CN1108818A - Gas-diffusion electrode preparation method - Google Patents

Gas-diffusion electrode preparation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1108818A
CN1108818A CN94118458A CN94118458A CN1108818A CN 1108818 A CN1108818 A CN 1108818A CN 94118458 A CN94118458 A CN 94118458A CN 94118458 A CN94118458 A CN 94118458A CN 1108818 A CN1108818 A CN 1108818A
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catalyst
electrode
electrolyte
minute
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CN94118458A
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CN1067808C (en
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马永林
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马永林
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/86Inert electrodes with catalytic activity, e.g. for fuel cells
    • H01M4/88Processes of manufacture
    • H01M4/8825Methods for deposition of the catalytic active composition
    • H01M4/8828Coating with slurry or ink
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/86Inert electrodes with catalytic activity, e.g. for fuel cells
    • H01M4/88Processes of manufacture
    • H01M4/8878Treatment steps after deposition of the catalytic active composition or after shaping of the electrode being free-standing body
    • H01M4/8892Impregnation or coating of the catalyst layer, e.g. by an ionomer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M4/00Electrodes
    • H01M4/86Inert electrodes with catalytic activity, e.g. for fuel cells
    • H01M4/88Processes of manufacture
    • H01M4/8878Treatment steps after deposition of the catalytic active composition or after shaping of the electrode being free-standing body
    • H01M4/8896Pressing, rolling, calendering

Abstract

There is provided a method for preparing the gas diffusion electrode used in fuel cell. Said electrode is comprised of supporting material (i.e. carbon paper), catalyst layer coating on the surface of the supporting material and substrate layer for protecting electrolyte. The first making method is to make the catalyst layer by adding surfactant, hydrophobic high polymer and temporary binder in the catalyst and using conical smear technique. The second making method is to make the catalyst layer by adding hydrophobic high polymer in the catalyst and using roll hot pressing method. The electrolyte protecting layer is comprised of silcon carbide, polytetrafluoroethylene, and polyoxyethylene and the gas diffusion electrode is prepared up by processing the electrolyte on the surface of catalyst layer through the conical smear technique. The solvent of the catalyst is water. Said electrode features high purity of catalyst, high output efficiency and long service period.

Description

Of the present invention be a kind of be electrolyte with acidity or alkaline matter, the chemical energy of fuel gas is directly changed into the preparation method of the sheet gas-diffusion electrode that the fuel cell of electric energy uses.

In the prior art, the gas-diffusion electrode of above-mentioned fuel cell is usually by the electrode supporting thing, the catalyst layer of Fu Gaiing in its surface, and the electrolyte that covers in catalyst layer surface keeps base layer to constitute.The electrode supporting thing is the poroid carbon paper through hydrophobic treatment, contains in the catalyst layer to load on supported catalyst and hydrophobicity carbon fluorine high polymer, and electrolyte keeps matrix to be made up of powdery carborundum or tantalum pentoxide and hydrophobicity carbon fluorine high polymer.When fuel gas was diffused on the electrode, then under the effect of catalyst, fuel gas and electrolyte carried out electrochemical reaction to the course of reaction of fuel cell, thereby chemical energy directly is transformed into electric energy.The delivery efficiency of fuel cell depends primarily on the preparation of gas-diffusion electrode wherein, and at present, the preparation method of kind electrode is existing multiple, but all exists deficiency and drawback separately, has restricted the development and the application of fuel cell.Flocculation process as: silkscreen seal method and when filtering transfer method and all need add thing adjustment such as isopropyl alcohol and prepare catalyst layer, it will influence the effect of catalyst.In addition, these two kinds of methods are the accurate content of noble metal in electrode in the control catalyst all, it is the solvent for preparing in the catalyst layer process that rolling method not only needs with toxic organic compounds such as polyethylene glycol, and the electrode of preparing usually exists tangible crack, thereby directly influences the life cycle of electrode; The cloud chamber method needs with complex apparatus such as thermopnore and vacuum plants with pressing combining of sintering process, and this is very inapplicable in actual fabrication.In addition, directly press sintering process to be easy to damage as yet the electrode of not moulding.

The object of the present invention is to provide two kinds can overcome the prior art defective, pollution-free, thus improve the preparation method that catalyst purity is improved the gas-diffusion electrode of fuel cell delivery efficiency.

