CN110885933A - Method for strengthening smelting effect of bottom-blowing smelting furnace and improving melt splashing - Google Patents

Method for strengthening smelting effect of bottom-blowing smelting furnace and improving melt splashing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110885933A
CN110885933A CN201911118117.9A CN201911118117A CN110885933A CN 110885933 A CN110885933 A CN 110885933A CN 201911118117 A CN201911118117 A CN 201911118117A CN 110885933 A CN110885933 A CN 110885933A
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spray guns
blowing
air
spray
furnace
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CN110885933B (en
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赵洪亮
穆亮照
王成彦
刘风琴
王玲
张文娟
马保中
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Beijing University of Technology
University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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University of Science and Technology Beijing USTB
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22BPRODUCTION AND REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
    • C22B15/00Obtaining copper
    • C22B15/0026Pyrometallurgy
    • C22B15/0028Smelting or converting
    • C22B15/003Bath smelting or converting

Abstract

A method for strengthening smelting and improving melt splashing of a bottom-blowing smelting furnace belongs to the technical field of bottom-blowing smelting furnaces. The method comprises the following steps: cross-flow blowing; peak staggering blowing; both cross-flow blowing and peak-staggered blowing are used in combination. The cross-flow injection is to ensure that the states of two adjacent injection air flows are different by changing the positions of the spray guns under the condition that the injection strength of each group of adjacent spray guns is the same, so that the aims of relieving air flow superposition, inhibiting splashing and strengthening injection are fulfilled; the staggered-peak injection is to ensure that the states of two adjacent injection air flows are different by changing the injection intensity under the condition that the positions of each group of adjacent spray guns are the same, so that the aims of relieving air flow superposition, inhibiting splashing and strengthening injection are fulfilled. By adopting the method, the melt in the bottom-blowing furnace can be stirred more uniformly, the complete reaction of furnace materials is promoted, the slag produced by bottom-blowing smelting is prevented from carrying metal and raw materials, the splashing of the surface layer of the melt is improved, the phenomenon that the scouring stress on the wall surface close to the spray gun is too concentrated is weakened, and the capacity of the bottom-blowing smelting furnace can be improved.

Description

Method for strengthening smelting effect of bottom-blowing smelting furnace and improving melt splashing
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of bottom-blowing smelting, and particularly relates to a method for strengthening the smelting effect of a bottom-blowing smelting furnace and improving melt splashing.
Background
The bottom-blown converter smelting technology is initially applied to converter steelmaking, is used for removing impurities such as sulfur, phosphorus, silicon and the like in molten iron and controlling the carbon content, and is widely applied to the worldwide steel field. In view of the successful application and a plurality of advantages of the oxygen-enriched bottom-blowing smelting technology in steel making, the oxygen-enriched bottom-blowing smelting technology is gradually and widely applied to the fields of lead smelting, copper smelting and the like, and has the characteristics of strong adaptability to raw materials, high efficiency, energy conservation, environmental protection and the like.
The existing partial copper bottom blowing furnace and bottom blowing smelting operation process have the problems of unreasonable arrangement of spray guns, lack of optimization of blowing operation parameters and the like, so that the stirring in the smelting process is not uniform. The excessive local stirring leads to excessive copper matte amount carried by machinery in slag, serious splashing of a melt surface layer, erosion of a furnace lining and the like, and the incomplete reaction of copper ores or too late reaction of copper ores caused by local lack of stirring leads to slag carrying raw materials and unreacted copper-iron phases.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems of uneven gas injection stirring, serious splashing, low smelting efficiency, high metal loss rate and the like of a certain large-scale bottom blowing smelting furnace, the aims of improving the smelting efficiency, inhibiting the splashing, reducing the circulation of metal in slag and improving the production capacity of the bottom blowing furnace are fulfilled by providing different spray gun arrangements and optimizing process parameters and equipment parameters.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme:
a method for strengthening smelting and improving melt splashing of a bottom-blowing smelting furnace is characterized in that cross-flow blowing or staggered-peak blowing or a combination of the cross-flow blowing and the staggered-peak blowing is adopted to strengthen smelting of the bottom-blowing furnace and improve surface melt splashing.
