CN110887270A - Multistage utilization system and method for waste heat of air compressor - Google Patents

Multistage utilization system and method for waste heat of air compressor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110887270A
CN110887270A CN201911047177.6A CN201911047177A CN110887270A CN 110887270 A CN110887270 A CN 110887270A CN 201911047177 A CN201911047177 A CN 201911047177A CN 110887270 A CN110887270 A CN 110887270A
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heat
water
heat exchanger
air compressor
temperature
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CN201911047177.6A
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CN110887270B (en
Inventor
徐伟
倪健勇
马光宇
王声
张天赋
陈鹏
刘芳
高军
王飞
王永
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Angang Steel Co Ltd
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Angang Steel Co Ltd
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Classifications

    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B30/00Heat pumps
    • F25B30/02Heat pumps of the compression type
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    • C01BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF; METALLOIDS OR COMPOUNDS THEREOF NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASS C01C
    • C01B13/00Oxygen; Ozone; Oxides or hydroxides in general
    • C01B13/02Preparation of oxygen
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04BPOSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS
    • F04B39/00Component parts, details, or accessories, of pumps or pumping systems specially adapted for elastic fluids, not otherwise provided for in, or of interest apart from, groups F04B25/00 - F04B37/00
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F25REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
    • F25BREFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS
    • F25B15/00Sorption machines, plants or systems, operating continuously, e.g. absorption type
    • F25B15/02Sorption machines, plants or systems, operating continuously, e.g. absorption type without inert gas
    • F25B15/06Sorption machines, plants or systems, operating continuously, e.g. absorption type without inert gas the refrigerant being water vapour evaporated from a salt solution, e.g. lithium bromide
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/27Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B30/00Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]
    • Y02B30/62Absorption based systems
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10Process efficiency
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P20/00Technologies relating to chemical industry
    • Y02P20/10Process efficiency
    • Y02P20/129Energy recovery, e.g. by cogeneration, H2recovery or pressure recovery turbines

Abstract

The invention relates to a multistage utilization system for waste heat of an air compressor, which comprises primary compression of the air compressor, secondary compression of the air compressor, tertiary compression of the air compressor, a primary heat exchanger, a secondary heat exchanger, a tertiary heat exchanger, an oxygen generator, a refrigeration user, a heat supply user, a heat pump unit, a cooling tower, a water replenishing pump and a flow meter, wherein the primary compression of the air compressor is performed by the primary compression of the air compressor; the invention provides the multistage utilization system and the multistage utilization method for the waste heat of the air compressor through the design of the scheme for recovering the waste heat of the three-stage compressed air of the air compressor, so that the waste heat of the cooling water of the air compressor can be directly utilized, intermediate heat exchange equipment is reduced, excessive heat dissipation loss of the system is avoided, and the heat efficiency of the system is improved; and the method for heating the water discharged from the primary heat exchanger in a manner of driving the heat pump by partial backwater effectively utilizes the waste heat of the air compressor in multiple stages, solves the problem that the waste heat cannot be effectively utilized after the gas temperature is low after the primary compression of the air compressor and the waste heat recovery, and improves the waste heat utilization efficiency of the system. The method has the characteristics of saving energy, reducing maintenance cost and the like.

Description

Multistage utilization system and method for waste heat of air compressor
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of energy conservation in the steel industry, in particular to a multistage utilization system and method for waste heat of an air compressor
Background
The large-scale iron and steel enterprises are provided with an oxygen generation process, energy media such as liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, liquid helium and the like can be produced in the process, the liquid oxygen, the liquid nitrogen, the liquid helium and the like need to be heated and gasified when corresponding energy media are needed in production, and the gas energy media are conveyed to users through a pipe network. At present, most of domestic oxygen production processes adopt a water bath type gasifier to heat a low-temperature energy medium, a heating heat source is generally steam, and a large amount of high-quality energy can be consumed by the heating mode, so that the production cost of enterprises is increased. Meanwhile, a plurality of air compressors are arranged in the oxygen production process; when the air compressor is in operation, the air compressor is really used for increasing the electric energy consumed by air potential energy, and only occupies a small part, about 15%, of the total electric energy consumption. About 85% of the electricity consumed is converted to heat in the compressed gas and is discharged to the air by air or water cooling. If the waste heat of the compressed gas is recovered and is used for production and living heat supply of an oxygen production process nearby, the energy utilization efficiency can be improved, and the enterprise cost can be reduced; meanwhile, the method is also beneficial to reducing the coal burning quantity and reducing the pollution of the coal to the environment.
At present, a plurality of researches and applications are developed aiming at the recovery and utilization of the waste heat of the air compressor in China.