Technical program of the present invention lies in: the common technique feature of two kinds of methods that provided is preparations that the catalyst solvent is selected distilled water and catalyst and electrolyte protection body for use.The first method of preparation gas-diffusion electrode is: it is molten in 3.0-10.0 gram distilled water and after stirring that 0.2-0.8 is restrained catalyst, add 0.2-0.8 gram surfactant or be called the resistance flocculant, add temporary adhesive again, after stirring, in catalyst: hydrophobicity high polymer-3: 7-6: 4 ratio adds the hydrophobicity high polymer and stirs with means such as blender or vibration stirrings, whole solution is fully mixed, form the mixed liquor of homogeneous; Then, with above-mentioned mixed liquor with the taper coating method coat equably through hydrophobic treatment poroid carbon paper surface on be on the electrode supporting thing surface, make the content of noble metal in electrode in the catalyst remain on 0.5 milligram/square centimeter, on poroid carbon paper, just formed even component like this and determined that highly≤0.8 millimeter stratiform thing is a catalyst layer; With at room temperature dry 3-4 hour of above-mentioned stratiform thing, in order to prevent to occur minute bubbles on the superficial layer and obtain the surface of good situation, also need control its rate of drying, after treating that it at room temperature parches, for preventing that electrode surface from crackle may occur and being beneficial to surfactant and the temporary adhesive of removing in the catalyst layer, electrode is clipped in wherein with two corrosion resistant plates of identical size and thickness (2 millimeters) and tight with bolt, heating is 10-30 minute in 110 ℃ of-160 ℃ of stoves, remove steel plate then, furnace temperature is risen to 175 ℃-195 ℃ heating 1-2 hour, again furnace temperature is risen to 250 ℃-350 ℃ heating 1-2 hour, at last, with furnace temperature rise to 360 ℃-380 ℃ in nitrogen atmosphere with electrode sintering 20-30 minute, with above-mentioned electrode from stove, take out be chilled to room temperature after, press down at the pressure of 2-3 ton with manual hydraulic press and to get final product in 3-7 minute, then electrolyte is kept matrix to handle on catalyst layer surface.The catalyst of using in the said method is platinum-C catalyst, surfactant is the aqueous acetic acid of the TrltonX-114 of new preparation, the hydrophobicity high polymer is the 60.1%(mass percent) the water-soluble suspension-turbid liquid of polytetrafluoroethylene be Teflon30-N, (Du Pont), temporary adhesive are the 12-18%(mass percent) the polyoxyethylene aqueous solution.The second method of preparation gas-diffusion electrode is the combination of rolling method and pressure sintering, promptly floccular catalyst and hydrophobic polymer are distributed on the surface of poroid carbon paper equably with rolling method, under the help of sark, abandon the adding of surfactant and provisional superpolymer adhesive with pressure sintering again.The detailed process of this method is as follows: at first, it is molten in 2.5-5.5 gram distilled water and after stirring that 0.25-0.55 is restrained catalyst, add 0.25-0.45 gram hydrophobicity high polymer, make their direct generation flocculations and form thick floccule, then with above-mentioned floccule with rolling method be distributed to equably through hydrophobic treatment poroid carbon paper surface on, be on the electrode supporting thing surface, on poroid carbon paper surface, just formed so evenly, component is determined, highly≤0.8 millimeter stratiform thing is a catalyst layer, simultaneously, will be with dusting cover as a kind of low boiling of sark, volatile inorganic powder is evenly dispersed on the corrosion resistant plate, above-mentioned still moist catalyst layer is lain on the sark, put the corrosion resistant plate of an onesize and thickness above again, with the electrode that is clipped in the middle together with steel plate with bolt tight after, place the stove of 120 ℃ of-180 ℃ of temperature to heat 10-20 minute, from stove, take out the back pine then and remove bolt, remove steel plate, take out electrode gently, again electrode is placed on separately in the stove of 350 ℃ of-380 ℃ of temperature, in nitrogen atmosphere, sintering 15-30 minute, again electrode is taken out from stove and be chilled to room temperature, pressed to 2-7 minute at 2-4 ton pressure with manual hydraulic press, then electrolyte is kept matrix to handle on the surface of catalyst layer.In addition, the electrode of the humidity of the last catalyst layer of firm covering is the available heat press also, under sark helps, makes finished product in hot press.The catalyst of using in the said method is platinum-C catalyst, and the hydrophobicity high polymer is the 60.1%(mass percent) (Teflon 30-N, DuPont), sark is carbonic hydroammonium or ammonium carbonate to the water-soluble suspension-turbid liquid of polytetrafluoroethylene.