The cross-flow blowing in the invention ensures that the states of two adjacent blowing air flows are different by changing the positions of the spray guns (comprising spray gun angles, spray gun heights, spray gun intervals and the like) under the condition that the blowing strength (comprising air injection quantity, air flow speed and air injection pressure) of each group of adjacent spray guns is the same, thereby achieving the purposes of relieving air flow superposition, inhibiting splashing and strengthening blowing.
Further, the implementation of cross-flow blowing in the present invention can adopt the following three ways:
(1) all the spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace are numbered in sequence from the side close to the smoke exhaust port, so that the total air supply quantity is unchanged, the diameter of the spray guns is unchanged, and the air pressure or the air supply quantity of each spray gun is equal. A group of fans are used for supplying air to the two groups of spray guns, the axial distance between the odd-numbered spray guns and the even-numbered spray guns is changed, the distance of air flow sprayed into the melt by every two adjacent spray guns is increased, the air flow superposition effect is weakened, the cross flow spraying effect is generated, and the ratio of the axial distance between the adjacent spray guns to the original distance is 1.1-1.6.
(2) All the spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace are numbered in sequence from the side close to the smoke exhaust port, so that the total air supply quantity is unchanged, the diameter of the spray guns is unchanged, and the air pressure or the air supply quantity of each spray gun is equal. A group of fans are adopted to supply air for two groups of spray guns, the radial angle or the horizontal height of the arrangement of the odd-numbered spray guns and the even-numbered spray guns is changed, the air flow sprayed into the melt by every two adjacent spray guns is sprayed at different horizontal positions, the overlapping effect of the air flow is weakened, the cross flow spraying effect is generated, and the ratio of the radial angle or the horizontal height of the adjacent spray guns to the original angle or the horizontal height is 1.1-2.
(3) All the spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace are numbered in sequence from the side close to the smoke exhaust port, so that the total air supply quantity is unchanged, the diameter of the spray guns is unchanged, and the air pressure or the air supply quantity of each spray gun is equal. A group of fans are adopted to supply air for two groups of spray guns, the axial angles of the odd-numbered spray guns and the even-numbered spray guns are changed, the air flow sprayed into the melt by every two adjacent spray guns forms a certain angle for spraying, the air flow superposition effect is weakened, the cross flow spraying effect is generated, and the axial angles of the adjacent spray guns are between 1 and 20 degrees.
The staggered-peak blowing in the invention ensures that the states of two adjacent blowing air flows are different by changing the blowing strength (including air injection amount, air flow rate and air injection pressure) under the condition that the positions (blowing angle, height and distance) of each group of adjacent spray guns are the same, thereby achieving the purposes of relieving air flow superposition, inhibiting splashing and strengthening blowing.
Further, the implementation of peak-shifting blowing in the present invention can adopt the following three ways:
(1) all the spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace are numbered in sequence from the side close to the smoke exhaust port, the total air supply quantity and the diameter of the spray guns are guaranteed to be unchanged, two groups of fans are adopted for supplying air to the two groups of spray guns respectively, one group of fans is used for supplying air to the odd-numbered spray guns, the other group of fans is used for supplying air to the even-numbered spray guns, the air quantity ratio of each group of fans is adjusted, so that every two adjacent spray guns spray into a melt with different air flow strengths, the 'off-peak blowing' effect is generated, and the air quantity ratio of each group of fans is 0.
(2) All spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace are numbered in sequence from the side close to a smoke exhaust port, the total air supply quantity and the diameter of the spray guns are guaranteed to be unchanged, two groups of fans are adopted to supply air for the two groups of spray guns respectively, one group of fans is used for supplying air for odd-numbered spray guns, the other group of fans is used for supplying air for even-numbered spray guns, through controlling the end pressure ratio of the outlets of the spray guns, every two adjacent spray guns are enabled to spray into melt with different air flow strengths, the 'off-peak blowing' effect is generated, and the end pressure ratio of each group of spray guns is 0.5.
