CN111006400B - Solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector - Google Patents

Solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111006400B
CN111006400B CN201911307017.0A CN201911307017A CN111006400B CN 111006400 B CN111006400 B CN 111006400B CN 201911307017 A CN201911307017 A CN 201911307017A CN 111006400 B CN111006400 B CN 111006400B
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solar
heat exchange
light
heat
electrochromic
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CN111006400A (en
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吴祥初
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吴祥初
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S20/00Solar heat collectors specially adapted for particular uses or environments
    • F24S20/20Solar heat collectors for receiving concentrated solar energy, e.g. receivers for solar power plants
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S50/00Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors
    • F24S50/80Arrangements for controlling solar heat collectors for controlling collection or absorption of solar radiation
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24SSOLAR HEAT COLLECTORS; SOLAR HEAT SYSTEMS
    • F24S70/00Details of absorbing elements
    • F24S70/20Details of absorbing elements characterised by absorbing coatings; characterised by surface treatment for increasing absorption
    • F24S70/225Details of absorbing elements characterised by absorbing coatings; characterised by surface treatment for increasing absorption for spectrally selective absorption
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers

Abstract

The invention discloses a solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector which comprises a photovoltaic cell panel, a heat exchange tube, a heat insulation plate, a back plate, a frame and a control device, wherein the surface of the heat exchange tube is provided with a reflective coating; the heat insulation frame is provided with a first cavity, the upper surface and the lower surface of the heat insulation frame are respectively connected with first light transmission glass and second light transmission glass through heat insulation glue, the solar cell piece is arranged in the second cavity, the electrochromic film is arranged in the first cavity and pasted on the upper surface of the second light transmission glass, the heat exchange tube comprises a vertical tube and a bent tube, the vertical tube is arranged at the back of the photovoltaic cell panel and is located under the electrochromic film, and the control device is used for controlling the operation of the electrochromic film. The solar photovoltaic solar panel has a simple structure, and can effectively improve the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic cell panel and meet different hot water requirements of users.

Description

Solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of photovoltaic and photo-thermal integration, in particular to a solar photovoltaic and photo-thermal collector.
Background
The solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector is mostly provided with a heat exchange coil pipe on the back of a traditional photovoltaic cell panel and keeps warm, cold water is introduced into the heat exchange coil pipe to absorb heat of the photovoltaic cell panel and is conveyed to a heat storage water tank to be used as domestic water, domestic hot water can be obtained while the temperature of the photovoltaic cell panel is reduced to improve the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic cell panel, the integration of a photovoltaic module and the solar thermal collector is realized, the comprehensive utilization efficiency of solar energy is greatly improved, and the solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector is widely applied at present. However, the current solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector is difficult to meet the high-temperature hot water requirement of a common family because the heat exchange tube is arranged on the back of the photovoltaic panel, and particularly in winter with a large hot water requirement, in addition, the current heat exchange tube mostly exchanges heat with the back of the photovoltaic panel through an air layer, the heat exchange effect is poor, particularly on the lower surface of the heat exchange tube, the cooling effect of the photovoltaic panel is general, the heat quantity recovered is small, and the research on the corresponding technology is urgently needed to be improved.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the prior art and provides a solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector, which can control the operation of an electrochromic film according to the hot water requirements of users in different seasons to enable a heat exchange tube to absorb different heat, so that the heat exchange tube is mainly used for reducing the temperature of a photovoltaic cell panel in summer and mainly used for recovering hot water with higher temperature in winter, the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic cell panel is effectively reduced, different hot water requirements of the users are met, and the user experience is further improved.