The preparation process of the catalyst-platinum-C catalyst that relates in above-mentioned two kinds of methods is: 10-20 gram sulfuration XC-72 type carbon black is molten in the 300-500 ml distilled water that contains 0.5-1.5 gram glacial acetic acid, and in the continuous process that stirs, add the 80-120 milliliter platinum tetrachloride solution that contains 25-35 milliliter diethyl ammonium, then will be as the 10-15 gram of reducing agent, the 3%-7%(mass percent) formic acid solution adds gradually, simultaneously heter temperature is raised to 70 ℃-100 ℃, and kept 20-40 minute, be chilled to room temperature more gradually, the gained slurries are filtered and constantly wash with hot distilled water, till chloride ion is cleaned substantially, then with filter cake in 95 ℃ of baking ovens after dry 16 hours, wear into fine powder with grinder again, contain the 7%-12%(mass percent in the gained catalyst) platinum.

The electrolyte that covers at the electrode surface of described two kinds of methods preparation keeps the preparation method of base layer to be: be 98 with mass ratio in distilled water: 2-90: 10 carborundum and polytetrafluoroethylene mix, form the solution of homogeneous, add 5%-7%(mass percent again as temporary adhesive) the polyoxyethylene aqueous solution, be distributed to this mixed liquor on the surface of gas-diffusion electrode with the taper coating method, treat that it is at room temperature after the drying, in 150 ℃ of-200 ℃ of stoves, heated 10-30 minute earlier, in 250 ℃ of-350 ℃ of stoves sintering 15-30 minute again, temporary adhesive is removed in heating, on the gas-diffusion electrode surface, just formed≤electrolyte of 0.2 millimeter thin layer keeps matrix.

Gas-diffusion electrode with two kinds of preparation methods provided by the invention, use distilled water as the solvent in the catalyst layer preparation process, avirulence, free from environmental pollution, finished product can be removed the interpolation foreign material more up hill and dale, especially the pressure sintering of rolling, the interpolation foreign material have just been avoided during preparation, simplify the preparation method, shortened manufacturing cycle, reduced preparation cost, the electrode of making has kept the original purity of catalyst, make it to have good catalytic activity and low resistance, the catalyst of electrode and electrolyte keep matrix to use the ad hoc approach inseparable with electrode preparation to prepare with electrode, have improved its performance.With the gas-diffusion electrode of method preparation provided by the invention, make fuel cell have long life cycle and higher delivery efficiency, thereby have very high industrial value.

The present invention has following embodiment.

Embodiment 1: 0.50 gram platinum-C catalyst is molten in 5.50 gram distilled water, the aqueous acetic acid and 0.56 that adds the Trlton X-114 of the new preparation of 0.5 gram restrains 60.1% the water-soluble suspension-turbid liquid of polytetrafluoroethylene, after stirring, add 7.0 grams, 18% polyoxyethylene aqueous solution again, after treating that this mixed liquor stirs, with the taper coating method mixed liquor is coated equably on the poroid carbon paper surface of crossing through hydrophobic treatment, after treating that it at room temperature parches, tight by bolt electrode with corrosion resistant plate, heating is 20 minutes in 140 ℃ of stoves, remove steel plate then, furnace temperature is risen to 185 ℃ of heating 2 hours, again furnace temperature is risen to 300 ℃ of heating 1 hour, at last, furnace temperature is risen to 370 ℃, in nitrogen atmosphere with electrode sintering 25 minutes, with electrode from stove, take out be chilled to room temperature after, pressed down 5 minutes with the pressure of manual hydraulic press at the 2-3 ton.On above-mentioned electrode surface, coat again≤electrolyte of 0.2 millimeter thin layer keeps matrix, the gas-diffusion electrode that gets final product finally.Electrolyte keeps the preparation example of matrix as follows: in distilled water 95: 5 carborundum and polytetrafluoroethylene mixed, form the solution of homogeneous, add 5%-7% polyoxyethylene aqueous solution again, this mixed liquor is distributed to the surface of gas-diffusion electrode with the taper coating method, thereby form electrolyte and keep the matrix thin layer, treat that it is at room temperature after the drying, in 185 ℃ of stoves, heated 20 minutes earlier, to remove polyethylene glycol oxide, be that sintering got final product in 25 minutes in 300 ℃ of stoves in temperature then as temporary adhesive.

