CN110842623B - Flexible manufacturing unit for various small-batch box parts - Google Patents

Flexible manufacturing unit for various small-batch box parts Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110842623B
CN110842623B CN201910947424.1A CN201910947424A CN110842623B CN 110842623 B CN110842623 B CN 110842623B CN 201910947424 A CN201910947424 A CN 201910947424A CN 110842623 B CN110842623 B CN 110842623B
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module
adjusting mechanism
positioning
arm assembly
displacement adjusting
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CN110842623A (en
Inventor
高焕明
曹洋
杨纪东
尹滦
刘为
郭路宝
陈明
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707th Research Institute of CSIC
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707th Research Institute of CSIC
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q7/00Arrangements for handling work specially combined with or arranged in, or specially adapted for use in connection with, machine tools, e.g. for conveying, loading, positioning, discharging, sorting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q3/00Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine
    • B23Q3/02Devices holding, supporting, or positioning work or tools, of a kind normally removable from the machine for mounting on a work-table, tool-slide, or analogous part
    • B23Q3/06Work-clamping means
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23QDETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING; MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
    • B23Q41/00Combinations or associations of metal-working machines not directed to a particular result according to classes B21, B23, or B24
    • B23Q41/02Features relating to transfer of work between machines

Abstract

The invention relates to a flexible manufacturing unit for various small-batch box parts, which comprises a zero point positioning module, an external alignment module, a loading and unloading robot module, a workpiece storage module, a numerical control machining equipment module and an electrical control module, wherein the zero point positioning module is used for positioning a workpiece to be processed; the off-machine alignment module is arranged in the production preparation area and comprises a measurement alignment unit, a workpiece clamping unit and a matched PLC control unit; the loading and unloading robot module is arranged in the production processing area and comprises an industrial transfer robot and a movable robot platform; the workpiece storage module consists of a fixed storage bin and a movable storage bin, and the fixed storage bin is arranged beside the external alignment module in the production preparation area; the movable bin is fixedly arranged on the movable robot platform; the numerical control processing equipment module is arranged in the production processing area and comprises numerical control processing center equipment and a safety door control system; the zero positioning module is a dynamic combined module which is synchronously transferred along with the production of the workpiece; the electrical control module is connected with other modules PLC. The invention meets the requirements of various small-batch box parts and improves the production efficiency.

Description

Flexible manufacturing unit for various small-batch box parts
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of efficient numerical control machining, and particularly relates to a flexible manufacturing unit for various small-batch box parts.
Background
The numerical control machine tool is increasingly applied to domestic manufacturing enterprises, however, the production mode adopted in most manufacturing enterprises is still a serial production mode, the production of products is performed in sequence according to links such as process design, tool design, processing program compiling, cutter measuring tool preparation, workpiece installation alignment and processing, and the like, so that the production period of the products is longer, the downtime of the numerical control equipment is longer, and the utilization efficiency of the equipment is lower. Based on the situation, the parallel production mode gets more and more attention, and compared with the serial production mode, the parallel production mode can effectively reduce the downtime of the numerical control equipment and shorten the production period of products. Therefore, the parallel production and flexible manufacturing technology becomes an important technology for further improving the manufacturing level in China.
The existing flexible manufacturing technology is mainly applied to a large-scale production line type production mode, is applied to enterprises with single variety, large yield and certain scale, and for most of small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises, the existing production and processing tasks are characterized by multiple varieties, small batch, high precision and short construction period, and the existing production line type production mode based on the flexible manufacturing technology is difficult to duplicate in practical application.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects of the prior art, and provides a flexible manufacturing unit for various small-batch box parts, which can greatly improve the production efficiency of products, reduce the operation difficulty of operators and improve the production level of manufacturing enterprises while ensuring the processing efficiency and the processing quality of the products.
The above object of the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
a flexible manufacturing unit for various small-batch box parts comprises a zero point positioning module, an off-machine alignment module, a loading and unloading robot module, a workpiece storage module, a numerical control machining equipment module and an electrical control module;
the off-machine alignment module is arranged in the production preparation area and comprises a measurement alignment unit, a workpiece clamping unit and a matched PLC control unit; the loading and unloading robot module is arranged in the production processing area and comprises an industrial transfer robot and a movable robot platform; the workpiece storage module consists of a fixed storage bin and a movable storage bin, and the fixed storage bin is arranged beside the external alignment module in the production preparation area; the movable stock bin is fixedly arranged on the movable robot platform and is used for the industrial transfer robot to pick and place workpieces; the numerical control processing equipment module is arranged in the production processing area and comprises numerical control processing center equipment and a safety door control system; the zero positioning module is a dynamic combined module which is synchronously transferred along with the production of the workpiece; the electrical control module is connected with other modules PLC.
