body, and the dissolved oxygen in the water body is not more than 8 mg/L when the chlorine dioxide is used for disinfection; in the water quality control process, the microorganism content in the microecological preparation is not less than 109And (2) per milliliter, when the microecological preparation is used, the dissolved oxygen in the water body is not less than 3 milligrams per liter, and a disinfectant is not used within 3 days before and after the microecological preparation is used.
CN201911064939.3A 2019-11-04 2019-11-04 Breeding method for improving survival rate of procambarus clarkii bred in rice field Pending CN111011278A (en)

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