Embodiment 2: 0.34 gram platinum-C catalyst is molten in 3.5 gram distilled water, add the water-soluble suspension-turbid liquid of 0.37 gram 60.1% polytetrafluoroethylene after stirring again, after stirring fast, make platinum-C catalyst and polytetrafluoroethylene generation flocculation and form flocculent aggregate, this flocculate is moved on on the poroid carbon paper surface of crossing through hydrophobic treatment (its area is 10.0 * 7.0 square centimeters), and it is flocculate is smooth in the carbon paper surface treatment with the plane perching knife, with the round rubber roller flocculate is planished again, simultaneously, with dusting cover carbonic hydroammonium being evenly dispersed in size is on 15 * 10 * 2 centimetres of inorganic sarks of the lip-deep powdery of corrosion resistant plate, put a corrosion resistant plate above again, tight with bolt, be placed in 150 ℃ of stoves and heated 15-20 minute, after heating finished, pine went bolt to take out electrode gently, again electrode is put into 370 ℃ of stoves, sintering is 25 minutes in nitrogen atmosphere, with electrode from stove, take out wait to be chilled to room temperature after, pressed down 5 minutes at 2-3 ton pressure with manual hydraulic press.Electrolyte keeps the preparation of matrix and handles with embodiment 1.

Claims (6)

1, use in a kind of fuel cell by the electrode supporting thing, cover the preparation method that its lip-deep catalyst layer and electrolyte keep the gas-diffusion electrode of base layer formation, it is characterized in that: it is molten in 3.0-10.0 gram distilled water and after stirring at first 0.2-0.8 to be restrained catalyst, add 0.2-0.8 gram surfactant, add temporary adhesive again, after stirring, in catalyst: hydrophobicity high polymer=3: 7-6: 4 ratio adds the hydrophobicity high polymer and stirs whole solution is fully mixed, form the mixed liquor of homogeneous, then above-mentioned mixed liquor is coated on the process carbon paper surface of hydrophobic treatment equably with the taper coating method, make the content of noble metal in electrode in the catalyst reach 0.5 milligram/square centimeter, form the stratiform thing of height≤0.8 millimeter on poroid carbon paper surface, with at room temperature dry 3-4 hour of above-mentioned stratiform thing, after parching, be clipped in electrode wherein and fix tight with corrosion resistant plate, heating is 10-30 minute in 110 ℃ of-160 ℃ of stoves, remove steel plate, furnace temperature is risen to 175 ℃-195 ℃ heating 1-2 hour, again furnace temperature is risen to 250 ℃-350 ℃ heating 1-2 hour, at last, furnace temperature is risen to 360 ℃-380 ℃, in nitrogen atmosphere with electrode sintering 20-30 minute, pressed down 3-7 minute at 2-3 ton pressure after above-mentioned electrode is chilled to room temperature, the electrolyte of coating in its surface then keeps base layer to get final product.
2, the method for claim 1, it is characterized in that: the catalyst of using in the said method is platinum-C catalyst, surfactant is the aqueous acetic acid of the Trlton X-114 of new preparation, the hydrophobicity high polymer is the 60.1%(mass percent) the water-soluble suspension-turbid liquid of polytetrafluoroethylene, temporary adhesive is the 12%-18%(mass percent) the polyoxyethylene aqueous solution.
3, use in a kind of fuel cell by the electrode supporting thing, cover the preparation method that its lip-deep catalyst layer and electrolyte keep the gas-diffusion electrode of base layer formation, it is characterized in that: at first, it is molten in 2.5-5.5 gram distilled water and after stirring that 0.25-0.55 is restrained catalyst, add 0.25-0.45 gram hydrophobicity high polymer, make their direct generation flocculations and form thick floccule, then above-mentioned floccule is distributed to through on the poroid carbon paper surface of hydrophobic treatment equably with rolling method, form the stratiform thing of height≤0.8 millimeter, simultaneously, with dusting cover sark is evenly dispersed on the corrosion resistant plate, above-mentioned still moist electrode is lain on the sark, put a block plate above again, fixing tight, place the stove of 120 ℃ of-180 ℃ of temperature to heat 10-20 minute, remove steel plate then, take out electrode gently, again electrode is placed on separately in the stove of 350 ℃ of-380 ℃ of temperature, in nitrogen atmosphere sintering 15-30 minute, again electrode is taken out to room temperature from stove, pressed down 2-7 minute at 2-4 ton pressure, the electrolyte of coating in its surface then keeps base layer to get final product.
4, method as claimed in claim 3 is characterized in that: the catalyst of using in the said method is platinum-C catalyst, and the hydrophobicity high polymer is the 60.1%(mass percent) the water-soluble suspension-turbid liquid of polytetrafluoroethylene, sark is carbonic hydroammonium or ammonium carbonate.
5, as claim 1 or 3 described methods, it is characterized in that: electrolyte keeps being prepared as of base layer in described two kinds of methods, be 98 with mass ratio in distilled water: 2-90: 10 carborundum and polytetrafluoroethylene mix, form the solution of homogeneous, add the 5%-7%(mass percent again) the polyoxyethylene aqueous solution, be distributed to this mixed liquor on the surface of gas-diffusion electrode with the taper coating method, treat that it is at room temperature after the drying, in 150 ℃ of-200 ℃ of stoves, heated 10-30 minute earlier, in 250 ℃ of-350 ℃ of stoves sintering 15-30 minute again, temporary adhesive is removed in heating, and the electrolyte that just forms≤0.2 millimeter on the gas-diffusion electrode surface keeps base layer.
6, as claim 2 or 4 described methods, it is characterized in that: being prepared as of the platinum-C catalyst in the said method, 10-20 gram sulfuration XC-72 type carbon black is molten in the distilled water of the 300-500 milliliter that contains 0.5-1.5 gram glacial acetic acid, and in the continuous process that stirs, add the 80-120 milliliter platinum tetrachloride solution that contains 25-35 milliliter diethyl ammonium, then 10-15 is restrained the 3%-7%(mass percent) formic acid solution add gradually, simultaneously heter temperature is elevated to 70 ℃-100 ℃, and kept 20-40 minute, be chilled to room temperature more gradually, the gained slurries are filtered and constantly wash with hot distilled water, till chloride ion is cleaned substantially, then filter cake after dry 16 hours, is worn into fine powder in 95 ℃ of baking ovens.
CN94118458A 1994-12-05 1994-12-05 Gas-diffusion electrode preparation method CN1067808C (en)

