CN110973231A - Color-protecting and fresh-keeping method for lotus seeds and fresh-keeping lotus seeds - Google Patents

Color-protecting and fresh-keeping method for lotus seeds and fresh-keeping lotus seeds Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110973231A
CN110973231A CN201911309000.9A CN201911309000A CN110973231A CN 110973231 A CN110973231 A CN 110973231A CN 201911309000 A CN201911309000 A CN 201911309000A CN 110973231 A CN110973231 A CN 110973231A
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China
Prior art keywords
lotus seeds
fresh
lotus
keeping
color
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Pending
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CN201911309000.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王发祥
崔美丽
刘永乐
俞健
李向红
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Changsha University of Science and Technology
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Changsha University of Science and Technology
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Priority to CN201911309000.9A priority Critical patent/CN110973231A/en
Publication of CN110973231A publication Critical patent/CN110973231A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23BPRESERVING, e.g. BY CANNING, MEAT, FISH, EGGS, FRUIT, VEGETABLES, EDIBLE SEEDS; CHEMICAL RIPENING OF FRUIT OR VEGETABLES; THE PRESERVED, RIPENED, OR CANNED PRODUCTS
    • A23B7/00Preservation or chemical ripening of fruit or vegetables
    • A23B7/02Dehydrating; Subsequent reconstitution
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23BPRESERVING, e.g. BY CANNING, MEAT, FISH, EGGS, FRUIT, VEGETABLES, EDIBLE SEEDS; CHEMICAL RIPENING OF FRUIT OR VEGETABLES; THE PRESERVED, RIPENED, OR CANNED PRODUCTS
    • A23B7/00Preservation or chemical ripening of fruit or vegetables
    • A23B7/14Preserving or ripening with chemicals not covered by groups A23B7/08 or A23B7/10
    • A23B7/153Preserving or ripening with chemicals not covered by groups A23B7/08 or A23B7/10 in the form of liquids or solids
    • A23B7/154Organic compounds; Microorganisms; Enzymes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23BPRESERVING, e.g. BY CANNING, MEAT, FISH, EGGS, FRUIT, VEGETABLES, EDIBLE SEEDS; CHEMICAL RIPENING OF FRUIT OR VEGETABLES; THE PRESERVED, RIPENED, OR CANNED PRODUCTS
    • A23B7/00Preservation or chemical ripening of fruit or vegetables
    • A23B7/16Coating with a protective layer; Compositions or apparatus therefor

Abstract

The invention provides a color-protecting and fresh-keeping method for lotus seeds and fresh-keeping lotus seeds, which comprises the following steps: 1) soaking semen Nelumbinis in color protecting liquid; 2) drying the lotus seeds treated in the step 1), and soaking in oxidation potential water; 3) contacting the lotus seed treated in the step 2) with the composite preservative to coat the lotus seed, and then performing calcium chloride crosslinking on the coated lotus seed to form a film. The fresh lotus seed is preserved at 1-4 ℃ for at least 90 days, the lotus seed has no peculiar smell and obvious browning on the peel in the preservation period, the total number of microbial colonies is less than 5000CFU/g, the original color, flavor and nutritional value of the lotus seed are effectively maintained, the storage aging of the fresh lotus seed is greatly prolonged, and the regional limitation of the sale of the fresh lotus seed is solved.

Description

Color-protecting and fresh-keeping method for lotus seeds and fresh-keeping lotus seeds
Technical Field
The invention relates to a fruit and vegetable fresh-keeping method, in particular to a lotus seed color-protecting fresh-keeping method and a fresh-keeping lotus seed.
Background
The lotus seed has fragrant and rich flavor and rich nutrition, has the functions of calming, strengthening the heart, resisting aging, oxidation, tumor and the like, and is a well-known delicious and nourishing good product for all ages since ancient times. The fresh lotus seeds are sweet and tender in taste, attractive in taste, capable of tonifying the five internal organs, promoting qi and blood circulation, warming yang and tonifying the kidney, and extremely high in medicinal value. For example, the lotus seed plumula contains the lotus seed alkaloid which is a natural medicinal component, improves the heart function, protects the heart vessels, can nourish the heart and strengthen the heart after being eaten frequently, promotes the blood circulation and prevents the occurrence of hypertension; the fresh lotus seeds contain rich trace element selenium, and can effectively prevent cancer by frequent eating.
