CN110927168A - Welding and welding spot defect detection system and method based on infrared image - Google Patents

Welding and welding spot defect detection system and method based on infrared image Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110927168A
CN110927168A CN201911170527.8A CN201911170527A CN110927168A CN 110927168 A CN110927168 A CN 110927168A CN 201911170527 A CN201911170527 A CN 201911170527A CN 110927168 A CN110927168 A CN 110927168A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
welding
moving platform
infrared image
workpiece
axis
Prior art date
Application number
CN201911170527.8A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
廖广兰
徐亦睿
孙博
张许宁
韩航迪
史铁林
Original Assignee
华中科技大学
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Priority to CN201911170527.8A priority Critical patent/CN110927168A/en
Publication of CN110927168A publication Critical patent/CN110927168A/en

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/8851Scan or image signal processing specially adapted therefor, e.g. for scan signal adjustment, for detecting different kinds of defects, for compensating for structures, markings, edges
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T7/00Image analysis
    • G06T7/0002Inspection of images, e.g. flaw detection
    • G06T7/0004Industrial image inspection
    • G06T7/0008Industrial image inspection checking presence/absence
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications
    • G01N21/88Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination
    • G01N21/8851Scan or image signal processing specially adapted therefor, e.g. for scan signal adjustment, for detecting different kinds of defects, for compensating for structures, markings, edges
    • G01N2021/8887Scan or image signal processing specially adapted therefor, e.g. for scan signal adjustment, for detecting different kinds of defects, for compensating for structures, markings, edges based on image processing techniques
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2207/00Indexing scheme for image analysis or image enhancement
    • G06T2207/10Image acquisition modality
    • G06T2207/10048Infrared image
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2207/00Indexing scheme for image analysis or image enhancement
    • G06T2207/20Special algorithmic details
    • G06T2207/20084Artificial neural networks [ANN]
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2207/00Indexing scheme for image analysis or image enhancement
    • G06T2207/30Subject of image; Context of image processing
    • G06T2207/30108Industrial image inspection
    • G06T2207/30152Solder

Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of welding and defect detection, and particularly discloses a welding and welding spot defect detection system and method based on infrared images1Axial moving platform, Z2The gantry crane comprises an axis moving platform and a Y-axis moving platform, a gantry upright post is fixed on a control box, two X-axis chutes are respectively fixed on two sides of a gantry beam, and a Z axis1Axial moving platform and Z2The shaft moving platforms are respectively and movably arranged on the two X-axis sliding grooves, and the Y-axis moving platform is arranged on the control box; the clamping device is fixed on the Y-axis moving platform, and the welding assembly is arranged on the Z1On the axle moving platform, the infrared image detection component is arranged on the Z2The shaft moves on the platform. The invention realizes the integration of automatic welding and welding spot quality detection and evaluation, and can simultaneously identify the welding spotSurface defects and internal defects, and the efficiency and accuracy of welding and detection are improved.

Description

Welding and welding spot defect detection system and method based on infrared image

Technical Field

The invention belongs to the field of welding and defect detection, and particularly relates to a welding and welding spot defect detection system and method based on infrared images.

Background

With the further enhancement of the requirements of aerospace electronic equipment on welding consistency and reliability, the requirement for reducing the labor intensity of workers is more and more urgent, and the task requirement for researching and developing an automatic welding and detection integrated system of aerospace electronic equipment is increasingly prominent.

The existing welding technology meets the requirement of automatic welding, however, the detection means of the existing exposed welding spot still depends on manual visual inspection, is influenced by human factors such as operator experience, fatigue degree and subjective feeling, has no unified identification and quantification standard, has different judgment results from person to person and poor consistency, and is difficult to ensure comprehensive detection of the welding spot and avoid welding spot missing detection accidents during manual visual inspection. In addition, defects such as holes and cracks in the welding spots are difficult to detect and identify through visual inspection of the surface appearance, and hidden danger is caused to service reliability of aerospace electronic equipment. Therefore, a system for detecting surface defects and internal defects of a welding spot while completing welding is needed to realize digital management of an interconnection welding spot and improve detection efficiency and accuracy.