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Cited By (11)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2006000156A1 (en) * 2004-06-23 2006-01-05 Byd Company Limited Gas diffusion electodes and membrane electrode assemblies for proton exchange membrane fuel cells
CN1302985C (en) * 2002-01-11 2007-03-07 御国色素株式会社 Carbonaceous material and dispersion containing the same
CN1327563C (en) * 2002-04-03 2007-07-18 3M创新有限公司 Lamination apparatus and methods
CN101421438B (en) * 2006-04-12 2012-10-31 德诺拉工业有限公司 Gas-diffusion electrode for electrolyte-percolating cells
WO2014037828A1 (en) * 2012-09-06 2014-03-13 Basf Se Gas-diffusion electrodes for metal-oxygen cells and the production of said electrodes
US9012346B2 (en) 2010-11-04 2015-04-21 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Wet lamination process for reducing mud cracking in fuel cell components
US9419286B2 (en) 2011-01-13 2016-08-16 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Wet lamination process for reducing mud cracking in fuel cell components
CN106328956A (en) * 2016-09-06 2017-01-11 江苏大学 Preparation method and application of high-temperature membrane fuel cell gas diffusion electrode
US9647274B2 (en) 2008-01-11 2017-05-09 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Method of making a proton exchange membrane using a gas diffusion electrode as a substrate
US9722269B2 (en) 2008-01-11 2017-08-01 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Reinforced electrode assembly
US9780399B2 (en) 2008-01-11 2017-10-03 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Electrode assembly with integrated reinforcement layer

Family Cites Families (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1039506A (en) * 1989-07-23 1990-02-07 厦门大学 Water deficiency type gas diffusion porous electrode

Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN1302985C (en) * 2002-01-11 2007-03-07 御国色素株式会社 Carbonaceous material and dispersion containing the same
CN1327563C (en) * 2002-04-03 2007-07-18 3M创新有限公司 Lamination apparatus and methods
WO2006000156A1 (en) * 2004-06-23 2006-01-05 Byd Company Limited Gas diffusion electodes and membrane electrode assemblies for proton exchange membrane fuel cells
CN101421438B (en) * 2006-04-12 2012-10-31 德诺拉工业有限公司 Gas-diffusion electrode for electrolyte-percolating cells
US9780399B2 (en) 2008-01-11 2017-10-03 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Electrode assembly with integrated reinforcement layer
US9899685B2 (en) 2008-01-11 2018-02-20 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Method of making a proton exchange membrane using a gas diffusion electrode as a substrate
US9647274B2 (en) 2008-01-11 2017-05-09 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Method of making a proton exchange membrane using a gas diffusion electrode as a substrate
US9722269B2 (en) 2008-01-11 2017-08-01 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Reinforced electrode assembly
US9012346B2 (en) 2010-11-04 2015-04-21 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Wet lamination process for reducing mud cracking in fuel cell components
US9419286B2 (en) 2011-01-13 2016-08-16 GM Global Technology Operations LLC Wet lamination process for reducing mud cracking in fuel cell components
WO2014037828A1 (en) * 2012-09-06 2014-03-13 Basf Se Gas-diffusion electrodes for metal-oxygen cells and the production of said electrodes
CN106328956A (en) * 2016-09-06 2017-01-11 江苏大学 Preparation method and application of high-temperature membrane fuel cell gas diffusion electrode

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