Patent CN106762557A discloses an intelligent hot water supply device based on air compressor waste heat recovery; according to the invention, intelligent hot water supply is realized by adding the cache heat storage equipment between the heat exchanger and a hot user. Although the method realizes the stability of the heat supply system, the heat loss of the system is larger due to excessive intermediate heat exchange and heat storage equipment. Patent CN108150422A discloses an air compressor waste heat recycling system, which drives a lithium bromide absorption type water chilling unit to produce cold water in a hot water manner by recycling air compressor waste heat; however, the hot water (generally at about 70-75 ℃) after driving the lithium bromide absorption type water chilling unit is not utilized, so that the energy utilization rate is low. Patent CN107178934A discloses an air compressor waste heat deep recycling system, in which three-stage compression of the air compressor is performed by three-stage heat exchange, and high-temperature water after heat exchange enters a waste heat extraction device and is converted into high-temperature waste heat water after heat exchange again, and the high-temperature waste heat water enters the waste heat deep recycling system; the system does not solve the problems that the air temperature is lower after the primary compression of the air compressor and the waste heat cannot be effectively utilized after being recovered.
In summary, the air compressor waste heat utilization system and method have some problems. The waste heat utilization system and the method mainly reflect that the heat loss of the system is large due to excessive intermediate heat exchange equipment in the conventional air compressor waste heat utilization system and method; and the problems that the temperature of air is lower after the primary compression of the air compressor in actual operation, the waste heat cannot be effectively utilized after being recovered and the like are not considered. Therefore, it is very necessary to find a more practical and effective system and method for utilizing the waste heat of the air compressor.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the technical problem of providing a multi-stage utilization system and a method for waste heat of an air compressor, wherein the intermediate heat exchange equipment is reduced by directly utilizing the waste heat of cooling water of the air compressor in multiple stages, so that excessive heat loss of the system is avoided; and the water outlet of the primary heat exchanger is heated in a mode of driving the heat pump by partial backwater, so that the waste heat utilization efficiency of the system is improved.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a multi-stage utilization system for waste heat of an air compressor comprises primary compression of the air compressor, secondary compression of the air compressor, tertiary compression of the air compressor, a primary heat exchanger, a secondary heat exchanger, a tertiary heat exchanger, an oxygen generator, a refrigeration user, a heat supply user, a heat pump unit, a cooling tower, a water replenishing pump and a flow meter;
the primary compression outlet of the air compressor is connected with the gas side inlet of the primary heat exchanger, the gas side outlet of the primary heat exchanger is connected with the secondary compression inlet of the air compressor, the secondary compression outlet of the air compressor is connected with the gas side inlet of the secondary heat exchanger, the gas side outlet of the secondary heat exchanger is connected with the tertiary compression inlet of the air compressor, the tertiary compression outlet of the air compressor is connected with the gas side inlet of the tertiary heat exchanger, and the gas side outlet of the tertiary heat exchanger is connected with the inlet of the; the water side outlet of the primary heat exchanger is connected with the inlet of the heat pump unit and is respectively connected with the inlet of the water bath type gasifier and the inlet of the heat supply user in a parallel mode; the outlet of the heat pump unit is connected with the water side outlets of the two-stage heat exchanger and the three-stage heat exchanger which are intersected, and is respectively connected with the inlet of a refrigeration user and the inlet of the water bath type gasifier in a parallel connection mode; the outlet of the refrigeration user is connected with the inlet of the water bath type gasifier; the outlet of the water bath type gasifier is connected with the inlet of a heat supply user and is connected with the outlet of the heat supply user in a parallel mode; the heat supply user outlet is respectively connected with the heat pump unit driving heat source inlet and the cooling tower inlet in a parallel connection mode; the heat pump set drives the heat source outlet and the cooling tower outlet and the outlet of the water replenishing pump to be connected in an intersecting manner, then the heat pump set is connected with the inlet of the flow meter, the outlet of the flow meter is respectively connected with the inlets of the water side of the first-stage heat exchanger, the second-stage heat exchanger and the third-stage heat exchanger, and the feedback signal of the flow meter is transmitted to the water replenishing pump.
The refrigeration user is refrigerated by a lithium bromide unit.