Disclosure of Invention

Aiming at the defects or improvement requirements of the prior art, the invention provides a welding and welding spot defect detection system and method based on an infrared image, and aims to realize integration of automatic welding and welding spot quality detection and evaluation, simultaneously identify surface defects and internal defects of welding spots and improve the efficiency and accuracy of welding and detection by matching a moving assembly, a welding assembly and an infrared image detection assembly and detecting the welding spot defects by the infrared image detection assembly after the welding assembly finishes welding.

To achieve the above object, according to an aspect of the present invention, an infrared image-based welding and solder joint defect detecting system is provided, which includes a control box, a moving assembly, a clamping device, a welding assembly, and an infrared image detecting assembly, wherein:

the moving assembly comprises a portal frame, two X-axis sliding grooves and a Z1Axial moving platform, Z2The gantry crane comprises an axis moving platform and a Y-axis moving platform, wherein the gantry crane upright is fixed on the control box, the two X-axis sliding grooves are respectively fixed on two sides of a gantry crane beam, and the Z axis sliding grooves are arranged on two sides of the gantry crane beam1Axial moving platform and Z2The shaft moving platforms are respectively and movably arranged on the two X-axis sliding grooves, and the Y-axis moving platform is arranged on the control box;

the clamping device is fixed on the Y-axis moving platform, and the welding assembly is arranged on the Z shaft1On the shaft moving platform, the infrared image detection assembly comprises a Z-shaped detection part arranged on the Z-shaped detection part2An infrared camera device and a laser heating device on the shaft moving platform.

As a further preference, the welding assembly includes a mounting on the Z1The welding set and the intelligent camera on axle moving platform.

As a further preferred feature, the infrared image detection assembly further comprises a heating plate disposed below the clamping device.

More preferably, the infrared imaging device has a resolution of 20 to 30 μm, an imaging frequency of 25 to 35HZ, and a thermal sensitivity of 25 to 35 mK.

More preferably, the laser heating device is a semiconductor laser.

As a further preference, the clamping device comprises a plurality of clamping units.

Preferably, a controller is arranged in the control box, and the controller is connected with the moving assembly, the clamping device, the welding assembly and the infrared image detection assembly.

According to another aspect of the present invention, a welding and welding spot defect detecting method based on infrared images is provided, which is implemented by using the above system, and comprises the following steps:

s1, fixing the workpiece to be welded on the Y-axis moving platform through the clamping device, moving the Y-axis moving platform to enable the workpiece to be welded to move below the welding assembly, the X-axis sliding groove and the Z-axis sliding groove1The shaft moving platform is matched with and adjusts the position of the welding assembly, so that the welding assembly can complete the welding of the workpiece to be welded;

s2 moving the Y-axis moving platform to move the welded workpiece to the lower part of the infrared image detection assembly, heating the workpiece by the laser heating device, and arranging the X-axis chute and the Z-axis chute2The shaft moving platform is matched with the infrared camera device to adjust the position of the infrared camera device, so that the infrared camera device obtains the infrared image of the workpiece, and the welding spot defect of the workpiece is obtained according to the infrared image.

Preferably, after the workpiece to be welded is moved to the lower side of the welding assembly in S1, the intelligent camera identifies and positions the welding position of the workpiece to be welded, so that the welding device automatically completes the welding of the workpiece to be welded.

Preferably, in S2, the welding spot defect of the workpiece is detected by a neural network algorithm according to the infrared image of the workpiece, and a report and a defect database are generated.

Generally, compared with the prior art, the above technical solution conceived by the present invention mainly has the following technical advantages:

1. according to the invention, through the matching of the moving assembly, the welding assembly and the infrared image detection assembly, after the welding assembly is automatically welded, the infrared image detection assembly is used for detecting the defects of welding points, so that manual welding and visual inspection can be replaced, the integration of automatic welding and welding point quality detection and evaluation is realized, the welding and detection efficiency and accuracy are improved, the digital management of interconnection welding points is realized, and the method has important significance for improving the reliability of aerospace electronic products.