(3) All spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace are numbered in sequence from the side close to a smoke exhaust port, a group of fans are used for supplying air to two groups of spray guns, the total air supply amount, the total blowing area and the outlet end pressure of each spray gun are ensured to be the same, the diameter ratio of odd and even two groups of spray guns is changed, every two adjacent spray guns are enabled to spray melt with different air flow strengths, the staggered peak blowing effect is generated, and the spray gun outlet area ratio of the two groups of spray guns is 0.5-2.
By adopting the method, the melt in the bottom-blowing furnace can be stirred more uniformly, the complete reaction of furnace materials is promoted, the slag produced by bottom-blowing smelting is prevented from carrying metal and raw materials, the splashing of the surface layer of the melt is improved, the phenomenon that the scouring stress on the wall surface close to the spray gun is too concentrated is weakened, and the capacity of the bottom-blowing smelting furnace can be improved.
Drawings
In order to more clearly explain the technical scheme of the invention, the attached drawings are briefly introduced.
FIG. 1 is a front view of a bottom-blowing smelting furnace in an original working condition.
Description of reference numerals: 1-smoke outlet, 2-furnace body and 3-spray gun.
Fig. 2 is a side view of the bottom-blowing smelting furnace in the prior working condition.
Description of reference numerals: 3.1-small angle spray gun (6-12 degree), 3.2-large angle spray gun (21-27 degree).
Fig. 3 is a front view of a bottom-blowing smelting furnace with varying lance axial spacing.
Fig. 4 is a front view of a bottom-blowing smelting furnace that changes the radial angle or level at which the lance is positioned.
Fig. 5 is a front view of a bottom-blowing smelting furnace in which the lance installation axial angle is changed.
FIG. 6 is a front view of a bottom-blowing melting furnace with varying air volume ratios of lances.
Fig. 7 is a front view of a bottom-blowing melting furnace with varying lance outlet end pressure ratios.
Fig. 8 is a front view of a bottom-blowing melting furnace with varying lance diameter proportioning.
FIG. 9 is a comparative plot of slag phase distribution for example 1.
Fig. 10 is a comparative plot of slag phase distribution for example 2.
Detailed Description
The invention is further described with reference to specific embodiments for the existing large-scale centering ipsilateral double-lance alternate arrangement bottom-blowing smelting furnace.
Example 1 (cross-flow blowing):
taking an implementation mode of cross-flow blowing as an example (in the example, axial spacing of the spray guns is changed), all the spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace are numbered in sequence from the side close to the smoke exhaust port, so that the total air supply quantity is unchanged, the diameters of the spray guns are unchanged, and the air pressure or the air supply quantity of each spray gun is equal. A group of fans are used for supplying air to the two groups of spray guns, the axial distance between the odd-numbered spray guns and the even-numbered spray guns is changed, the distance of the air flow sprayed into the melt by every two adjacent spray guns is increased, the overlapping effect of the air flow is weakened, the cross-flow spraying effect is generated, the original distance is 380mm, and the distance is adjusted to be 610mm in the embodiment.
The flow fields in the furnace under two working conditions are solved through numerical simulation, the melt in the stirring area is taken for analysis, the average speed of the melt represents the overall stirring strength of the melt, the speed standard difference of the melt represents the overall stirring uniformity of the melt, the average speed of the melt is improved after the interval is adjusted, the speed standard difference is reduced, the stirring strength and the stirring uniformity are improved, a straight line is made to penetrate through the center of a slag layer, the slag phase distribution diagram of the stirring area on the straight line is compared, the slag phase mixing degree is better after the interval is adjusted, the slag phase distribution is more uniform, and the stirring uniformity is also proved to be improved.