The waste heat recovery method of the system comprises a summer refrigeration mode, a winter heating mode and a spring and autumn non-refrigeration non-heating mode, and specifically comprises the following steps:
summer cooling mode
In a summer refrigeration operation mode, normal temperature and pressure air is subjected to primary compression by an air compressor to reach 75-95 ℃, enters a primary heat exchanger to exchange heat with cooling water at 30-35 ℃, enters a secondary compression air compressor and a tertiary compression air compressor to reach 100-120 ℃ after the temperature of the compressed air after heat exchange is 35-40 ℃, enters the secondary heat exchanger and the tertiary heat exchanger to exchange heat, and finally enters an oxygen generator after the air subjected to the tertiary compression and cooling;
the cooling water entering the primary heat exchanger is subjected to heat exchange, then the temperature of the cooling water is 65-75 ℃, and the cooling water enters a heat pump unit through a switch valve; the cooling water entering the secondary heat exchanger and the tertiary heat exchanger is heated to 80-90 ℃ through heat exchange; the refrigerant enters a refrigeration user through a switch valve to be used as a heat source to drive a lithium bromide refrigeration unit, and the cold energy is generated to be required by the refrigeration user; after a lithium bromide unit is driven to refrigerate, the temperature of hot water is reduced to 70-75 ℃ and flows out of a refrigeration user, the hot water enters a water bath type gasifier to heat a low-temperature air source of an oxygen generation process, the temperature is reduced to 45-55 ℃ after heat exchange and flows out, the hot water enters a heat pump unit to serve as a driving heat source of the heat pump unit, water at 65-75 ℃ from a primary heat exchanger is heated to 80-90 ℃, the water is mixed with water at 80-90 ℃ from a secondary heat exchanger and a tertiary heat exchanger and enters the refrigeration user to drive the lithium bromide unit, the temperature is reduced to 30-35 ℃ after the low-temperature hot water at 45-55 ℃ drives the heat pump unit, and the low-temperature hot water flows;
after the hot water drives the lithium bromide unit to refrigerate, the lithium bromide unit enters a water bath type gasifier to heat a low-temperature air source, the temperature is reduced to 45-55 ℃ after heat exchange, the low-temperature air source flows out, a part of return water is controlled to enter the heat pump unit as a driving heat source, and 65-75 ℃ water from the primary heat exchanger is continuously heated to 80-90 ℃ and is supplied to a refrigeration user for use; the temperature of the part of return water is reduced to 30-35 ℃ after the part of return water drives the heat pump unit, the part of return water flows out and is converged with the rest of return water which flows through the cooling tower and is cooled to 30-35 ℃, the part of return water is used as cooling water of the air compressor again for recycling, the return water amount is detected through a flowmeter, and when the return water amount is lower than the total circulation amount by 2-5%, the return water amount is fed back to a water replenishing pump;
heating mode in winter
In a winter heating operation mode, normal temperature and pressure air is subjected to primary compression by an air compressor to reach 75-95 ℃, enters a primary heat exchanger to exchange heat with cooling water at 30-35 ℃, enters a secondary compression air compressor and a tertiary compression air compressor to reach 100-120 ℃ after heat exchange, enters the secondary heat exchanger and the tertiary heat exchanger to exchange heat after compression, and finally enters an oxygen generator after tertiary compression and cooling;
the temperature of the cooling water entering the primary heat exchanger is 65-75 ℃ after heat exchange; the cooling water entering the second-stage heat exchanger and the third-stage heat exchanger is heated to 80-90 ℃ after heat exchange, enters a water bath type gasifier to heat a low-temperature air source of an oxygen production process, the temperature is reduced to 60-70 ℃ after heat exchange, the low-temperature air source flows out, is mixed with the effluent water of 65-75 ℃ after heat exchange with the first-stage heat exchanger, the mixed hot water enters a heat supply user, and the water temperature is reduced to 40-50 ℃ after heat supply; wherein, part of the return water enters a heat pump unit as a driving heat source, the water with the temperature of 65-75 ℃ from the primary heat exchanger is heated to 80-90 ℃ and is supplied to a water bath type gasifier for use, and the rest of the low-temperature water enters a cooling tower to be cooled to 30-35 ℃ and is reused as cooling water of an air compressor; the system detects the amount of return water through a flowmeter, and when the amount of return water is lower than the total circulation amount by 2-5%, the return water is fed back to a water replenishing pump for water replenishing;
thirdly, in spring and autumn, the non-refrigeration and non-heating mode
Under a spring and autumn non-refrigeration non-heating operation mode, normal temperature and normal pressure air is subjected to primary compression by an air compressor, then the temperature of the air reaches 75-95 ℃, the air enters a primary heat exchanger to exchange heat with cooling water at 30-35 ℃, the temperature of the compressed air after heat exchange is 35-40 ℃, the air enters the air compressor to be subjected to secondary compression and tertiary compression by the air compressor, the temperature of the secondary compressed air and the temperature of the tertiary compressed air can reach 100-120 ℃, the air after compression enters a secondary heat exchanger and a tertiary heat exchanger to exchange heat, and finally the air after tertiary compression and cooling enters an oxygen generator;
cooling water entering a primary heat exchanger is subjected to heat exchange, and the temperature is 65-75 ℃; the cooling water entering the secondary heat exchanger and the tertiary heat exchanger is heated to about 80-90 ℃ through heat exchange, the 80-90 ℃ outlet water of the secondary heat exchanger and the tertiary heat exchanger is mixed with the 65-75 ℃ outlet water of the primary heat exchanger, the mixed hot water with the temperature of 75-85 ℃ enters a water bath type gasifier to heat a low-temperature air source, and the temperature is reduced to 45-60 ℃ after heat exchange; then the mixture enters a cooling tower to be cooled to 30-35 ℃, and then flows out to be used as cooling water of an air compressor again for recycling; and the flow meter detects the return water amount, and when the return water amount is lower than 2-5% of the total amount, the return water amount is fed back to the water replenishing pump for water replenishing.
