CN110905514B - Multi-layer inclined ore body ore waste separation and collaborative mining method - Google Patents

Multi-layer inclined ore body ore waste separation and collaborative mining method Download PDF

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CN110905514B
CN110905514B CN201911160243.0A CN201911160243A CN110905514B CN 110905514 B CN110905514 B CN 110905514B CN 201911160243 A CN201911160243 A CN 201911160243A CN 110905514 B CN110905514 B CN 110905514B
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ore
interlayer
mining
waste
caving
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CN110905514A (en
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韦才寿
潘桂海
牛文静
温鸿
周鸿飞
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Nanning University
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Nanning University
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/22Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor for ores, e.g. mining placers

Abstract

The invention discloses a multi-layer inclined ore body ore waste separation and collaborative mining method, wherein an interlayer is taken as an ore body in the process of mining the ore body, the ore body is mined according to continuous thick and large ore bodies, the traditional low-efficiency layering independent stoping mode is changed, high-efficiency deep holes are adopted for rock drilling, the ore body and the interlayer are orderly and independently collapsed, all collapsed ores are discharged, and waste rocks of the collapsed interlayer are reserved at the bottom in a stope and are taken as filling waste rocks. Firstly, mining ore bodies on a lower tray, taking a goaf left by mining the ore bodies on the lower part as a free space one-time caving interlayer, completely reserving caving waste rocks inside the goaf, and treating the surface of the waste rocks to realize ore-waste separation; and (3) performing large-scale ore caving by using a gob formed by caving the lower ore body and the interlayer as a blasting compensation space for stoping the upper ore body, and then performing large-scale ore removal. The invention can realize safe, efficient and waste-free exploitation of multilayer inclined ore bodies.