Therefore, the invention adopts the following technical scheme: a solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector comprises a photovoltaic cell panel, a heat exchange tube, a thermal insulation board, a back board, a frame and a control device, wherein a reflective coating is arranged on the surface of the heat exchange tube, and the photovoltaic cell panel comprises first light-transmitting glass, second light-transmitting glass, a plurality of heat insulation frames which are arranged between the first light-transmitting glass and the second light-transmitting glass at equal intervals, a plurality of second cavities, a plurality of solar cells and a plurality of electrochromic films; the heat insulation frame is provided with a first cavity, the upper surface and the lower surface of the heat insulation frame are respectively connected with first light-transmitting glass and second light-transmitting glass through heat insulation glue, the solar cell is arranged in the second cavity, the upper surface of the solar cell is connected with the first light-transmitting glass through a first EVA glue film, the lower surface of the solar cell is connected with the second light-transmitting glass through a second EVA glue film, the electrochromic film is arranged in the first cavity and pasted on the upper surface of the second light-transmitting glass, the heat exchange tube comprises a vertical tube and a bent tube, the vertical tube is arranged at the back of the photovoltaic cell panel and is located under the electrochromic film, and the control device is electrically connected with the electrochromic film and used for controlling the working of the electrochromic film.
Further, the upper portion of heated board is equipped with the slot that is used for installing the heat exchange tube and is equipped with a plurality of through-holes all around, the upper surface of heated board is equipped with the aluminium foil between heat exchange tube and the slot and between heat exchange tube and the slot, be equipped with the supporting part in the through-hole, the compressive strength of supporting part is greater than the compressive strength of heated board, and its upper surface is not less than the top of heat exchange tube.
Further, the wall thickness of the heat exchange tube is less than or equal to 1 mm.
Further, the control device is used for controlling the electrochromic film to operate at a first preset voltage to enable the solar transmittance of the electrochromic film to be larger than the preset solar transmittance, and is also used for controlling the electrochromic film to operate at a second preset voltage to enable the solar absorptance of the electrochromic film to be smaller than the preset solar absorptance, wherein the preset solar transmittance is 70% -90%, and the preset solar absorptance is 10% -30%.
Further, the solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector further comprises a light-transmitting plate which is arranged in the first cavity and located above the electrochromic film, and the light-transmitting plate is bonded with the electrochromic film through a light-transmitting glue.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) the cavity between the first light-transmitting glass and the second light-transmitting glass is divided into a plurality of second cavities and first cavities through a plurality of heat insulation frames, heat is not transferred to the second cavities and the first cavities, the solar cell is installed in the second cavities, the electrochromic film is installed in the first cavities, and the heat exchange tube is installed below the first cavities, so that when the solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector is used, the work of the electrochromic film can be controlled according to the hot water using requirements of users, the heat exchange tube absorbs different heat, the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic cell panel is effectively improved, meanwhile, different hot water requirements of the users are met, and the user experience is further improved;
(2) the heat exchange tube is arranged in the groove of the heat insulation plate, the aluminum foil is arranged between the heat exchange tube and the groove and on the upper surface of the heat insulation plate, so that almost all heat on the back of the photovoltaic cell panel is absorbed by the heat exchange tube, and the power generation efficiency of the photovoltaic cell panel and the heat recovery efficiency of the heat exchange tube are effectively improved;
(3) when the solar cell sheet adopts a light-transmitting thin-film cell, the high-reflectivity aluminum foil can reflect part of sunlight to the back of the light-transmitting thin-film cell, so that the power generation efficiency of the solar cell sheet is further improved;
(4) the supporting part is arranged in the heat insulation board with the through holes arranged on the periphery to bear the pressure on the upper part of the photovoltaic cell panel, so that the heat exchange tube with small wall thickness cannot be damaged when the upper part of the photovoltaic cell panel is under large pressure, the heat absorption capacity of the heat exchange tube is further improved, and the power generation efficiency and the heat recovery efficiency of the solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector are further improved.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a first structure of a solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector.
Fig. 2 is a second structural schematic diagram of a solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector.
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the arrangement of the heat insulating frame.
Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of a three-dimensional structure of the insulation board.
Fig. 5 is a schematic structural view of a heat exchange tube.
Fig. 6 is a schematic view of a heat recovery arrangement of a solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector.
Fig. 7 is a schematic view of the arrangement of the light-transmitting plates in the first cavity.
Fig. 8 is a schematic diagram of the hardware connection of the control device and the various components.
FIG. 9 is a schematic three-dimensional view of a heat shield frame.