In the system and the method for multistage utilization of the waste heat of the air compressor, a main user with cache regulation on the utilization of the waste heat is a water bath type gasifier, and the water bath type gasifier is equipment used for heating a low-temperature air source in an oxygen generation process; because the extremely-low-temperature liquid gas source is heated, a large number of heat sources with higher temperature are needed in the initial heating stage, and the lower the external environment temperature is, the higher the heat source temperature is needed; the common heat source of the water bath type gasifier in the oxygen production process is low-pressure steam, the waste heat of the air compressor is used as the main heat source of the water bath type gasifier, and the insufficient part is supplemented by the steam.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
the invention provides the multistage utilization system and the multistage utilization method for the waste heat of the air compressor through the design of the scheme for recovering the waste heat of the three-stage compressed air of the air compressor, so that the waste heat of the cooling water of the air compressor can be directly utilized, intermediate heat exchange equipment is reduced, excessive heat dissipation loss of the system is avoided, and the heat efficiency of the system is improved; and the method for heating the water discharged from the primary heat exchanger in a manner of driving the heat pump by partial backwater effectively utilizes the waste heat of the air compressor in multiple stages, solves the problem that the waste heat cannot be effectively utilized after the gas temperature is low after the primary compression of the air compressor and the waste heat recovery, and improves the waste heat utilization efficiency of the system. The method has the characteristics of saving energy, reducing maintenance cost and the like.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of the present invention.
In the figure: the system comprises an air compressor primary compression 1, an air compressor secondary compression 2, an air compressor tertiary compression 3, a primary heat exchanger 4, a secondary heat exchanger 5, a tertiary heat exchanger 6, an oxygen generator 7, a refrigeration user 8, a heat supply user 9, a heat pump unit 10, a cooling tower 11, a water replenishing pump 12, a water bath type gasifier 13, switch valves (14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 and 26), a switch regulating valve 27 and a flowmeter 28.
Detailed Description
The following further describes embodiments of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings:
as shown in fig. 1, a multistage utilization system for waste heat of an air compressor comprises a primary compression 1 of the air compressor, a secondary compression 2 of the air compressor, a tertiary compression 3 of the air compressor, a primary heat exchanger 4, a secondary heat exchanger 5, a tertiary heat exchanger 6, an oxygen generator 7, a refrigeration user 8, a heat supply user 9, a heat pump unit 10, a cooling tower 11, a water replenishing pump 12, a flow meter 28 and a pipeline valve;
an outlet of a primary compression 1 of the air compressor is connected with an inlet of a 4 gas side of the primary heat exchanger, an outlet of the 4 gas side of the primary heat exchanger is connected with an inlet of a secondary compression 2 of the air compressor, an outlet of the secondary compression 2 of the air compressor is connected with an inlet of a 5 gas side of the secondary heat exchanger, an outlet of the 5 gas side of the secondary heat exchanger is connected with an inlet of a tertiary compression 3 of the air compressor, an outlet of the tertiary compression 3 of the air compressor is connected with an inlet of a 6 gas side of the tertiary heat exchanger; the water side outlet of the primary heat exchanger 4 is connected with the inlet of a heat pump unit 10, and is respectively connected with the inlet of a water bath type gasifier 13 and the inlet of a heat supply user 9 in a parallel mode; the outlet of the heat pump unit 10 is connected with the water side outlets of the second-stage heat exchanger 5 and the third-stage heat exchanger 6 which are intersected, and is respectively connected with the inlet of a refrigeration user 8 and the inlet of a water bath type gasifier 13 in a parallel connection mode; the outlet of the refrigeration user 8 is connected with the inlet of the water bath type gasifier 13; the outlet of the water bath type gasifier 13 is connected with the inlet of the heat supply user 9 and is connected with the outlet of the heat supply user 9 in a parallel mode; the outlet of the heat supply user 9 is respectively connected with the heat source inlet and the cooling tower 11 inlet of the heat pump unit 10 in a parallel connection mode; the heat pump set 10 drives the heat source outlet to intersect with the outlet of the cooling tower 11 and the outlet of the water replenishing pump 12, and then is connected with the inlet of the flowmeter 28, the outlet of the flowmeter 28 is respectively connected with the water side inlets of the first-stage heat exchanger 4, the second-stage heat exchanger 5 and the third-stage heat exchanger 6, and the feedback signal of the flowmeter 28 is transmitted to the water replenishing pump. The refrigeration user 8 is refrigerated by the lithium bromide unit.