The lotus seed planting area in China exceeds 320 ten thousand mu, and the fresh lotus seed yield is very large; however, the harvesting period of the fresh lotus seeds is short, the territorial property is strong, if the harvesting period of the fresh lotus seeds is not the lotus seed harvesting period or the lotus seed producing area, consumers are difficult to taste the fresh lotus seeds, the fresh lotus seeds are easy to brown, lose water, rot and deteriorate, the edible value and the commercial value are lost in 2-3 days at normal temperature, the shelf life, long-distance transportation and sale of the fresh lotus seeds are influenced to a great extent, and the territorial and seasonal problems of the fresh lotus seeds cannot be solved.
CN102894074A discloses a lotus seed color-protecting and fresh-keeping method, which comprises the following steps: (1) taking fresh lotus seeds, peeling, removing membranes and cores, and quickly putting the lotus seeds into normal-temperature distilled water; (2) firstly, dissolving sodium bisulfite and ascorbic acid in a small amount of distilled water, and then adding the solution into the distilled water at the temperature of 90 ℃ to obtain a fresh-keeping solution, wherein the concentration of the fresh-keeping solution is as follows: 1.5-3.5 g/L of sodium bisulfite, 3.0-7.0 g/L of ascorbic acid, and controlling the temperature at 85-90 ℃; (3) taking out the lotus seeds in the step (1), airing, adding the lotus seeds into the fresh-keeping solution according to the liquid-material ratio of the fresh-keeping solution in the step (2) to the lotus seeds of 2:1-5:1(v/w), keeping the temperature within the range of 70-80 ℃, taking out the lotus seeds after 3-6 min, airing or air-drying the lotus seeds in a purified environment, placing the lotus seeds in a sterile non-metal container after no surface moisture exists, and preserving the lotus seeds at the temperature of 0-5 ℃. The method adopts ascorbic acid and sodium bisulfite as antistaling agent, and combines with hydrothermal treatment, etc., to significantly prolong the fresh-keeping time of lotus seeds. The fresh-keeping time of fresh lotus seeds can be prolonged by more than 30 days, and the fresh-keeping time of frozen lotus seeds can be prolonged by more than 20 days. It can be seen that the method does not prolong the preservation time and can not meet the market demand.
Disclosure of Invention
On the one hand, the invention aims to solve the problem of providing the color-protecting and fresh-keeping method for the lotus seeds, and the method adopts a combined treatment method, so that the high-efficiency color-protecting and fresh-keeping of the fresh lotus seeds can be realized, and the storage time of the fresh lotus seeds is greatly prolonged.
The invention also provides a fresh-keeping lotus seed with fresh appearance and good taste.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention provides a color-protecting and fresh-keeping method for lotus seeds, comprising the following steps:
1) soaking semen Nelumbinis in color protecting liquid;
2) drying the lotus seeds treated in the step 1), and soaking in oxidation potential water;
3) contacting the lotus seed treated in the step 2) with the composite preservative to coat the lotus seed, and then performing calcium chloride crosslinking on the coated lotus seed to form a film.
Preferably, in the step 1), the color protection solution is an aqueous solution containing sodium D-isoascorbate and sodium phytate, wherein the concentration of the sodium D-isoascorbate is 5-10 mg/mL, and the concentration of the sodium phytate is 5-15 mg/mL. In the preferred scheme, sodium phytate can firmly chelate metal ions through phosphate groups, so as to inhibit the activity of browning-related enzymes; the D-sodium erythorbate has strong oxidation resistance and can block the generation of melanin.
Preferably, in the step 1), the amount of the color protection liquid is 2-4 mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds, and the soaking time is 5-15 min. In the preferred scheme, enough color protection liquid is adopted to soak for a long enough time to effectively exert the color protection effect.
Preferably, in the step 2), the amount of the electrolyzed oxidizing water is 2-4 mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds, and the soaking time is 5-10 min. In the preferred scheme, oxidation potential water is adopted for soaking for 5-10 min for sterilization treatment, so that the microorganisms on the surface of the fresh lotus can be effectively killed.
Preferably, in the step 3), the compound preservative is an aqueous solution containing sodium alginate, lysozyme and salicylic acid, wherein the concentration of the sodium alginate is 5-15 mg/mL, the concentration of the lysozyme is 1000-3000U/mL, the concentration of the salicylic acid is 0.5-1 mg/mL, and the dosage of the compound preservative is 2-4 mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds. In the preferred scheme, the excellent film forming property of sodium alginate and the bacteriostatic action of lysozyme and salicylic acid are utilized, and the sodium alginate and the lysozyme can better play a role under an acidic condition.