Description of reference numerals: 1-frame, 2-first light-transmitting glass, 3-first EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) adhesive film, 4-solar cell piece, 5-second EVA adhesive film, 6-heat insulation frame, 7-first cavity, 8-electrochromic film, 9-second light-transmitting glass, 10-heat insulation board, 11-heat exchange pipe, 12-backboard, 13-aluminum foil, 14-reflective coating, 15-heat insulation adhesive, 16-supporting part, 17-second cavity, 18-groove, 19-through hole, 20-bending pipe, 21-vertical pipe, 22-water inlet pipe, 23-first control valve, 24-water pump, 25-second control valve, 26-water outlet pipe and 27-heat insulation water tank.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated by the following specific examples in combination with the drawings of the specification.
Referring to fig. 1 to 6, the embodiment provides a solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector, which includes a photovoltaic cell panel, a heat exchange tube 11, a thermal insulation board 10, a back board 12, a frame 1 and a control device, wherein the heat exchange tube is disposed between the photovoltaic cell panel and the thermal insulation board, the frame is used for fixedly mounting the photovoltaic cell panel, the heat exchange tube 11, the thermal insulation board 10 and the back board 12, the control device is mountable under the back board, and a reflective coating 14 is disposed on the surface of the heat exchange tube 11.
The photovoltaic cell panel comprises a first light-transmitting glass 2, a second light-transmitting glass 9, a plurality of heat insulation frames 6 which are arranged between the first light-transmitting glass and the second light-transmitting glass at equal intervals, a plurality of second cavities 17, a plurality of solar cells 4 and a plurality of electrochromic films 8, the first light-transmitting glass 2 and the second light-transmitting glass 9 are arranged at a preset interval to form a cavity, the second cavity 17 is formed in the cavity by arranging a plurality of heat insulation frames 6 at equal intervals, for mounting the solar cell 4, the heat-insulating frame 6 has a first cavity 7 for mounting the electrochromic film, the upper surface and the lower surface of the heat insulation frame are respectively connected with the first transparent glass and the second transparent glass through heat insulation glue 15, and the heat insulation frame can be made of heat insulation materials with certain compressive strength, such as polyurethane foam plates, polystyrene plates, foam glass, foamed ceramic plates and the like, and is used for blocking heat transfer between the first cavity 7 and the second cavity 17; the solar cell 4 is arranged in the second cavity, the upper surface of the solar cell is connected with the first light-transmitting glass through the first EVA adhesive film 3, the lower surface of the solar cell is connected with the second light-transmitting glass through the second EVA adhesive film 5, and the solar cell 4 can be a crystalline silicon solar cell or a thin-film solar cell; electrochromic membrane 8 is installed in first cavity and is pasted the upper surface at second printing opacity glass, heat exchange tube 11 includes vertical pipe 21 and crooked pipe 20, vertical pipe 21 sets up at the photovoltaic cell board back and is located the electrochromic membrane under, first cavity or thermal-insulated frame under promptly, controlling means is connected with electrochromic membrane electricity for the work of control electrochromic membrane.
Specifically, the electrochromic film can enable optical properties (reflectivity, light transmittance, absorption rate and the like) of the electrochromic film to generate reversible color change through voltages at two ends of the electrochromic film, namely different voltages at two ends of the electrochromic film correspond to different optical properties, in the embodiment, a plurality of heat insulation frames are arranged between first light-transmitting glass and second light-transmitting glass, the electrochromic film is arranged in a first cavity, when a user has less hot water requirement or does not have high hot water temperature requirement, sunlight transmission of the electrochromic film is large, most of light rays of the sunlight after passing through the first light-transmitting glass and the second light-transmitting glass can be reflected back, the heat exchange tube mainly absorbs heat generated during power generation of the solar cell and generates low-temperature hot water, when the user has more hot water requirement or has high hot water temperature requirement, sunlight absorption of the electrochromic film is large, most light can be absorbed by the electrochromic membrane after sunlight passes through first printing opacity glass this moment, because the heat transfer of first cavity with the second cavity has been isolated to the thermal-insulated frame, and there is the air bed in electrochromic membrane top, and the most heat that the electrochromic membrane absorbed can be transmitted to heat exchange tube department, heat and the sunlight heat that the electrochromic membrane absorbed when the heat exchange tube absorbs solar wafer electricity generation, and the hot water temperature of retrieving is higher.