Example 1
The waste heat recovery method of the air compressor waste heat multistage utilization system specifically comprises the following steps:
a summer refrigeration mode:
in the summer cooling operation mode, the on-off valves 14, 15, 18, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 are in the open state, and the on-off valves 16, 17, 19, 20, 21 are in the closed state. The on-off regulating valve 27 is in an open state.
15 ten thousand Nm3The temperature of normal temperature and pressure air reaches 95 ℃ after the air passes through the first-stage compression 1 of the air compressor, the air enters the first-stage heat exchanger 4 to exchange heat with cooling water at the temperature of 35 ℃, the temperature of the compressed air after heat exchange is 40 ℃ and enters the second-stage compression of the air compressor and the third-stage compression of the air compressor, the temperature of the second-stage compressed air and the temperature of the third-stage compressed air can reach 120 ℃, the air after compression enters the second-stage heat exchanger 5 and the third-stage heat exchanger 6 to exchange heat, and finally the.
The cooling water entering the primary heat exchanger 4 for about 58t/h is subjected to heat exchange, then the temperature of the cooling water is 75 ℃, and the cooling water enters the heat pump unit 10 through the switch valve 22; cooling water entering the secondary heat exchanger 5 and the tertiary heat exchanger 6 is about 62t/h respectively, and is heated to 90 ℃ through heat exchange; hot water with the temperature of about 124t/h and the temperature of 90 ℃ enters a refrigeration user 8 through the switch valve 14 to be used as a heat source to drive the lithium bromide refrigeration unit, and cold energy is generated to be required by the user. After the lithium bromide unit is driven to refrigerate, the temperature of hot water is reduced to 75 ℃, the hot water flows out of a refrigeration user from the switch valve 15, enters the water bath type gasifier 13 to heat a low-temperature gas source of an oxygen production process, and the temperature is reduced to 50 ℃ after heat exchange and flows out through the switch valve 18; wherein, the low-temperature hot water with the temperature of 44t/h being 50 ℃ enters the heat pump unit 10 through the switch regulating valve 27 to be used as a driving heat source, the water with the temperature of about 75 ℃ at 58t/h from the primary heat exchanger 4 is heated to 90 ℃, and the water with the temperature of 90 ℃ from the secondary heat exchanger 5 and the tertiary heat exchanger 6 is mixed with the water with the temperature of 90 ℃ through the switch valve 23 to enter the refrigeration user 8 for driving the lithium bromide unit. After the low-temperature hot water of 44t/h drives the heat pump unit 10, the temperature is reduced to 35 ℃, and the low-temperature hot water flows out through the switch valve 24 and is used as cooling water of the air compressor again for recycling. And the rest low-temperature hot water with the temperature of 80t/h being 50 ℃ enters the cooling tower 11 through the switch regulating valve 25 to be cooled to 35 ℃, flows out of the switch valve 26 and is used as cooling water of the air compressor again for recycling.
After one cycle, the amount of 90 ℃ hot water supplied to the refrigeration user 8 reaches 182t/h, and the heat supply amount is increased by nearly 47 percent; after the hot water drives the lithium bromide unit to refrigerate, the hot water flows out through the switch valve 15, enters the water bath type gasifier 13 to heat a low-temperature gas source, the temperature is reduced to 50 ℃ after heat exchange, the low-temperature gas source flows out through the switch valve 18, 44t/h of return water is controlled by the switch regulating valve 27 to enter the heat pump unit 10 to serve as a driving heat source, 75 ℃ water from the primary heat exchanger 4 is continuously heated to 90 ℃, and the water is supplied to a refrigeration user 8 for use; after the temperature of the heat pump unit 10 is reduced to 35 ℃ after the return water of 44t/h drives the heat pump unit, the return water flows out through the switch valve 24; and the rest of the return water of about 138t/h flows through the cooling tower through the switch valve 25 to be cooled to 35 ℃, the return water flowing out through the switch valve 26 and the return water flowing out through the switch valve 24 are reused as cooling water of the air compressor, the return water amount is detected through the flowmeter 27, and when the return water amount is lower than 3% of the total amount, the return water is fed back to the water replenishing pump 12 for water replenishing.
Example 2:
the waste heat recovery method of the air compressor waste heat multistage utilization system specifically comprises the following steps:
heating mode in winter:
in the winter heating mode, the on-off valves 16, 20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26 are in the open state, the on-off valves 14, 15, 17, 18 are in the closed state, the on-off valves 19, 22 are in the adjustable state, and the on-off regulating valve 27 is in the open state.