2. The invention adopts infrared image detection, can simultaneously identify the surface defect and the internal defect of the welding spot, has high detection precision, the detection precision of the surface crack and the similar defect (crack seam width) of the welding spot is not lower than 25 mu m, the detection precision of the defects of pit, slag inclusion, pollution and the like on the surface of the welding spot is not lower than 30 mu m, and the detection precision of the defects of hole, bubble, slag inclusion and the like in the inner part (near surface) of the welding spot is not lower than 60 mu m.

3. According to the invention, the heating plate is arranged below the clamping device, and when the semiconductor laser introduces laser beams through the optical fiber to heat the workpiece, the heating plate heats the environmental background below the clamping device, so that the environmental noise interference is avoided.

4. The clamping device is provided with the plurality of clamping units, so that the welding and detection of a plurality of workpieces can be completed simultaneously, the working efficiency is improved, and the welding of the workpieces with the welding spot length of 3-20 mm and the maximum welding spot horizontal distribution range of 1.4-1.8 m can be realized.

Drawings

FIG. 1 is a front view of an infrared image-based welding and solder joint defect detection system according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a left side view of an infrared image based welding and weld spot defect detection system according to an embodiment of the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a flow chart of a system manual test operation according to an embodiment of the present invention;

fig. 4 is a flow chart of the automatic operation of the system according to the embodiment of the invention.

The same reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings to refer to the same or like elements or structures, wherein: 1-operating panel, 2-welding device, 3-Z1An axis moving platform, 4-intelligent camera, 5-portal frame, 6-demonstrator, 7-X axis chute and 8-Z2The device comprises an axis moving platform, 9-a laser heating device, 10-an infrared camera device, 11-a Y-axis moving platform, 12-a control box and 13-a clamping device.

Detailed Description

In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the present invention is described in further detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention. In addition, the technical features involved in the embodiments of the present invention described below may be combined with each other as long as they do not conflict with each other.

The welding and welding spot defect detection system based on the infrared image, as shown in fig. 1 and fig. 2, includes a control box 12, a moving assembly, a clamping device 13, a welding assembly and an infrared image detection assembly, wherein:

the control box 12 comprises a working table, a base and a controller, the working table is arranged on the base, an operation panel 1 and a demonstrator 6 are arranged on the working table, the controller is arranged in the base, and the controller is connected with the moving assembly, the clamping device 13, the welding assembly and the infrared image detection assembly; specifically, the control box 12 is 700 mm-1000 m long, 600 mm-800 m high and 500 mm-700 mm wide, the weight of the control box 12 is 15 kg-30 kg, and the weight of the machine body is 20 kg-30 kg;

the moving component comprises a portal frame 5, two X-axis sliding grooves 7 and Z1Axial moving platform 3, Z2An axis moving platform 8 and a Y-axis moving platform 11, wherein, the portal frame 5 is fixed on the working table surface, and the two X-axis chutes 7 are X1Shaft chute and X2Shaft chutes fixed to both sides of the beam of the gantry 5, Z1The shaft moving platform 3 is movably arranged at the X1On the shaft chute, Z2The shaft moving platform 8 is movably arranged at the X2The Y-axis moving platform 11 is arranged on the working table top; specifically, the load of the Y-axis moving platform 11 is 3 kg-5 kg, the working range is 400 mm-600 mm, and the repeated positioning precision is not lower than +/-0.03 mm;

the clamping device 13 is fixed on the Y-axis moving platform 11 and comprises a plurality of clamping units, each clamping unit comprises two stations, welding processes of two welding spots can be carried out, and workpieces are fixed through wire grooves and spring clips; the clamping device 13 can be controlled by a controller to turn over so that the infrared image detection assembly can acquire a more complete and clear image of the workpiece;

the welding assembly includes a mounting on the Z1The welding device 2 comprises a welding head mechanism, an automatic tin feeding mechanism and a welding temperature control box, and the intelligent camera 4 is arranged on the shaft moving platform 3;