Example 2 (peak shifting blowing):
taking an implementation mode of peak staggering blowing as an example (in the example, the diameter ratio of the spray guns is changed), all spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace are numbered in sequence from the side close to a smoke exhaust port, a group of fans are used for supplying air to two groups of spray guns, the total air supply amount, the total blowing area and the pressure of the outlet end of each spray gun are ensured to be the same, the diameter ratio of odd and even two groups of spray guns is changed, every two adjacent spray guns are sprayed into melt with different air flow strengths, the peak staggering blowing effect is generated, the area ratio under the original working condition is 1:1, the current adjustment is 1.2:0.8, and the diameter ratio is 1.095: 0.894.
the flow fields in the furnace under two working conditions are solved through numerical simulation, the melt in the stirring area is taken for analysis, the average speed of the melt represents the integral stirring strength of the melt, the speed standard difference of the melt represents the integral stirring uniformity of the melt, the average speed of the melt is improved after the area ratio of the melt is adjusted, the speed standard difference is reduced, and the stirring strength and the stirring uniformity are improved. A straight line is made to penetrate through the center of the slag layer, and compared with a slag phase distribution diagram of a stirring area on the straight line, the slag phase mixing degree is better after the distance is adjusted, the slag phase distribution is more uniform, and the stirring uniformity is also proved to be improved.
Example 3:
taking a copper bottom blowing furnace as an example, 14 pairs of central and same-side spray guns are arranged at one side of a furnace body close to the furnace bottom, each two spray guns form a group, 28 spray guns are totally arranged, and two adjacent groups of spray guns are arranged in a staggered mode. The 14 groups of spray guns are numbered in sequence from the side close to the smoke exhaust port, the angle adjustable range of the 7 odd groups of spray guns is 6-12 degrees, and the angle adjustable range of the 7 even groups of spray guns is 21-27 degrees. The distance between the two spray guns of each group is 380-610 mm, the distance between the two adjacent spray guns is 1150mm, the cross section of each spray gun is integrally circular and comprises a plurality of small air ports, the diameter of the cross section of each spray gun is 50-90 mm, the longitudinal section of a hearth is circular, the spray guns are perpendicular to the wall surface of a furnace body, and air flow is blown into the furnace from the outlets of the spray guns vertically. The simple schematic diagram of the bottom-blowing smelting furnace is shown in figure 1.

Claims (6)

1. A method for strengthening smelting and improving melt splashing of a bottom-blowing smelting furnace is characterized in that the smelting effect of the bottom-blowing smelting furnace is strengthened and the splashing of a melt surface layer is improved by cross-flow injection, staggered-peak injection or the combination of the cross-flow injection and the staggered-peak injection.
2. The method for strengthening smelting and improving the melt splashing of the bottom-blowing smelting furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that cross-flow blowing is performed under the condition that the blowing strength of each group of adjacent spray guns is the same, and the states of two adjacent blowing air flows are different by changing the positions of the spray guns, so that the aims of relieving air flow superposition, inhibiting splashing and strengthening blowing are fulfilled; the gun blowing strength comprises a gas injection amount, a gas flow speed and a gas injection pressure; the spray gun position comprises a spray gun angle, a spray gun height and a spray gun distance.
3. The method for strengthening smelting and improving melt splashing of the bottom-blowing smelting furnace according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the cross-flow blowing is realized in the following three ways:
(1) numbering all spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace in sequence from the side close to the smoke exhaust port to ensure that the total air supply quantity is unchanged, the diameter of each spray gun is unchanged, and the air pressure or the air supply quantity of each spray gun is equal; a group of fans are used for supplying air to the two groups of spray guns, the axial distance between the odd-numbered spray guns and the even-numbered spray guns is changed, the distance of air flow sprayed into the melt by every two adjacent spray guns is increased, the overlapping effect of the air flow is weakened, the cross flow spraying effect is generated, and the ratio of the axial distance between the adjacent spray guns to the original distance is 1.1-1.6;
(2) numbering all spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace in sequence from the side close to the smoke exhaust port to ensure that the total air supply quantity is unchanged, the diameter of each spray gun is unchanged, and the air pressure or the air supply quantity of each spray gun is equal; a group of fans are adopted to supply air to the two groups of spray guns, the radial angles or the horizontal heights of the odd-numbered spray guns and the even-numbered spray guns are changed, so that the air flows sprayed into the melt by the two adjacent spray guns are sprayed at different horizontal positions, the air flows are weakened in superposition, a cross-flow spraying effect is generated, and the ratio of the radial angle or the horizontal height of the adjacent spray guns to the original angle or the horizontal height is 1.1-2;
(3) numbering all spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace in sequence from the side close to the smoke exhaust port to ensure that the total air supply quantity is unchanged, the diameter of each spray gun is unchanged, and the air pressure or the air supply quantity of each spray gun is equal; a group of fans are adopted to supply air for two groups of spray guns, the axial angles of the odd-numbered spray guns and the even-numbered spray guns are changed, the air flow sprayed into the melt by every two adjacent spray guns forms a certain angle for spraying, the air flow superposition effect is weakened, the cross flow spraying effect is generated, and the axial angles of the adjacent spray guns are between 1 and 20 degrees.