15 ten thousand Nm3The temperature of normal temperature and pressure air reaches 80 ℃ after the air passes through the first-stage compression 1 of the air compressor, the air enters the first-stage heat exchanger 4 to exchange heat with cooling water at the temperature of 35 ℃, the temperature of the compressed air after heat exchange is 40 ℃ and enters the second-stage compression of the air compressor and the third-stage compression of the air compressor, the temperature of the second-stage compressed air and the temperature of the third-stage compressed air can reach 105 ℃, the air after compression enters the second-stage heat exchanger 5 and the third-stage heat exchanger 6 to exchange heat, and finally the. After the cooling water enters the primary heat exchanger 4 for about 57t/h and exchanges heat, the cooling water flows out through the switch valve 19 at the temperature of 65 ℃, and the switch valve 22 is closed; cooling water entering the secondary heat exchanger 5 and the tertiary heat exchanger 6 is about 55t/h respectively, and is heated to about 80 ℃ through heat exchange; about 124t/h hot water with the temperature of 80 ℃ passes through the switch valve 16, entering a water bath type gasifier 13 to heat a low-temperature gas source, reducing the temperature to 65 ℃ after heat exchange, flowing out, mixing 57t/h of heat exchange water with the temperature of 65 ℃ flowing out from a switch valve 19, allowing the mixed hot water with the temperature of about 181t/h of 65 ℃ to enter a heat supply user 9 through a switch valve 20, and reducing the temperature of the heated water to 45 ℃ and flowing out of the heat supply user 9 through a switch valve 21; then the on-off valve 19 is closed and the on-off valve 22 is opened; the low-temperature hot water with the temperature of 65t/h being 45 ℃ enters the heat pump unit 10 through the switch regulating valve 27 to be used as a driving heat source, 57t/h of 65 ℃ water entering the primary heat exchanger 4 of the heat pump unit 10 through the switch valve 22 is heated to 80 ℃, the heated 80 ℃ water is mixed with 80 ℃ water exiting the secondary heat exchanger 5 and the tertiary heat exchanger 6 through the switch valve 23, and the mixed water enters the water bath type gasifier 13 through the switch valve 16 to heat a low-temperature gas source; and the residual low-temperature hot water with the temperature of 116t/h of 45 ℃ enters the cooling tower 11 through the switch regulating valve 25 to be cooled to 35 ℃, and flows out of the switch valve 26 to be used as cooling water of the air compressor again for recycling.
After one circulation, the amount of hot water at 80 ℃ supplied to the water bath type gasifier 13 reaches 181t/h, and the heat supply amount is increased by nearly 46%; the water enters a water bath type gasifier 13, the temperature of the low-temperature air source is reduced to 65 ℃ and flows out, the low-temperature air source enters a heat supply user 9 through a switch valve 20, the temperature of the water is reduced to 45 ℃ after heating, and the water flows out of the heat supply user 9 through a switch valve 21; wherein, the 65t/h low-temperature hot water with the temperature of 45 ℃ is controlled by the switch regulating valve 27 to enter the heat pump unit 10 as a driving heat source, and the water with the temperature of 65 ℃ coming out of the primary heat exchanger 4 is continuously heated to 80 ℃ and is supplied to the water bath type gasifier 13 for use; and the rest of the return water of about 116t/h flows through the cooling tower through the switch valve 25 to be cooled to 35 ℃, the return water flowing out through the switch valve 26 and the return water flowing out through the switch valve 24 are reused as cooling water of the air compressor, the return water amount is detected through the flowmeter 27, and when the return water amount is lower than 3% of the total amount, the return water is fed back to the water replenishing pump 12 for water replenishing.
Example 3:
the waste heat recovery method of the air compressor waste heat multistage utilization system specifically comprises the following steps:
spring and autumn non-refrigeration and non-heating mode:
in the spring and autumn non-cooling and non-heating operation mode, the on-off valves 16, 17, 18, 25, 26 are in the open state, and the on-off valves 14, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24 and the on-off regulating valve 27 are in the closed state.
15 ten thousand Nm3The temperature of normal temperature and pressure air reaches 85 ℃ after the air passes through the first-stage compression 1 of the air compressor, the air enters the first-stage heat exchanger 4 to exchange heat with cooling water at the temperature of 35 ℃, the temperature of the compressed air after heat exchange is 40 ℃ and enters the second-stage compression of the air compressor and the third-stage compression of the air compressor, the temperature of the second-stage compressed air and the temperature of the third-stage compressed air can reach 115 ℃, the air after compression enters the second-stage heat exchanger 5 and the third-stage heat exchanger 6 to exchange heat, and finally the air at.