the infrared image detection assembly comprises an infrared camera device 10, a laser heating device 9 and a heaterA plate, an infrared camera device 10 and a laser heating device 9 are arranged on the Z2On the axle moving platform 8, the heating plate is placed under the clamping device 13; specifically, the infrared camera device 10 comprises an infrared camera and a micro lens, the pixel of the infrared camera is 640 × 480 or 1024 × 768, the spatial resolution is 20 μm to 30 μm after the infrared camera is matched with the micro lens, the imaging frequency is 25HZ to 35HZ, the thermal sensitivity is 25mK to 35mK, the infrared camera device can be automatically or manually focused, and the temperature measurement range is 0 ℃ to 150 ℃; preferably, the laser heating device 9 uses a semiconductor laser in a near infrared band of 700nm to 1000nm, and the workpiece is heated by introducing a laser beam through an optical fiber.

The system is used for welding and detecting the defects of welding spots, and can be realized through manual operation or automatic operation.

When the manual operation is performed, as shown in fig. 3, the method specifically includes the following steps:

s1, the workpiece cable is installed in the wire slot of the clamping device 13 and is fixed through the spring clamp at the other side; then fixing the clamping device 13 on the Y-axis moving platform 11, and controlling the Y-axis moving platform 11 to move so that the workpiece reaches a welding station;

s2 control Z by demonstrator 61The axis moving platform 3 is at X1Horizontal movement in the shaft chute, calibration of the position of the welding spot, Z1The shaft moving platform 3 drives the welding device 2 to weld the workpieces one by one according to the calibrated welding spot position, and after the welding task is completed, Z is carried out1The shaft moving platform 3 is reset, and the Y-shaft moving platform 11 drives the workpiece to move to the detection station;

s3, manually starting a semiconductor laser, leading in laser beams by the near-infrared band semiconductor laser through optical fibers to heat a workpiece, and simultaneously heating an environmental background by a heating plate arranged below the clamping device 13;

s4 control Z by demonstrator 62The axis moving platform 8 is at X2The shaft sliding groove moves to make the workpiece enter the shooting visual field of the infrared camera device 10, and then controls Z2The shaft moving platform 8 moves the infrared camera device 10 up and down for focusing, so that the obtained infrared image is clear;

s5 the infrared camera device 10 shoots the infrared image of the workpiece welding spot, processes the image, detects whether the workpiece welding spot has defects through the neural network algorithm, positions the defect position, distinguishes the defect type, generates the defect report and supplements the defect report into the defect database.

When the system automatically runs, as shown in fig. 4, the method specifically includes the following steps:

s1, the workpiece cable is installed in the wire slot of the clamping device 13 and is fixed through the spring clamp at the other side; then fixing the clamping device 13 on the Y-axis moving platform 11, and controlling the Y-axis moving platform 11 to move so that the workpiece reaches a welding station;

s2 controller (automatic welding and welding spot defect detection software)1The axis moving platform 3 is at X1Moving in the shaft-slide slot to Z1The shaft moving platform 3 drives the welding assembly to move, the intelligent camera 4 identifies and positions the welding position of the workpiece, the welding device 2 automatically welds the workpiece one by one according to the positioning, and Z is used for completing the welding task1The shaft moving platform 3 is reset, and the Y-shaft moving platform 11 drives the workpiece to move to the detection station;

the S3 controller automatically starts the semiconductor laser, the near-infrared band semiconductor laser guides laser beam through optical fiber to heat the workpiece, and the heating plate arranged below the clamping device 13 heats the environment background;

s4 controller control Z2The axis moving platform 8 is at X2The shaft sliding groove moves to make the workpiece enter the shooting visual field of the infrared camera device 10, and then controls Z2The shaft moving platform 8 moves the infrared camera device 10 up and down for focusing, so that the obtained infrared image is clear, and the infrared camera device 10 shoots and records the infrared image of the welding spot of the workpiece;

s5 spacing according to the position of the workpiece held by the holding device 13, Z2The shaft moving platform 8 automatically drives the infrared camera device 10 to horizontally move to the position of the next workpiece welding spot for shooting until the infrared image shooting and recording of all the workpiece welding spots are completed;

and the S6 controller processes all infrared images, detects whether the welding spot of the workpiece has defects through a neural network algorithm, positions the defect positions, distinguishes the defect types, generates a defect report and supplements the defect report into a defect database.