4. The method for strengthening smelting and improving the melt sputtering of the bottom-blowing smelting furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that the staggered peak blowing ensures that the states of two adjacent blowing air flows are different by changing the blowing intensity under the condition that the positions of each group of adjacent spray guns are the same, thereby achieving the purposes of relieving the air flow superposition, inhibiting the sputtering and strengthening the blowing; the position of the spray gun comprises a spraying angle, a height of the spray gun and a distance between the spray guns; the blowing strength comprises a blowing amount, a gas flow speed and a blowing pressure.
5. The method for improving the melting effect of the bottom-blowing smelting furnace and improving the melt splashing according to the claim 1 or 4, characterized in that the peak-shifting blowing is realized by the following three ways:
(1) numbering all spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace in sequence from the side close to a smoke exhaust port to ensure that the total air supply quantity and the diameter of the spray guns are unchanged, adopting two groups of fans to supply air for the two groups of spray guns respectively, wherein one group of fans supplies air for odd-numbered spray guns and the other group supplies air for even-numbered spray guns, and enabling every two adjacent spray guns to spray into a melt at different air flow strengths by adjusting the air quantity ratio of each group of fans to generate a 'staggered peak spraying' effect, wherein the air quantity ratio of each group of fans is 0.5-2;
(2) the method comprises the following steps of numbering all spray guns of a bottom blowing furnace in sequence from the side close to a smoke exhaust port to ensure that the total air supply quantity and the diameter of the spray guns are unchanged, adopting two groups of fans to supply air for the two groups of spray guns respectively, wherein one group of fans supplies air for odd-numbered spray guns and the other group supplies air for even-numbered spray guns, and enabling every two adjacent spray guns to spray into a melt at different air flow strengths by controlling the end pressure ratio of the outlets of the spray guns to generate a staggered peak spraying effect, wherein the end pressure ratio of each group of spray guns is 0.5-2;
(3) all spray guns of the bottom blowing furnace are numbered in sequence from the side close to a smoke exhaust port, a group of fans are used for supplying air to two groups of spray guns, the total air supply amount, the total blowing area and the outlet end pressure of each spray gun are ensured to be the same, the diameter ratio of odd and even two groups of spray guns is changed, every two adjacent spray guns are enabled to spray melt with different air flow strengths, the staggered peak blowing effect is generated, and the spray gun outlet area ratio of the two groups of spray guns is 0.5-2.
6. The method for strengthening smelting and improving the splashing of the melt of the bottom-blowing smelting furnace according to claim 1, characterized in that for a copper bottom-blowing furnace as an example, 14 pairs of central and same-side lances are arranged at one side of the furnace body near the furnace bottom, each two lances are a group consisting of 28 lances, and two adjacent groups of lances are arranged in a staggered manner; numbering 14 groups of spray guns from the side close to the smoke exhaust port in sequence, wherein the angle adjustable range of 7 odd groups of spray guns is 6-12 degrees, and the angle adjustable range of 7 even groups of spray guns is 21-27 degrees; the distance between the two spray guns of each group is 380-610 mm, the distance between the two adjacent spray guns is 1150mm, the cross section of each spray gun is integrally circular and comprises a plurality of small air ports, the diameter of the cross section of each spray gun is 50-90 mm, the longitudinal section of a hearth is circular, the spray guns are perpendicular to the wall surface of a furnace body, and air flow is blown into the furnace from the outlets of the spray guns vertically.
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