Cooling water enters the primary heat exchanger 4 for about 55t/h, and flows out through the switch valve 17 when the temperature is about 70 ℃ after heat exchange; cooling water entering the secondary heat exchanger 5 and the tertiary heat exchanger 6 is about 71t/h respectively, and is heated to about 80 ℃ through heat exchange; hot water with the temperature of about 142t/h and the temperature of 80 ℃ is mixed with heat exchange water with the temperature of 55t/h and the temperature of 70 ℃ flowing out from the switch valve 17 through the switch valve 16, the mixed water with the temperature of about 77 ℃ enters the water bath type gasifier 13 to heat a low-temperature air source, the temperature is reduced to 50 ℃ after heat exchange, the mixed water flows out through the switch valve 18, then enters the cooling tower through the switch valve 25 to be cooled to 35 ℃, and flows out from the switch valve 26 to be reused as cooling water of the air compressor for circulation; the flow meter 27 detects the amount of return water, and when the amount of return water is less than 2% of the total amount, the return water is fed back to the water replenishing pump 12 for water replenishing.
The system and the method directly utilize the waste heat of the cooling water of the air compressor, reduce intermediate heat exchange equipment, avoid excessive heat dissipation loss of the system and improve the heat efficiency of the system; and the method for heating the water discharged from the primary heat exchanger in a way of driving the heat pump by partial backwater solves the problem that the gas temperature after the primary compression of the air compressor is low and cannot be effectively utilized after waste heat recovery, and improves the waste heat utilization efficiency of the system.
The foregoing is considered as illustrative only of the principles of the invention and is not to be in any way limiting, since all equivalent changes and modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the appended claims.

Claims (4)

1. A multi-stage utilization system for waste heat of an air compressor is characterized by comprising a primary compression of the air compressor, a secondary compression of the air compressor, a tertiary compression of the air compressor, a primary heat exchanger, a secondary heat exchanger, a tertiary heat exchanger, an oxygen generator, a refrigeration user, a heat supply user, a heat pump unit, a cooling tower, a water replenishing pump and a flowmeter;
the primary compression outlet of the air compressor is connected with the gas side inlet of the primary heat exchanger, the gas side outlet of the primary heat exchanger is connected with the secondary compression inlet of the air compressor, the secondary compression outlet of the air compressor is connected with the gas side inlet of the secondary heat exchanger, the gas side outlet of the secondary heat exchanger is connected with the tertiary compression inlet of the air compressor, the tertiary compression outlet of the air compressor is connected with the gas side inlet of the tertiary heat exchanger, and the gas side outlet of the tertiary heat exchanger is connected with the inlet of the; the water side outlet of the primary heat exchanger is connected with the inlet of the heat pump unit and is respectively connected with the inlet of the water bath type gasifier and the inlet of the heat supply user in a parallel mode; the outlet of the heat pump unit is connected with the water side outlets of the two-stage heat exchanger and the three-stage heat exchanger which are intersected, and is respectively connected with the inlet of a refrigeration user and the inlet of the water bath type gasifier in a parallel connection mode; the outlet of the refrigeration user is connected with the inlet of the water bath type gasifier; the outlet of the water bath type gasifier is connected with the inlet of a heat supply user and is connected with the outlet of the heat supply user in a parallel mode; the heat supply user outlet is respectively connected with the heat pump unit driving heat source inlet and the cooling tower inlet in a parallel connection mode; the heat pump set drives the heat source outlet and the cooling tower outlet and the outlet of the water replenishing pump to be connected in an intersecting manner, then the heat pump set is connected with the inlet of the flow meter, the outlet of the flow meter is respectively connected with the inlets of the water side of the first-stage heat exchanger, the second-stage heat exchanger and the third-stage heat exchanger, and the feedback signal of the flow meter is transmitted to the water replenishing pump.