Preferably, the pH value of the composite preservative is 5.5-6, and the lotus seed treated in the step 2) is contacted with the composite preservative to keep the temperature of coating the lotus seed between 35-40 ℃. In the preferred scheme, the composite preservative can effectively exert the preservation effect when the pH is 5.5-6.0 and the temperature is kept at 35-40 ℃.
Preferably, in the step 3), the method for coating the lotus seed by contacting the lotus seed treated in the step 2) with the composite preservative comprises the following steps: soaking the lotus seeds treated in the step 2) in the composite preservative, and then carrying out solid-liquid separation for 10-15 min; the method for crosslinking the coated lotus seeds by calcium chloride comprises the following steps: spraying a calcium chloride aqueous solution with the concentration of 5-10 mg/mL under stirring to carry out solid-liquid separation to obtain a film-coated lotus seed; the film forming method comprises the following steps: and (3) placing the lotus seeds subjected to film coating and calcium chloride crosslinking in a sterile environment for air drying to form a film. In the preferred scheme, the calcium chloride can promote the film forming property of the sodium alginate and has a certain color protection effect, so that the fresh lotus seeds can retain water, protect color and keep fresh.
Preferably, the method further comprises the step of carrying out vacuum packaging on the lotus seeds treated in the step 3), and storing at 1-4 ℃ after packaging. In the preferred scheme, the preservation period of the lotus seeds can be effectively prolonged by storing the lotus seeds in the environment of 1-4 ℃, and the lotus seeds can be prevented from being frozen.
In a second aspect, the invention provides a fresh lotus seed, which is obtained by fresh lotus seeds according to the method provided by the first aspect of the invention.
Through the technical scheme, the invention realizes the following beneficial effects:
1. the color protection solution adopted by the invention contains sodium phytate and D-sodium erythorbate, is the optimal compatibility and level screened out by repeated experiments in a plurality of single color protection solutions, has good synergistic color protection effect, is safe and nontoxic, and can effectively delay the occurrence of browning of fresh lotus seeds;
2. the oxidation potential water is adopted for sterilization treatment, so that the microorganisms on the surface of the fresh lotus can be effectively killed, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen peroxide and the like are not used, the safety, the efficiency and the residue are high, and the requirements of green production are met;
3. the adopted composite preservative contains sodium alginate, lysozyme and salicylic acid, utilizes the excellent film forming property of the sodium alginate and the bacteriostatic action of the lysozyme and the salicylic acid, and the sodium alginate and the lysozyme can better play a role under the acidic condition; the calcium chloride can promote the film forming property of the sodium alginate and has a certain color protection effect, so that the fresh lotus seeds can retain water, protect color and keep fresh;
4. finally, vacuum packaging and low-temperature storage are adopted, microbial propagation and insect damage can be inhibited in a vacuum state, and active enzyme in the lotus seeds is prevented from acting with oxygen to cause browning; the low-temperature storage can further inhibit the respiratory intensity and slow down the consumption speed of nutrients of the lotus seeds, thereby prolonging the preservation period and keeping the freshness for a long time;
5. the fresh lotus seed is preserved at 1-4 ℃ for at least 90 days, the lotus seed has no peculiar smell and obvious browning on the peel in the preservation period, the total number of microbial colonies is less than 5000CFU/g, the original color, flavor and nutritional value of the lotus seed are effectively maintained, the storage aging of the fresh lotus seed is greatly prolonged, and the regional limitation of the sale of the fresh lotus seed is solved.
Detailed Description
The following examples are provided to explain the present invention in detail. It should be understood that the detailed description and specific examples, while indicating the present invention, are given by way of illustration and explanation only, not limitation.
The electrolyzed oxidizing water used in the following examples is produced by biotechnologies of Delphinidae, Zhejiang, and is diluted by sterile water in a volume ratio of 1.5-2.5 times when used.