In order to further improve the heat absorption capacity of the heat exchange tube and reduce the temperature of the photovoltaic cell panel, the upper portion of the heat insulation board 10 is provided with a groove 18 for installing the heat exchange tube and a plurality of through holes 19 arranged around, heat conduction layers such as aluminum foils 13 and heat conduction glue are arranged between the heat exchange tube and the groove and on the upper surface of the heat insulation board, a supporting portion 16 is arranged in each through hole, the compressive strength of the supporting portion 16 is greater than that of the heat insulation board, the upper surface of the supporting portion is not lower than the top end of the heat exchange tube, the wall thickness of the heat exchange tube 11 is preferably smaller than or equal to 1mm, and the supporting portion 16 can be made of materials.
Specifically, the heat exchange tube is when absorbing photovoltaic cell panel's heat and electrochromic membrane's heat, the wall thickness is thinner, the heat conductivity is just better, its heat absorption capacity is just also stronger, but the heat exchange tube wall thickness is too thin, because the photovoltaic cell panel of heat exchange tube top can the great pressure of thick way under some circumstances, the heat exchange tube of below can not damage when guaranteeing photovoltaic cell panel pressurized in most of enterprises at present, can not select too thin when the wall thickness of heat exchange tube is selected for use, the wall thickness is generally at 2mm ~ 5mm, for the wall thickness that reduces the heat exchange tube in this embodiment is with the heat absorption capacity of effectively improving the heat exchange tube, through set up a plurality of through-holes around the heat preservation board and set up the higher and better supporting part of heat preservation performance of compressive strength in the through-hole, make thin-walled heat exchange tube also.
In order to better control the work of the electrochromic film to enable the solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector to meet different requirements of users, the control device is used for controlling the electrochromic film to operate at a first preset voltage to enable the solar light transmittance of the electrochromic film to be larger than the preset solar light transmittance, and is also used for controlling the electrochromic film to operate at a second preset voltage to enable the solar light transmittance of the electrochromic film to be smaller than the preset solar light transmittance, wherein the preset solar light transmittance is 70% -90%, and the preset solar light transmittance is 10% -30%.
In order to enable the heat exchange pipe to better absorb the heat on the back surface of the photovoltaic cell panel, a gap between the groove and the heat exchange pipe is filled with heat conduction materials such as heat conduction glue and cement mortar.
Specifically, different light transmittances can be exhibited when different voltages are applied to two ends of the electrochromic film, for example, the light transmittance is 89% when +5V voltage is applied, and the light transmittance is 13% when-5V voltage is applied, where the electrochromic film in the prior art has two types of black light-tight and light white light-tight when low light transmittance, because the low light transmittance of the electrochromic film is controlled mainly to absorb the heat of sunlight in this embodiment, black light-tight should be selected when the electrochromic film is used, even if the solar light transmittance and the solar light absorption ratio of the electrochromic film are both small when the electrochromic film is used, it should be noted that the control of the electrochromic film in this embodiment can be manually controlled, can be automatically controlled according to seasons, and can also be remotely controlled.
For better recycling the heat of the photovoltaic cell panel, the solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector further comprises a water inlet pipe 22, a first control valve 23 arranged on the water inlet pipe, a water pump 24 arranged on the water inlet pipe, a water outlet pipe 26, a second control valve 25 arranged on the water outlet pipe and a heat preservation water tank 27, wherein a water outlet of the water inlet pipe is communicated with a water inlet of the heat exchange pipe, cold water flows into the water inlet, the water inlet of the water outlet pipe is communicated with a water outlet of the heat exchange pipe, the water outlet is arranged on the upper portion of an inner cavity of the heat preservation water tank, and the control device is further respectively electrically connected with the first control valve, the second control valve and the water pump and used for controlling the work of the first control valve.
For making the heat exchange tube absorb the heat of sunlight better, solar photovoltaic light and heat collector still includes the light-passing board 28 that sets up in first cavity and be located electrochromic membrane top, the light-passing board bonds with electrochromic membrane through passing through light-passing glue 29.
Specifically, when the light transmission plate is selected, the solar light transmittance is more than 88%, such as ultra-white glass, a high-transmittance plastic plate and the like, on one hand, the transmission and reflection of sunlight are hardly influenced by the air layer formed by combining the light transmission plate and the first light transmission glass, and on the other hand, most of sunlight heat absorbed by the electrochromic film can be transmitted to the heat exchange tube.