The zero point positioning module comprises a tray and a positioning disc in pneumatic locking connection with the tray, the upper surface of the tray is used for installing and fixing box type workpieces, and threaded holes for fixing and clamping the workpieces are uniformly distributed in the upper surface of the tray; 5 brads are arranged on the lower surface of the tray, wherein 1 brad is positioned in the center, and the other 4 brads are uniformly distributed along the circumferential direction by taking the brads as the center; the positioning disc is provided with pneumatic ball locking mechanisms which correspond to the 5 pull nails one by one.
Moreover, the measurement alignment unit comprises a base, an X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, a Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, a Z-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and a rotating mechanism around a Z axis, wherein the X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and the Z axis are arranged on the base; the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism is used for realizing displacement adjustment of the workpiece, and the combination of the Z-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, the X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and the rotating mechanism around the Z axis realizes position adjustment of the positioning monitoring instrument; the X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and the Z-direction displacement adjusting mechanism respectively comprise a feeding mechanism and a driving mechanism, the X-direction feeding mechanism adopts a gray cast iron base and a high-precision linear guide rail structure, the X-direction driving mechanism adopts a servo motor with a band-type brake to drive a high-precision ball screw to rotate through a synchronous belt and a belt pulley, and a supporting plate connected with the ball screw moves on a guide rail; the Y-direction and Z-direction feeding mechanisms adopt a granite base and high-precision linear guide rail structure, and the driving mechanisms adopt a direct connection structure with a band-type brake servo motor and a high-precision ball screw to drive the carriage to move on the guide rail; the rotating mechanism around the Z axis is arranged at one end, close to the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, of a supporting plate of the X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and comprises a rotating shaft, the upper end of the rotating shaft is connected with a hand driving wheel, the lower end of the rotating shaft is concentrically provided with a positioning monitoring instrument, and the positioning monitoring instrument adopts an edge finder or a dial indicator.
Moreover, the workpiece clamping unit comprises a zero positioning module and a pneumatic control part; the positioning disk of the zero positioning module is connected with the linear guide rail slide block of the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, and the pneumatic control part controls the on-off of compressed air in the air path through the electric control switch so as to drive the locking and the unlocking of the pneumatic ball locking mechanism.
Furthermore, the industrial transfer robot comprises a fixed base assembly, a rotary upright post assembly, a Z-direction sliding arm assembly, a III-axis rotary arm assembly, an IV-axis rotary arm assembly, a V-axis rotary arm assembly and a material fork assembly. The rotary upright post assembly is connected with the fixed base assembly through an RV reducer and is driven by a first servo motor to perform rotary motion; the Z-direction sliding arm assembly is fixedly connected with the sliding block, the sliding block can slide up and down along a linear guide rail connected with the rotary upright post assembly, meanwhile, the sliding arm assembly is connected with the nut seat, and the nut seat is matched with the ball screw to realize that the second servo motor drives the ball screw to drive the Z-direction sliding arm assembly to execute Z-direction lifting action; the III-axis rotating arm assembly is connected with the Z-direction sliding arm assembly through an RV reducer and is driven by a third servo motor to rotate; the IV-axis rotating arm assembly is connected with the III-axis rotating arm assembly through a harmonic reducer, is driven by a fourth servo motor and performs a rotating action through belt transmission; the V-axis rotating arm assembly is connected with the IV-axis rotating arm assembly through a harmonic reducer, driven by a fifth servo motor and driven by a belt to rotate, and the material fork assembly is fixedly connected with the V-axis rotating arm assembly.
And moreover, the movable robot platform is a movable platform structure with an elastic pin positioning device and an adjustable universal wheel with a locking device arranged at the lower end.
And fixed feed bin and portable feed bin are multilayer laminated board structure, and the feed bin plywood is half drawer type structure, all is provided with 4 positioning seats of taking location interior conical surface on every layer of plywood, and four positioning seats form tray positioner with 4 blind rivet positions one-to-one of zero point orientation module tray below along the circumferencial direction equipartition.