2. The waste heat recovery method of the air compressor waste heat multistage utilization system according to claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps:
summer refrigeration mode
In a summer refrigeration operation mode, normal temperature and pressure air is subjected to primary compression by an air compressor to reach 75-95 ℃, enters a primary heat exchanger to exchange heat with cooling water at 30-35 ℃, enters a secondary compression air compressor and a tertiary compression air compressor to reach 100-120 ℃ after the temperature of the compressed air after heat exchange is 35-40 ℃, enters the secondary heat exchanger and the tertiary heat exchanger to exchange heat, and finally enters an oxygen generator after the air subjected to the tertiary compression and cooling;
the cooling water entering the primary heat exchanger is subjected to heat exchange, then the temperature of the cooling water is 65-75 ℃, and the cooling water enters a heat pump unit through a switch valve; the cooling water entering the secondary heat exchanger and the tertiary heat exchanger is heated to 80-90 ℃ through heat exchange; the refrigerant enters a refrigeration user through a switch valve to serve as a heat source to drive a refrigeration unit, and the cold energy is generated to be required by the refrigeration user; after the refrigeration of a driving refrigerating unit, the temperature of hot water is reduced to 70-75 ℃ and flows out of a refrigeration user, the hot water enters a water bath type gasifier to heat a low-temperature air source of an oxygen production process, the temperature is reduced to 45-55 ℃ after heat exchange and flows out, the hot water enters a heat pump unit to serve as a driving heat source of the heat pump unit, water at 65-75 ℃ from a primary heat exchanger is heated to 80-90 ℃, the water is mixed with water at 80-90 ℃ from a secondary heat exchanger and a tertiary heat exchanger and enters the refrigeration user to drive the refrigerating unit, the temperature is reduced to 30-35 ℃ after the low-temperature hot water at 45-55 ℃ drives the heat pump unit, and the water flows out from a heat source outlet;
after the hot water drives the refrigerating unit to refrigerate, the hot water enters a water bath type gasifier to heat a low-temperature gas source, the temperature is reduced to 45-55 ℃ after heat exchange, the low-temperature gas source flows out, a part of return water is controlled to enter the heat pump unit as a driving heat source, and the 65-75 ℃ water from the primary heat exchanger is continuously heated to 80-90 ℃ and is supplied to a refrigerating user for use; the temperature of the part of return water is reduced to 30-35 ℃ after the part of return water drives the heat pump unit, the part of return water flows out and is converged with the rest of return water flowing through the cooling tower and cooled to 30-35 ℃, the part of return water is used as cooling water of the air compressor again for recycling, the return water amount is detected through a flowmeter, and when the return water amount is lower than the total circulation amount by 2-5%, the return water amount is fed back to the water replenishing pump for replenishing.
3. The waste heat recovery method of the air compressor waste heat multistage utilization system according to claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps:
winter heating mode
In a winter heating operation mode, normal temperature and pressure air is subjected to primary compression by an air compressor to reach 75-95 ℃, enters a primary heat exchanger to exchange heat with cooling water at 30-35 ℃, enters a secondary compression air compressor and a tertiary compression air compressor to reach 100-120 ℃ after heat exchange, enters the secondary heat exchanger and the tertiary heat exchanger to exchange heat after compression, and finally enters an oxygen generator after tertiary compression and cooling;
the temperature of the cooling water entering the primary heat exchanger is 65-75 ℃ after heat exchange; the cooling water entering the second-stage heat exchanger and the third-stage heat exchanger is heated to 80-90 ℃ after heat exchange, enters a water bath type gasifier to heat a low-temperature air source of an oxygen production process, the temperature is reduced to 60-70 ℃ after heat exchange, the low-temperature air source flows out, is mixed with the effluent water of 65-75 ℃ after heat exchange with the first-stage heat exchanger, the mixed hot water enters a heat supply user, and the water temperature is reduced to 40-50 ℃ after heat supply; wherein, part of the return water enters a heat pump unit as a driving heat source, the water with the temperature of 65-75 ℃ from the primary heat exchanger is heated to 80-90 ℃ and is supplied to a water bath type gasifier for use, and the rest of the low-temperature water enters a cooling tower to be cooled to 30-35 ℃ and is reused as cooling water of an air compressor; the system detects the return water amount through a flowmeter, and when the return water amount is lower than the circulation total amount by 2-5%, the return water amount is fed back to a water replenishing pump for water replenishing.
4. The waste heat recovery method of the air compressor waste heat multistage utilization system according to claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps:
spring and autumn non-refrigeration and non-heating mode
Under a spring and autumn non-refrigeration non-heating operation mode, normal temperature and normal pressure air is subjected to primary compression by an air compressor, then the temperature of the air reaches 75-95 ℃, the air enters a primary heat exchanger to exchange heat with cooling water at 30-35 ℃, the temperature of the compressed air after heat exchange is 35-40 ℃, the air enters the air compressor to be subjected to secondary compression and tertiary compression by the air compressor, the temperature of the secondary compressed air and the temperature of the tertiary compressed air can reach 100-120 ℃, the air after compression enters a secondary heat exchanger and a tertiary heat exchanger to exchange heat, and finally the air after tertiary compression and cooling enters an oxygen generator;
cooling water entering a primary heat exchanger is subjected to heat exchange, and the temperature is 65-75 ℃; the cooling water entering the secondary heat exchanger and the tertiary heat exchanger is heated to about 80-90 ℃ through heat exchange, the 80-90 ℃ outlet water of the secondary heat exchanger and the tertiary heat exchanger is mixed with the 65-75 ℃ outlet water of the primary heat exchanger, the mixed hot water with the temperature of 75-85 ℃ enters a water bath type gasifier to heat a low-temperature air source, and the temperature is reduced to 45-60 ℃ after heat exchange; then the mixture enters a cooling tower to be cooled to 30-35 ℃, and then flows out to be used as cooling water of an air compressor again for recycling; and the flow meter detects the return water amount, and when the return water amount is lower than 2-5% of the total amount, the return water amount is fed back to the water replenishing pump for water replenishing.
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