In this embodiment, the usage mode of the solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector mainly includes a first heat recovery mode and a second heat recovery module, in the first heat recovery mode, the control device controls the electrochromic film to operate at a first preset voltage so that the solar transmittance of the electrochromic film is greater than the preset solar transmittance, at this time, the electrochromic film is almost completely transparent, most of light rays of sunlight which penetrate through the first photochromic glass, the electrochromic film and the second transparent glass are reflected by a reflective coating on the surface of the heat exchange tube, the heat exchange tube absorbs low-temperature waste heat generated during power generation of the solar cell through an aluminum foil, and hot water with relatively low temperature is recovered; under the second heat recovery mode, control electrochromic membrane and predetermine voltage with the second and operate its sunlight absorption ratio and be less than predetermineeing the sunlight absorption ratio, the heat of sunlight is almost absorbed completely to electrochromic membrane light-tight and almost completely this moment, the sunlight is shone on the electrochromic membrane by the complete absorption through first printing opacity glass, the heat exchange tube passes through the low temperature waste heat that produces when the aluminium foil absorbs solar wafer electricity generation on the one hand, on the other hand absorbs the high temperature heat that produces behind the sunlight completely absorbed by the electrochromic membrane, the hot water temperature of recovery is higher relatively, can satisfy user's high temperature hot water user demand.
The protection scope of the present invention is not limited to the above description, and any other products with the same or similar technical solutions as or to the present invention, regardless of the shape or structure, are within the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. A solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector comprises a photovoltaic cell panel, a heat exchange tube (11), a thermal insulation board (10), a back board (12), a frame (1) and a control device, and is characterized in that a reflective coating (14) is arranged on the surface of the heat exchange tube (11), the photovoltaic cell panel comprises first light-transmitting glass (2), second light-transmitting glass (9), a plurality of heat insulation frames (6) which are arranged between the first light-transmitting glass and the second light-transmitting glass at equal intervals, a plurality of second cavities (17), a plurality of solar cells (4) and a plurality of electrochromic films (8); thermal-insulated frame (6) have first cavity (7), and its upper and lower surface is connected with first printing opacity glass, second printing opacity glass respectively through thermal-insulated glue (15), solar wafer (4) set up in the second cavity, and its upper surface is connected with first printing opacity glass through first EVA glued membrane (3), and the lower surface passes through second EVA glued membrane (5) to be connected with second printing opacity glass, electrochromic membrane (8) are installed in first cavity and are pasted at the upper surface of second printing opacity glass, heat exchange tube (11) are including vertical pipe (21) and bent tube (20), vertical pipe (21) set up at the photovoltaic cell board back and are located the electrochromic membrane under, controlling means is connected with the electrochromic membrane electricity for the work of control electrochromic membrane.
2. The solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector according to claim 1, wherein the upper portion of the thermal insulation board (10) is provided with a groove (18) for installing a heat exchange pipe and a plurality of through holes (19) around the groove, aluminum foils (13) are arranged between the heat exchange pipe and the groove and on the upper surface of the thermal insulation board, a supporting portion (16) is arranged in the through holes, the compressive strength of the supporting portion (16) is greater than that of the thermal insulation board, and the upper surface of the supporting portion is not lower than the top end of the heat exchange pipe.
3. The solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the wall thickness of the heat exchange tube (11) is less than or equal to 1 mm.
4. The solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the control means is configured to control the electrochromic film to operate at a first preset voltage to make its solar transmittance greater than a preset solar transmittance, and further configured to control the electrochromic film to operate at a second preset voltage to make its solar absorptance less than the preset solar absorptance, the preset solar transmittance being 70% to 90%, and the preset solar absorptance being 10% to 30%.
5. The solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector according to claim 1, further comprising a light-transmitting plate (28) disposed in the first cavity and above the electrochromic film, wherein the light-transmitting plate (28) is bonded to the electrochromic film through a light-transmitting glue (29).
CN201911307017.0A 2019-12-18 2019-12-18 Solar photovoltaic photo-thermal collector Active CN111006400B (en)

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