And the safety door control system mainly adopts a PLC controlled pneumatic driving system, the guide rail is arranged on the wall of the equipment shell around the safety door, and the guide rail sliding block is connected with the safety door of the machining center equipment and is in driving connection with the cylinder.
The invention has the advantages and positive effects that:
1. the multi-variety and small-batch production task is characterized in that the variety of parts is more, the shape and size difference among different varieties is larger, but the batch production is smaller, and the large-scale automatic processing cannot be realized. The zero module adopts a structural form that a tray fixes a workpiece, different parts are converted into the same tray structure, the transportation by using automatic equipment such as a robot is convenient, one robot can serve two numerical control machining centers at the same time, a flexible manufacturing unit with various and small-batch production tasks is formed, and the production efficiency of the various and small-batch production tasks is greatly improved.
2. The box type parts are generally processed by a numerical control processing center, the size of the parts is large, the weight of the parts is large, the traditional manual workpiece carrying method wastes time and labor, and the collision is easily caused by carrying by means of crown blocks and the like. The flexible unit adopts a robot to finish the part transferring work of the box type parts between the storage bin and the machining center equipment, and the labor intensity of operators is greatly reduced.
3. The multi-variety and small-batch production task is also characterized in that emergency task insertion often occurs in the production task, and when an emergency order occurs in a traditional production mode, clamping of original machined parts on a numerical control machine tool needs to be destroyed, and clamping tools needed by the emergency task are replaced. The invention is provided with the zero positioning module which is one of the core modules of the whole flexible manufacturing unit, and the zero positioning module realizes the quick zero reference conversion of the workpiece to be processed between all the component modules in the flexible manufacturing unit and between numerical control machining center equipment of different models, so that the original unmachined part communication tray can be moved to a storage bin or other idle numerical control equipment together, thereby not only realizing interruptible machining, but also ensuring the high-precision machining production capacity of the flexible manufacturing unit.
4. The zero module adopts a structural form that a tray fixes a workpiece. The threaded holes which are arranged on the upper surface of the tray and used for clamping workpieces can be used for multi-station machining, namely, a plurality of parts of the same type or different types are clamped on one tray, and multi-station simultaneous machining is realized.
5. The alignment workload of the multi-station clamped part before machining is large, and the machining time is generally long. The alignment work of the parts clamped in multiple stations is carried out on an alignment device outside the machine, the parts are processed in parallel, and the production efficiency of multiple varieties and small-batch production tasks is greatly improved.
6. For the production tasks of multiple varieties and small batches, the traditional single-person single-machine production mode has high requirements on the skill level of each numerical control machining center equipment operator. The flexible manufacturing unit is used for independently performing the alignment work of the parts, for the process of processing the parts, a higher skill level is needed only when the numerical control processing programming is completed and the external alignment device is controlled to complete the reference alignment work of the parts, and the skill requirement of an operator for completing the distribution of the bin workpieces and the operation of the robot is reduced, so that the technical requirement of the operator is integrally reduced, and the labor cost is saved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a top plan layout view of a flexible manufacturing unit of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a spatial layout of a flexible manufacturing unit of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a block diagram of a zero point positioning module in the flexible manufacturing unit of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic perspective view of an off-board alignment module of the flexible manufacturing unit of the present invention;
fig. 5 is a schematic perspective view of an industrial transfer robot in a flexible manufacturing unit according to the present invention.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the following embodiments, which are illustrative only and not limiting, and the scope of the present invention is not limited thereby.
A flexible manufacturing unit for various small-batch box parts is mainly composed of a zero point positioning module 3, an external alignment module 4, a loading and unloading robot module 5, a workpiece storage module, a numerical control machining equipment module 1 and an electrical control module, please refer to FIGS. 1-5. The off-machine alignment module consists of an off-machine alignment device of the machining center, is provided with a measurement alignment unit, a workpiece clamping unit and a matched PLC (programmable logic controller) control unit, and can realize functions of accurate measurement, quick replacement, man-machine interaction and the like; the loading and unloading robot module consists of an industrial transfer robot 5-1 and a movable robot platform 5-2, can realize the functions of transferring a workpiece to be processed into the numerical control processing equipment module from the workpiece storage module and transferring a processed workpiece into the workpiece storage module from the numerical control processing equipment module, and realizes the positioning and movement of the robot among different processing equipment through the movable robot platform; the workpiece storage module consists of a fixed storage bin 2 and a movable storage bin 6, and can realize the storage function of workpieces to be processed and finished; the numerical control machining equipment module consists of numerical control machining center equipment and a safety door control system, after the feeding and discharging robot module finishes feeding, the safety door control system controls to close a machining center safety door, a machining program is operated for machining, after machining is finished, a machining center door is controlled to open, and the feeding and discharging robot module finishes discharging; the electrical control module is connected with each component module PLC of the flexible unit, and can control the action of each link of the flexible manufacturing unit. The block diagram of the components is shown in figure 1.