Description

Multi-layer inclined ore body ore waste separation and collaborative mining method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of mining, in particular to a mining method of a multilayer inclined ore body.
Background
The inclined or steeply inclined ore body can be removed by means of dead weight of ore, the shrinkage method or the filling mining method is adopted for mining when the thickness of the ore body is thin, shallow hole rock drilling is used for ore falling, the production capacity of a stope is extremely low, the mining difficulty is further increased when an interlayer exists in the ore body, and the method belongs to a typical complex difficult-to-mine ore body.
The traditional mining method is mainly used for selecting different modes for the ore bodies according to the thickness of an interlayer, and for the interlayer with larger thickness, the mode of independently mining each ore body on an upper plate and a lower plate to reserve the interlayer is adopted, so that the problems of severe mining influence among the ore bodies, complex interlayer stability management and the like are prominent, and particularly, when the mining is carried out by an open field method, the disaster accident of rock burst caused by interlayer collapse is easily caused if the mining is carried out on the empty area in an untimely filling way; and for the interlayer with smaller thickness, the mixed mining of the ore waste is carried out, and the dilution rate of the ore is increased and the transportation cost and the mineral separation cost of the waste ore are increased.
Adopt traditional shrinkage ore deposit method or filling method to exploit multilayer slope ore body, no matter adopt useless full mining of ore deposit or extract ore body and remain the intermediate layer and all have more outstanding problem:
(1) the interlayer and the ore body are all mined, and if the ore waste is discharged independently, a large amount of energy consumption is wasted by carrying and treating the waste rocks; the mixed mining of the ore wastes greatly reduces the ore grade, increases the dilution rate, brings difficulty to ore dressing, improves the tailing treatment cost, reduces the economic benefit of enterprises and influences the earth surface environment.
(2) If only the mining body is reserved in the interlayer, continuous mining is difficult to realize, the mining with the thinner interlayer has poor safety and stability, great potential safety hazard exists, mining and mining effects of all the mining bodies are serious, and the production capacity of a stope is reduced.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to realize safe, efficient and green mining of multi-interlayer inclined ore bodies and overcome the outstanding problems in the traditional mining method, the invention provides a multi-layer inclined ore body ore waste separation collaborative mining method under the guidance of the concepts of waste-free mining and collaborative mining, which mainly realizes the following purposes:
(1) safe mining, the separation of ore and waste is cooperated with mining to ensure the safety and stability of a stope in the mining process and ensure the safety of operating personnel; the hidden trouble problems of violent mutual disturbance, difficult interlayer stability treatment and the like existing in the traditional mining method are effectively solved.
(2) Efficient mining, the goaf is fully utilized as a blasting free surface, and the mining process is reasonably and orderly carried out through the innovative design of the mining process, so that compared with the traditional mining method, the mining efficiency is obviously improved, the stope production capacity is greatly improved, and the mining production cost is obviously reduced; the loss rate and the depletion rate of the ore are obviously reduced.
(3) The method has the advantages that waste mining is avoided, the interlayer waste rock under mining is stacked in the goaf, no waste rock is discharged out of a stope or only a small amount of waste rock is discharged out, and the waste rock transportation and treatment cost is reduced; the waste rocks piled in the empty area can be used as filling materials or can be smoothly discharged and utilized as ores in the future.
In order to realize safe and efficient stoping of the multi-interlayer inclined ore body, the invention designs an ore waste separation and collaborative mining method aiming at the multi-interlayer inclined ore body.
A multi-layer inclined ore body ore waste separation collaborative mining method comprises the following steps:
taking an interlayer and ore bodies adjacent to the upper plate and the lower plate of the interlayer as a continuous thick ore body for stoping, arranging ore blocks along the trend of the ore body, and reserving a top pillar, a middle pillar and a bottom pillar;
step two, arranging a stage transportation roadway, an ore loading cross roadway and a rock drilling chamber, arranging the stage transportation roadway in upper wall surrounding rock, arranging one ore loading cross roadway at certain intervals along the trend, wherein the ore loading cross roadway penetrates through the bottoms of two layers of ore bodies, each layer of ore body is independently bottomed, the bottom structure is a trench structure, and a scraper is adopted for ore removal;
step three, a down-hole drilling machine is adopted to drill a downward large-diameter parallel deep hole parallel to the inclination angle of the ore body, the ore body part penetrates through a bottom-pulled top plate, the blast hole depth of the interlayer part is determined through calculation, and the interlayer can meet two conditions after being blasted according to the blast hole depth;
fourthly, stoping the ore body of the lower tray, carrying out charging blasting by adopting a spherical explosive bag, carrying out layered ore caving from bottom to top, carrying out ore removal by adopting a scraper, immediately closing an ore loading cross roadway between the ore body of the upper tray and the ore body of the lower tray after the ore removal of the stope of the ore body of the lower tray is finished, then utilizing the goaf as a free surface to laterally collapse an interlayer at one time, and completely stacking the collapsed waste rocks in the goaf of the lower tray;
step five, stoping the hanging wall ore body after the interlayer caving, firstly adopting a mode of layered ore caving from bottom to top to cave ore, discharging all mined ore, discharging a certain amount of barren rock and ore together when the stoping reaches the height position of the interlayer retaining wall, and forming a slope related to a natural repose angle after the barren rock naturally slips down;
and sixthly, performing one-time large-scale lateral ore caving on the ore body remaining on the upper disc by using a gob formed by the ore body of the lower disc and the interlayer as a free surface and a compensation space, and then performing a large amount of ore removal from the bottom.
In the first step, the stage height is 30-40 m.
In the fourth step, when the scraper is used for ore removal, about 40% of ore is removed each time, and a large amount of ore is removed after the whole stope is finished.
And fifthly, forming a slope related to a natural repose angle after the waste rock naturally slips down, and quickly hardening the surface of the waste rock by using a cementing material.
The core concept of the invention comprises the following three aspects:
(1) and continuous non-waste exploitation. The interlayer is used as an ore body in the process of mining the ore body, the mining design is carried out according to the continuous thick and large ore body, the traditional low-efficiency layered independent stoping mode is changed, efficient deep holes are adopted for rock drilling, the ore body and the interlayer are orderly and independently collapsed, the ore removal mode is innovatively designed, all collapsed ores are discharged, and waste rocks of the collapsed interlayer are reserved at the bottom in a stope and are used as filling waste rocks.
(2) And (4) cooperative utilization of the goaf. Firstly, mining ore bodies on a lower tray, taking a goaf left by mining the ore bodies on the lower part as a free space one-time caving interlayer, completely reserving caving waste rocks inside the goaf, and treating the surface of the waste rocks to realize ore-waste separation; and (3) performing large-scale ore caving by using a gob formed by caving the lower ore body and the interlayer as a blasting free surface of the upper ore body for stoping, and then performing large-scale ore removal.