It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the invention, and that any modification, equivalent replacement, or improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The utility model provides a welding and solder joint defect detecting system based on infrared image which characterized in that, includes control box (12), removes subassembly, clamping device (13), welding subassembly and infrared image detection subassembly, wherein:
the moving component comprises a portal frame (5), two X-axis sliding grooves (7) and a Z1Axle moving platform (3), Z2The device comprises an axis moving platform (8) and a Y-axis moving platform (11), wherein a portal frame (5) upright post is fixed on a control box (12), two X-axis sliding grooves (7) are respectively fixed on two sides of a cross beam of the portal frame (5), and the Z-axis sliding grooves are arranged on two sides of the cross beam of the portal frame (5)1Axial moving platform (3) and Z2The shaft moving platforms (8) are respectively and movably arranged on the two X-axis sliding grooves (7), and the Y-axis moving platform (11) is arranged on the control box (12);
the clamping device (13) is fixed on the Y-axis moving platform (11), and the welding assembly is arranged on the Z shaft1On the shaft moving platform (3), the infrared image detection component comprises a Z-shaped component arranged on the Z-shaped component2An infrared camera device (10) and a laser heating device (9) on the shaft moving platform (8).
2. The infrared image-based welding and weld defect detection system of claim 1, wherein the welding assembly comprises a mounting to the Z1The welding device (2) and the intelligent camera (4) on the shaft moving platform (3).
3. The infrared image-based welding and weld defect detection system of claim 1, wherein the infrared image detection assembly further comprises a heating plate disposed below the clamping device (13).
4. The infrared image-based welding and spot weld defect detecting system as set forth in claim 1, wherein the infrared camera (10) has a resolution of 20 μm to 30 μm, an imaging frequency of 25HZ to 35HZ, and a thermal sensitivity of 25mK to 35 mK.
5. The infrared image-based welding and spot weld defect detecting system as claimed in claim 1, wherein the laser heating device (9) is a semiconductor laser.
6. The infrared image-based welding and weld defect detection system of claim 1, wherein the clamping device (13) comprises a plurality of clamping units.
7. The infrared image-based welding and weld spot defect detection system according to any one of claims 1-6, wherein a controller is disposed within the control box (12) and is connected to the moving assembly, the clamping device (13), the welding assembly, and the infrared image detection assembly.
8. A method for detecting defects of welding and welding spots based on infrared images, which is implemented by the system of any one of claims 1 to 7, and comprises the following steps:
s1, fixing the workpiece to be welded on a Y-axis moving platform (11) through a clamping device (13), moving the Y-axis moving platform (11) to enable the workpiece to be welded to move to the lower part of a welding assembly, and arranging an X-axis sliding chute (7) and a Z-axis sliding chute1The shaft moving platform (3) is matched with and adjusts the position of the welding assembly, so that the welding assembly can complete the welding of the workpiece to be welded;
s2 moving Y-axis moving platform (11) to move the welded workpiece to the lower part of the infrared image detection assembly, heating the workpiece by the laser heating device (9), and arranging the X-axis chute (7) and the Z-axis chute2The position of the infrared camera device (10) is adjusted by the matching of the shaft moving platform (8), so that the infrared camera device (10) acquires the infrared image of the workpiece, and the workpiece welding is obtained according to the infrared imageAnd (4) point defects.
9. The infrared image-based welding and spot welding defect detecting method as claimed in claim 8, wherein after the workpiece to be welded moves below the welding assembly in the step S1, the intelligent camera (4) identifies and positions the welding position of the workpiece to be welded, so that the welding device (2) automatically completes the welding of the workpiece to be welded.
10. The infrared image based welding and weld defect detecting method as claimed in claim 8, wherein the welding spot defect of the workpiece is detected by neural network algorithm based on the infrared image of the workpiece in S2, and the report and defect database is generated.
CN201911170527.8A 2019-11-26 2019-11-26 Welding and welding spot defect detection system and method based on infrared image CN110927168A (en)

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