The specific structure of each module is as follows:
1) zero point positioning module
Referring to fig. 4, the zero positioning module is one of core modules of the whole flexible manufacturing unit, and the zero positioning module is used for realizing the quick zero reference conversion of the workpiece to be processed between all the component modules in the flexible manufacturing unit and between the numerical control machining center devices of different models, so that the high-precision machining production capacity of the flexible manufacturing unit is ensured.
The zero positioning module mainly comprises a tray 3-1 and a positioning tray 3-4, wherein the upper surface of the tray is used for installing and fixing a box type workpiece 7, and more than 100 threaded holes 3-1-1 are uniformly distributed in the upper surface of the tray and used for fixedly clamping parts with different shapes and sizes, and the zero positioning module can also meet the multi-station clamping of parts in the same batch and realize the flexibility of clamping various parts. The lower surface of the tray is provided with 5 brad nails 3-2, wherein 1 brad nail is positioned at the central position, and the other 4 brad nails are uniformly distributed along the circumferential direction by taking the brad nail as the center. The positioning disc is provided with a pneumatic ball locking mechanism 3-3 corresponding to the 5-support blind rivet, and for a tray with the size of 500mm multiplied by 500mm, the zero positioning module can realize the repeated positioning precision within 0.005 mm. Therefore, the quick clamping device can realize quick clamping of the part and the machine tool workbench, can ensure the machining precision of the part, and reduces unnecessary preparation and operation actions. The coordinate of the part is quickly and accurately transferred into the coordinate of the machine tool workbench, and the repeated positioning precision and the safe and reliable pressing force in each reloading process are effectively ensured.
2) Machining center machine external alignment device
The overall structure is shown in fig. 5, wherein the measurement alignment unit comprises a base 4-5, an X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism 4-2, a Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism 4-4, a Z-direction displacement adjusting mechanism 4-1 and a rotating mechanism 4-3 around a Z axis, which are arranged on the base, the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism is used for realizing displacement adjustment of a workpiece, and the combination of the Z-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, the X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and the rotating mechanism around the Z axis realizes position adjustment of a positioning monitoring instrument 4-6. The X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and the Z-direction displacement adjusting mechanism respectively comprise a feeding mechanism and a driving mechanism, the X-direction feeding mechanism adopts a gray cast iron base and a high-precision linear guide rail structure, has the characteristics of small friction resistance, small thermal expansion rate, high positioning precision and the like, and can ensure the stability of long-time measurement, the X-direction driving mechanism adopts a band-type brake servo motor (100W) and a high-precision ball screw to drive a supporting plate to move on a guide rail through a synchronous toothed belt, and the servo motor, a driver and a grating form a closed loop by being connected with PLC control so as to ensure the moving and positioning precision; the Y-direction and Z-direction feeding mechanisms adopt a granite base and high-precision linear guide rail structure, have the characteristics of small friction resistance, small thermal expansion rate, high positioning precision and the like, and can ensure the stability of long-time measurement; the rotating mechanism around the Z axis is arranged at one end, close to the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, of a supporting plate of the X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, the rotating shaft realizes the rotation precision of radial run-out of less than or equal to 0.006mm and axial run-out of less than or equal to 0.006mm by utilizing an SP-level crossed roller bearing supporting structure, an edge finder or a dial indicator is suspended at the center of the lower end of the rotating shaft, and the determination of the geometric center of the circular hole of the workpiece is realized in a manual driving mode.
The workpiece clamping module consists of a zero point positioning module and a pneumatic control part. A positioning disc of the zero positioning module is connected with a linear guide rail sliding block of the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, and the pneumatic ball locking mechanism controls the on-off of compressed air in an air path through a pneumatic control part to realize the locking and the loosening of the connection of the tray and the positioning disc.
3) Loading and unloading robot module
The loading and unloading robot module comprises an industrial transfer robot and a movable robot platform.