(3) The interlayer with a certain height is creatively reserved to be used as a retaining wall to retain the waste rocks, so that the collapsed waste rocks can be naturally settled in the lower-tray goaf, the waste rocks are prevented from being mixed into the ores of the upper-tray ore body, and the effective separation of ore and waste is realized.
Compared with the prior art, the invention provides a multi-layer inclined ore body ore waste separation collaborative mining method, which has the following advantages:
(1) the space left by the mining of the lower ore body is used as the free space for the stoping of the upper ore body, the influence of the clamping effect caused by insufficient blasting space on the large-scale ore caving effect is effectively overcome, the continuous mining of the ore body is realized, the deep hole blasting mode is adopted for ore caving, the production capacity of a stope is greatly improved, and adverse factors are converted into favorable factors.
(2) The ore-waste separation is realized in the stope, the dead zone left by the stope ore body stoping is fully utilized to stack the waste rocks, the stope is realized to have no or less waste rocks, the middle part has no transportation process, the waste rock transportation and treatment cost is greatly reduced, the ore dilution rate is effectively reduced, and the surface environment protection and the green mine construction are facilitated.
(3) The method can effectively solve the outstanding problem of rock burst caused by poor interlayer stability and easy collapse in the mining mode that only the mining body remains the interlayer in the open stope method, and reduce the ore loss caused by the retention of the mining body for maintaining the interlayer stability.
(4) The interlayer waste rock reserved in the dead zone has a certain grade, and with the improvement of resource consumption and mineral separation technology, when the content of useful minerals in the waste rock reaches the economic grade, the waste rock can be directly discharged for secondary development and utilization of resources.
(5) The mining method has a wide application range and is suitable for mining ore bodies with different thicknesses; the recovery efficiency is high, and the advantages of the method are obvious compared with the traditional shrinkage method or filling method when the method is particularly used for mining thinner ore bodies; the safety is better, and mining personnel need not to get into the interior operation of stope.
Drawings
FIGS. 1 to 3 are schematic views of a process of a multi-layer inclined ore body ore waste separation collaborative mining method;
in the figure, 1-top pillar, 2-upper plate ore body, 3-blast hole, 4-bottom drawing level, 5-stage transportation roadway, 6-loading cross lane, 7-receiving trench, 8-interlayer, 9-lower plate ore body, 10-drilling chamber, 11-goaf and 12-waste rock.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments, but it should not be understood that the scope of the subject matter of the present invention is limited to the following embodiments, and various modifications, substitutions and alterations made based on the common technical knowledge and conventional means in the art without departing from the technical idea of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention.
As shown in fig. 1 to fig. 3, which are schematic process diagrams of the multi-layer inclined ore body ore-waste separation collaborative mining method of the embodiment, the mining process is implemented according to the following steps:
(1) the prospecting degree of the ore body to be mined is high, the boundary line of the ore rock is clear, the interlayer 8 and the ore body adjacent to the upper plate and the lower plate of the interlayer are taken as a continuous thick ore body for stoping, and the ore blocks are arranged along the trend of the ore body; because of adopting downward deep hole rock drilling, in order to reduce the deflection of the blast hole 3 and influence the fine blasting of ore waste separate mining, the stage height is smaller than that of the traditional VCR method, preferably 30 m-40 m, a top column 1, a stud and a bottom column are reserved, and the size of the ore column is determined according to specific conditions.
(2) Arranging a stage transportation roadway 5, an ore loading cross roadway 6 and a drilling chamber 10; arranging the stage haulage roadways 5 in the upper surrounding rocks, arranging ore loading cross roadways 6 at certain intervals along the trend, wherein the ore loading cross roadways 6 penetrate through the bottoms of the two layers of ore bodies; performing independent bottom-drawing on each layer of ore body, wherein the bottom structure is a trench structure (corresponding to an ore-receiving trench 7 in the figure 1), and a scraper is adopted for ore removal; as shown in fig. 1.
(3) The method is characterized in that a down-hole drilling machine is adopted to drill a downward large-diameter parallel deep hole with a parallel ore body inclination angle, a bottom-drawing top plate (corresponding to a bottom-drawing level 4 in a figure 1) is partially drilled through an ore body, the depth of blast holes 3 of an interlayer 8 part needs to be determined through calculation and is related to a blasting loose coefficient, the thickness of the interlayer 8, a natural repose angle and the thickness of a lower layer ore body, the blasting loose coefficient, the thickness of the interlayer 8, the natural repose angle and the thickness of the lower layer ore body can be met simultaneously after the interlayer 8 is blasted, the height of the interlayer 8 which is not blasted can be used as a retaining wall to block waste rocks 12, and the blasted waste rocks 12.
(4) Stoping the ore body 9 of the lower tray, carrying out charging blasting by adopting a spherical explosive bag, carrying out layered ore caving from bottom to top, carrying out ore removal by adopting a scraper, wherein about 40% of ore amount is removed each time, and carrying out a large amount of ore removal after the stoping of the whole stope is finished; after ore removal of the lower-tray ore body 9 stope is finished, the ore loading cross drift 6 between the upper-tray ore body and the lower-tray ore body is immediately closed, then the goaf 11 is used as a free surface to laterally collapse the interlayer 8 at one time, and all the collapsed waste rocks 12 are stacked in the lower-tray goaf 11, as shown in fig. 2.
(5) The upper plate ore body 2 is stoped after the interlayer 8 is collapsed, ore is firstly collapsed in a layered ore collapsing mode from bottom to top, the mined ores are all discharged, when the stoping reaches the height position of a retaining wall of the interlayer 8, a certain amount of waste rocks 12 are discharged together with the ores, a slope related to a natural repose angle is formed after the waste rocks 12 naturally slide down, and then the surface of the waste rocks 12 is rapidly hardened by cementing materials; this step is performed to prevent excessive ore of the upper plate ore body 2 from remaining in the lower plate gob and excessive waste rock 12 from being mixed into the ore, thereby reducing the ore loss rate and lowering the dilution rate.
(6) A gob 11 formed by the lower wall ore body 9 and the interlayer 8 is used as a blasting compensation space, the residual ore body on the upper wall is subjected to one large-scale lateral ore caving by adopting differential blasting, and then a large amount of ore is removed from the bottom; as shown in fig. 3.
The invention can realize safe, efficient and waste-free mining of multilayer inclined ore bodies, effectively solves the potential safety hazard problems of rock burst and the like caused by severe mutual disturbance of only the reserved interlayers of the ore bodies and easy collapse of the interlayers in the traditional mining method, and solves the problems of high ore dilution rate and high waste rock transportation and treatment cost in mixed mining of ore wastes. The invention is used for mining multilayer thin ore bodies, can effectively improve the mining efficiency and the stope production capacity, obviously reduce the mining production cost, and obviously reduce the ore loss rate and the dilution rate; the waste rocks piled in the empty area can be used as filling materials or can be smoothly discharged as ores for reuse in the future.