Example 1
The invention relates to a color-protecting and fresh-keeping method of fresh lotus seeds, which comprises the following steps:
1) peeling lotus seeds from a fresh lotus seedpod, and selecting new lotus seeds with shells, which are basically consistent in color, fruit shape and maturity, and have no plant diseases, insect pests and mechanical injuries;
2) soaking the lotus seeds treated in the step 1) in a color protection solution for 5min, wherein the dosage of the color protection solution is 2mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds, the color protection solution is an aqueous solution containing D-sodium erythorbate and sodium phytate, the concentration of the D-sodium erythorbate is 10mg/mL, and the concentration of the sodium phytate is 15 mg/mL;
3) draining the lotus seeds treated in the step 2), and soaking the lotus seeds in oxidation potential water diluted by 1.5 times for 5min, wherein the amount of the oxidation potential water is 2mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds;
4) placing the lotus seeds treated in the step 3) in a composite preservative containing sodium alginate, lysozyme and food-grade salicylic acid (the concentration of the sodium alginate is 5mg/mL, the concentration of the lysozyme is 1000U/mL, the concentration of the salicylic acid is 0.5mg/mL, the pH value of the composite preservative is 5.5, and the using amount of the composite preservative is 2mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds) at 35 ℃ for coating for 15min, taking out the lotus seeds to a leakage net, immediately spraying a calcium chloride solution with the concentration of 5mg/mL, continuously stirring the lotus seeds until the mixture is uniformly mixed, and placing the lotus seeds in a net rack to be aired into a film in a sterile operating platform;
5) filling the lotus seeds treated in the step 4) into a polypropylene packaging bag, vacuum packaging, and storing at a low temperature of 1 +/-0.5 ℃.
Example 2
The invention relates to a color-protecting and fresh-keeping method of fresh lotus seeds, which comprises the following steps:
1) peeling lotus seeds from a fresh lotus seedpod, and selecting new lotus seeds with shells, which are basically consistent in color, fruit shape and maturity, and have no plant diseases, insect pests and mechanical injuries;
2) soaking the lotus seeds treated in the step 1) in a color protection solution for 15min, wherein the dosage of the color protection solution is 4mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds, the color protection solution is an aqueous solution containing D-sodium erythorbate and sodium phytate, the concentration of the D-sodium erythorbate is 5mg/mL, and the concentration of the sodium phytate is 5 mg/mL;
3) draining the lotus seeds treated in the step 2), and soaking the lotus seeds in oxidation potential water diluted by 2.5 times for 10.0min, wherein the amount of the oxidation potential water is 4mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds;
4) placing the lotus seeds treated in the step 3) in a composite preservative containing sodium alginate, lysozyme and food-grade salicylic acid (the concentration of the sodium alginate is 15mg/mL, the concentration of the lysozyme is 3000U/mL, the concentration of the salicylic acid is 1mg/mL, the pH value of the composite preservative is 6, the dosage of the composite preservative is 4mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds) at 40 ℃ for coating for 10min, then fishing out to a leakage net, immediately spraying a calcium chloride solution with the concentration of 10mg/mL, continuously turning and stirring until the calcium chloride solution is uniformly mixed, and placing in a net rack to be aired into a film in a sterile operating platform;
5) filling the lotus seeds treated in the step 4) into a polypropylene packaging bag, vacuum packaging, and storing at a low temperature of 4 +/-0.5 ℃.
Example 3
The invention relates to a color-protecting and fresh-keeping method of fresh lotus seeds, which comprises the following steps:
1) peeling lotus seeds from a fresh lotus seedpod, and selecting new lotus seeds with shells, which are basically consistent in color, fruit shape and maturity, and have no plant diseases, insect pests and mechanical injuries;
2) soaking the treated lotus seed in the step 1) in a color protection solution for 8min, wherein the dosage of the color protection solution is 3mL relative to 1g of lotus seed, the color protection solution is an aqueous solution containing D-sodium erythorbate and sodium phytate, the concentration of the D-sodium erythorbate is 7.5mg/mL, and the concentration of the sodium phytate is 10 mg/mL;
3) draining the lotus seeds treated in the step 2), and soaking in oxidation potential water diluted by 2 times for 7.5min, wherein the amount of the oxidation potential water is 3mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds;
4) placing the lotus seeds treated in the step 3) in a compound preservative containing sodium alginate, lysozyme and food-grade salicylic acid (the concentration of the sodium alginate is 10mg/mL, the concentration of the lysozyme is 2000U/mL, the concentration of the salicylic acid is 0.7mg/mL, the pH of the compound preservative is 5.8, and the using amount of the compound preservative is 3mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds) at 38 ℃ for coating for 12min, taking out the lotus seeds until the lotus seeds leak out, immediately spraying a calcium chloride solution with the concentration of 7.5mg/mL, continuously turning and stirring the lotus seeds until the lotus seeds are uniformly mixed, and placing the lotus seeds in a net rack to be aired into a film in a sterile operation table;
5) filling the lotus seeds treated in the step 4) into a polypropylene packaging bag, vacuum packaging, and storing at low temperature of 2 +/-0.5 ℃.