One end of the movable robot platform is used for installing and fixing the industrial transfer robot, the other end of the movable robot platform is used for installing and fixing the movable material bin, the lower end face of the platform is provided with the elastic pin positioning device and the adjustable universal wheel with the locking device, the adjustable universal wheel with the locking device can conveniently realize the locking after the movable position and the in-place movement between the numerical control processing equipment, and the platform can not move when the robot works; the elastic pin positioning device is arranged and installed, and after the movable robot platform moves to a preset position, the positioning pin of the elastic pin can automatically pop out and insert into a pin hole preset on the ground, so that the movable robot platform can be accurately positioned.
The overall structure of the loading and unloading robot is shown in fig. 5.
The industrial transfer robot comprises a fixed base assembly, a rotary upright post assembly, a Z-direction sliding arm assembly, a III-axis rotary arm assembly, an IV-axis rotary arm assembly, a V-axis rotary arm assembly and a material fork assembly. The rotary column group 5-1-4 is connected with the fixed base assembly 5-1-1 through an RV reducer 5-1-2 and is driven by a first servo motor 5-1-3 to perform rotary motion; the Z-direction sliding arm component 5-1-6 is fixedly connected with the sliding block, the sliding block can slide up and down along a linear guide rail connected with the rotary upright post component, meanwhile, the sliding arm component is connected with a nut seat, and the nut seat is matched with the ball screw to realize that the second servo motor 5-1-5 drives the ball screw to drive the Z-direction sliding arm component to execute Z-direction lifting action. The III-axis rotating arm assembly 5-1-9 is connected with the Z-direction sliding arm assembly through an RV reducer and is driven by a third servo motor 5-1-7 to perform rotary motion; the IV-axis rotating arm group 5-1-11 pieces are connected with the III-axis rotating arm assembly through a harmonic reducer, driven by a fourth servo motor 5-1-8 and driven by a belt to perform rotary motion; the V-axis rotating arm assembly 5-1-12 is connected with the IV-axis rotating arm assembly through a harmonic reducer, driven by a fifth servo motor 5-1-10 and driven by a belt to perform rotation action, the material fork assembly 5-1-13 is fixedly connected with the V-axis rotating arm assembly, and workpiece conveying is realized by controlling the actions of all the assemblies.
Because the four rotating shafts are designed on the feeding and discharging robot, three rotating arms are provided with a three-axis rotating action mode, the position relations among the III-axis rotating arm assembly, the IV-axis rotating arm assembly and the V-axis rotating arm assembly can form C-shaped actions, 360-degree full-position coverage in a horizontal plane and the C-shaped curling action mode can be realized by combining 360-degree rotating actions of the rotating upright columns, the rotating arms can conveniently take and place articles in a narrow space, the adaptability of the robot to the working environment is greatly enhanced, and the four-axis rotating arm and six-axis rotating arm action mode can not be realized by the traditional four-axis and six-axis robots.
4) Workpiece storage module
The module is deposited to work piece includes portable feed bin and two kinds of forms of fixed feed bin, fixed feed bin is fixed to be placed near the outer aligning device of machining center machine, portable feed bin fixed mounting is on movable robot platform, it gets the work piece to be used for the robot to get, two kinds of feed bins all are three-layer plywood structure, the feed bin plywood is half drawer type structure, can take out half the distance of feed bin plywood width, make things convenient for getting of work piece to put, all be provided with 4 positioning seats of taking location interior conical surface on every layer of plywood, four positioning seats and 4 blind rivet position one-to-one of zero point orientation module tray below along the circumferencial direction equipartition, form tray positioner.
5) Numerical control machining equipment module
The numerical control machining center equipment and the safety door control system form the numerical control machining center equipment. The numerical control machining center equipment is various small and medium-sized machining center equipment with X, Y shaft travel less than 900mm, and has strong compatibility; the safety door control system mainly adopts a PLC controlled pneumatic driving system, the guide rail is arranged on the wall of the equipment casing around the safety door, and the guide rail sliding block is connected with the safety door of the machining center equipment and is in driving connection with the air cylinder, so that the automatic control opening and closing of the safety door is realized.