Claims (4)

1. A multi-layer inclined ore body ore waste separation collaborative mining method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
taking an interlayer and ore bodies adjacent to the upper plate and the lower plate of the interlayer as a continuous thick ore body for stoping, arranging ore blocks along the trend of the ore body, and reserving a top pillar, a middle pillar and a bottom pillar;
step two, arranging a stage transportation roadway, an ore loading cross roadway and a rock drilling chamber, arranging the stage transportation roadway in upper wall surrounding rock, arranging one ore loading cross roadway at certain intervals along the trend, wherein the ore loading cross roadway penetrates through the bottoms of two layers of ore bodies, each layer of ore body is independently bottomed, the bottom structure is a trench structure, and a scraper is adopted for ore removal;
step three, a down-hole drilling machine is adopted to drill a downward large-diameter parallel deep hole parallel to the inclination angle of the ore body, the ore body part penetrates through a bottom-pulled top plate, the blast hole depth of the interlayer part is determined through calculation, and the interlayer can meet two conditions after being blasted according to the blast hole depth;
fourthly, stoping the ore body of the lower tray, carrying out charging blasting by adopting a spherical explosive bag, carrying out layered ore caving from bottom to top, carrying out ore removal by adopting a scraper, immediately closing an ore loading cross roadway between the ore body of the upper tray and the ore body of the lower tray after the ore removal of the stope of the ore body of the lower tray is finished, then utilizing the goaf as a free surface to laterally collapse an interlayer at one time, and completely stacking the collapsed waste rocks in the goaf of the lower tray;
step five, stoping the hanging wall ore body after the interlayer caving, firstly adopting a mode of layered ore caving from bottom to top to cave ore, discharging all mined ore, discharging a certain amount of barren rock and ore together when the stoping reaches the height position of the interlayer retaining wall, and forming a slope related to a natural repose angle after the barren rock naturally slips down;
and sixthly, performing one-time large-scale lateral ore caving on the ore body remaining on the upper disc by using a gob formed by the ore body of the lower disc and the interlayer as a free surface and a compensation space, and then performing a large amount of ore removal from the bottom.
2. The multi-story inclined ore body ore waste separation collaborative mining method of claim 1, characterized in that: in the first step, the stage height is 30-40 m.
3. The multi-story inclined ore body ore waste separation collaborative mining method of claim 1, characterized in that: in the fourth step, when the scraper is used for ore removal, about 40% of ore is removed each time, and a large amount of ore is removed after the whole stope is finished.
4. The multi-story inclined ore body ore waste separation collaborative mining method of claim 1, characterized in that: and fifthly, forming a slope related to a natural repose angle after the waste rock naturally slips down, and quickly hardening the surface of the waste rock by using a cementing material.
CN201911160243.0A 2019-11-23 2019-11-23 Multi-layer inclined ore body ore waste separation and collaborative mining method Active CN110905514B (en)

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