The fresh-keeping lotus seeds obtained by the embodiment have no peculiar smell and no obvious browning on the outer skins in the fresh-keeping period, and are taken out after 3 months, and the total number of the microbial colonies is measured to be less than 5000CFU/g, which is lower than the national hygienic standard of fruit and vegetable products. The method for preserving the fresh lotus seeds can preserve the fresh lotus seeds for at least more than 90 days at a higher temperature of 1-4 ℃, has long preservation time and low energy consumption, effectively keeps the original color, flavor and nutritive value of the lotus seeds, and solves the regional limitation of the sale of the lotus seeds.
The preferred embodiments of the present invention have been described in detail with reference to the examples, but the present invention is not limited to the details of the above embodiments, and various simple modifications can be made to the technical solution of the present invention within the technical idea of the present invention, and these simple modifications are within the protective scope of the present invention.
It should be noted that the various technical features described in the above embodiments can be combined in any suitable manner without contradiction, and the invention is not described in any way for the possible combinations in order to avoid unnecessary repetition.
In addition, any combination of the various embodiments of the present invention is also possible, and the same should be considered as the disclosure of the present invention as long as it does not depart from the spirit of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. A color protection and fresh keeping method for lotus seeds is characterized by comprising the following steps:
1) soaking semen Nelumbinis in color protecting liquid;
2) drying the lotus seeds treated in the step 1), and soaking in oxidation potential water;
3) contacting the lotus seed treated in the step 2) with the composite preservative to coat the lotus seed, and then performing calcium chloride crosslinking on the coated lotus seed to form a film.
2. The color protection and preservation method for lotus seeds according to claim 1, wherein in step 1), the color protection solution is an aqueous solution containing D-sodium erythorbate and sodium phytate, wherein the concentration of the D-sodium erythorbate is 5-10 mg/mL, and the concentration of the sodium phytate is 5-15 mg/mL.
3. The color protection and preservation method for lotus seeds according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that in step 1), the amount of the color protection liquid is 2-4 mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds, and the soaking time is 5-15 min.
4. The color protection and preservation method for lotus seeds according to claim 1, wherein in the step 2), the amount of electrolyzed oxidizing water is 2-4 mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds, and the soaking time is 5-10 min.
5. The color-protecting and fresh-keeping method for lotus seeds according to claim 1, characterized in that in the step 3), the composite fresh-keeping agent is an aqueous solution containing sodium alginate, lysozyme and salicylic acid, wherein the concentration of sodium alginate is 5-15 mg/mL, the concentration of lysozyme is 1000-3000U/mL, the concentration of salicylic acid is 0.5-1 mg/mL, and the dosage of the composite fresh-keeping agent is 2-4 mL relative to 1g of lotus seeds.
6. The color protection and fresh keeping method for lotus seeds according to claim 5, wherein the pH of the composite fresh-keeping agent is 5.5-6, and the temperature for coating the lotus seeds is kept between 35-40 ℃ when the lotus seeds treated in the step 2) are contacted with the composite fresh-keeping agent.
7. The color protection and fresh keeping method for lotus seeds according to claim 1, 5 or 6, wherein in the step 3), the method for coating the lotus seeds by contacting the lotus seeds treated in the step 2) with the composite fresh keeping agent comprises the following steps: soaking the lotus seeds treated in the step 2) in the composite preservative, and then carrying out solid-liquid separation for 10-15 min;
the method for crosslinking the coated lotus seeds by calcium chloride comprises the following steps: spraying a calcium chloride aqueous solution with the concentration of 5-10 mg/mL under stirring to carry out solid-liquid separation to obtain a film-coated lotus seed;
the film forming method comprises the following steps: and (3) placing the lotus seeds subjected to film coating and calcium chloride crosslinking in a sterile environment for air drying to form a film.
8. The color protection and fresh keeping method for lotus seeds according to claim 1, characterized in that the method further comprises the step of vacuum packaging the lotus seeds treated in the step 3), and storing the packaged lotus seeds at 1-4 ℃.
9. Fresh-keeping lotus seeds, characterized in that they are obtained by fresh-keeping of fresh lotus seeds according to the method of any one of claims 1 to 8.
CN201911309000.9A 2019-12-18 2019-12-18 Color-protecting and fresh-keeping method for lotus seeds and fresh-keeping lotus seeds Pending CN110973231A (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113100380A (en) * 2021-05-19 2021-07-13 江西省农业科学院农产品质量安全与标准研究所 Color protection liquid for fresh lotus seeds and preparation method thereof

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN113100380A (en) * 2021-05-19 2021-07-13 江西省农业科学院农产品质量安全与标准研究所 Color protection liquid for fresh lotus seeds and preparation method thereof

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