The flexible manufacturing unit has the following working procedures:
the flexible manufacturing unit layout is as shown in figures 2 and 3, a production preparation area is arranged in by an external alignment device of a machining center, the external reference alignment of a workpiece to be machined is realized, a box part to be machined, which is to be aligned, is manually placed on a fixed bin, the fixed bin is provided with three layers of laminates, a tray positioning device is arranged on each laminate, each layer of laminate can store a tray with the workpiece, an operator transfers the workpiece of the fixed bin to a movable bin by a forklift, the movable bin is carried and moved, the corresponding position of a movable robot platform located in a production machining area is placed, a start button on an electrical control module is pressed, and the flexible manufacturing unit executes the following actions: the safety door control system controls the air cylinder to push the safety door of the numerical control machining center to automatically open, the industrial transfer robot executes preset action, a tray with a workpiece to be machined clamped on the movable bin is transferred to a designated position on the working platform of the numerical control machining center to complete discharging action, the electric control module controls the pneumatic ball locking mechanism arranged on the working platform of the numerical control machining center to lock so as to realize clamping action of the pneumatic ball locking mechanism and the workpiece tray, so that the position precision of the workpiece to be machined on the working platform of the numerical control machining center is ensured, meanwhile, the industrial transfer robot is moved out of the numerical control machining center and reset, after the action is completed, the safety door control system controls the air cylinder to push the safety door of the numerical control machining center to close, the electric control module controls the machining center to call a corresponding program to machine the workpiece to be machined, and after the workpiece is machined, the safety door control system controls the air cylinder to push the safety door of the numerical control machining center to open, the industrial transfer robot moves, meanwhile, the electric control module controls a pneumatic ball locking mechanism on a workbench of the numerical control machining center to be loosened from a workpiece tray, the industrial transfer robot takes out the tray clamped with the machined workpiece and carries the tray to the movable bin to finish material taking and resetting, and the electric control module controls the air cylinder to push a safety door of the numerical control machining center to be closed to finish all actions of one working cycle of the flexible manufacturing unit. According to the actual processing condition of a workshop, the industrial carrying robot can be moved to different numerical control processing center areas by using a forklift to construct a flexible manufacturing unit.
As shown in figure 5, the position relation between the rotating arms of the feeding and discharging robot forms a C-shaped motion, the taking and placing of articles in a narrow space can be completed by combining the 360-degree rotation motion of the rotation upright column, the problem that interference is easily caused by the motion of the robot due to the fact that the installation position between machine tools is narrow, the machine tool operation control console is external and the like is well avoided, the adaptability of the robot to the working environment is greatly enhanced, and the robot can not be realized by the traditional four-axis and six-axis robots.
Although the embodiments of the present invention and the accompanying drawings are disclosed for illustrative purposes, those skilled in the art will appreciate that: various substitutions, changes and modifications are possible without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention and the appended claims, and therefore the scope of the invention is not limited to the disclosure of the embodiments and the accompanying drawings.

Claims (8)

1. A flexible manufacturing unit for various small-batch box parts comprises a zero point positioning module, an off-machine alignment module, a loading and unloading robot module, a workpiece storage module, a numerical control machining equipment module and an electrical control module;
the off-machine alignment module is arranged in the production preparation area and comprises a measurement alignment unit, a workpiece clamping unit and a matched PLC control unit; the loading and unloading robot module is arranged in the production processing area and comprises an industrial transfer robot and a movable robot platform; the workpiece storage module consists of a fixed storage bin and a movable storage bin, and the fixed storage bin is arranged beside the external alignment module in the production preparation area; the movable stock bin is fixedly arranged on the movable robot platform and is used for the industrial transfer robot to pick and place workpieces; the numerical control processing equipment module is arranged in the production processing area and comprises numerical control processing center equipment and a safety door control system; the zero positioning module is a dynamic combined module which is synchronously transferred along with the production of the workpiece; the electrical control module is connected with other modules PLC.
2. The flexible manufacturing unit for the various small-lot box-like parts according to claim 1, characterized in that: the zero point positioning module comprises a tray and a positioning disc in pneumatic locking connection with the tray, the upper surface of the tray is used for installing and fixing box type workpieces, and threaded holes for fixedly clamping the workpieces are uniformly distributed in the upper surface of the tray; 5 brads are arranged on the lower surface of the tray, wherein 1 brad is positioned in the center, and the other 4 brads are uniformly distributed along the circumferential direction by taking the brads as the center; the positioning disc is provided with pneumatic ball locking mechanisms which correspond to the 5 pull nails one by one.
3. The flexible manufacturing unit for the various small-lot box-like parts according to claim 1, characterized in that: the measurement alignment unit comprises a base, an X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, a Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, a Z-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and a rotating mechanism around a Z axis, wherein the X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, the Z-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and the rotating mechanism are arranged on the base; the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism is used for realizing displacement adjustment of the workpiece, and the combination of the Z-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, the X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and the rotating mechanism around the Z axis realizes position adjustment of the positioning monitoring instrument; the X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and the Z-direction displacement adjusting mechanism respectively comprise a feeding mechanism and a driving mechanism, the X-direction feeding mechanism adopts a gray cast iron base and a high-precision linear guide rail structure, the X-direction driving mechanism adopts a servo motor with a band-type brake to drive a high-precision ball screw to rotate through a synchronous belt and a belt pulley, and a supporting plate connected with the ball screw moves on a guide rail; the Y-direction and Z-direction feeding mechanisms adopt a granite base and high-precision linear guide rail structure, and the driving mechanisms adopt a direct connection structure with a band-type brake servo motor and a high-precision ball screw to drive the carriage to move on the guide rail; the rotating mechanism around the Z axis is arranged at one end, close to the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, of a supporting plate of the X-direction displacement adjusting mechanism and comprises a rotating shaft, the upper end of the rotating shaft is connected with a hand driving wheel, the lower end of the rotating shaft is concentrically provided with a positioning monitoring instrument, and the positioning monitoring instrument adopts an edge finder or a dial indicator.
4. The flexible manufacturing unit for the various small-lot box-like parts according to claim 1, characterized in that: the workpiece clamping unit comprises a zero positioning module and a pneumatic control part; the positioning disk of the zero positioning module is connected with the linear guide rail slide block of the Y-direction displacement adjusting mechanism, and the pneumatic control part controls the on-off of compressed air in the air path through the electric control switch so as to drive the locking and the unlocking of the pneumatic ball locking mechanism.
5. The flexible manufacturing unit for the various small-lot box-like parts according to claim 1, characterized in that: the industrial transfer robot comprises a fixed base assembly, a rotary upright post assembly, a Z-direction sliding arm assembly, a III-axis rotary arm assembly, an IV-axis rotary arm assembly, a V-axis rotary arm assembly and a material fork assembly; the rotary upright post assembly is connected with the fixed base assembly through an RV reducer and is driven by a first servo motor to perform rotary motion; the Z-direction sliding arm assembly is fixedly connected with the sliding block, the sliding block can slide up and down along a linear guide rail connected with the rotary upright post assembly, meanwhile, the sliding arm assembly is connected with the nut seat, and the nut seat is matched with the ball screw to realize that the second servo motor drives the ball screw to drive the Z-direction sliding arm assembly to execute Z-direction lifting action; the III-axis rotating arm assembly is connected with the Z-direction sliding arm assembly through an RV reducer and is driven by a third servo motor to rotate; the IV-axis rotating arm assembly is connected with the III-axis rotating arm assembly through a harmonic reducer, is driven by a fourth servo motor and performs a rotating action through belt transmission; the V-axis rotating arm assembly is connected with the IV-axis rotating arm assembly through a harmonic reducer, driven by a fifth servo motor and driven by a belt to rotate, and the material fork assembly is fixedly connected with the V-axis rotating arm assembly.
6. The flexible manufacturing unit for the various small-lot box-like parts according to claim 1, characterized in that: the movable robot platform is a movable platform structure with an elastic pin positioning device and an adjustable universal wheel with a locking device arranged at the lower end.
7. The flexible manufacturing unit for the various small-lot box-like parts according to claim 1, characterized in that: fixed feed bin and portable feed bin are multilayer laminated plate structure, and the feed bin plywood is half drawer type structure, all is provided with 4 positioning seats of taking the location interior conical surface on every layer of plywood, and four positioning seats form tray positioner with 4 blind rivet positions one-to-one of positioning module tray below along the circumferencial direction equipartition.
8. The flexible manufacturing unit for the various small-lot box-like parts according to claim 1, characterized in that: the safety door control system mainly adopts a PLC controlled pneumatic driving system, the guide rail is arranged on the wall of the equipment casing around the safety door, and the guide rail sliding block is connected with the safety door of the machining center equipment and is in driving connection with the air cylinder.
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CN111413922B (en) * 2020-03-24 2020-11-06 上海交大智邦科技有限公司 Intelligent platform shifting device using AGV as carrier
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CN112108929B (en) * 2020-11-18 2021-03-09 北京中航科电测控技术股份有限公司 Intelligent production line for manufacturing parts and working method thereof

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