CN110832964A - Building aggregate mine in-situ soil improvement and greening method - Google Patents

Building aggregate mine in-situ soil improvement and greening method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110832964A
CN110832964A CN201910893593.1A CN201910893593A CN110832964A CN 110832964 A CN110832964 A CN 110832964A CN 201910893593 A CN201910893593 A CN 201910893593A CN 110832964 A CN110832964 A CN 110832964A
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slope
soil
layer
situ
greening
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祁有祥
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Rishangsheng New Building Material Design And Research Institute Co Ltd
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Rishangsheng New Building Material Design And Research Institute Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G20/00Cultivation of turf, lawn or the like; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • A01G24/27Pulp, e.g. bagasse
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/30Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing synthetic organic compounds
    • A01G24/35Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing synthetic organic compounds containing water-absorbing polymers
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/20Securing of slopes or inclines

Abstract

The invention discloses a building aggregate mine in-situ soil improvement and greening method, which comprises the following steps: repairing facilities; backfilling the ditch; protecting the soil discharge slope; in-situ improvement: scattering the prepared improved material on the surface of a waste dump, and carrying out loosening and raking mixing; in-situ greening: planting arbor species in the improved soil layer according to the spacing of 2-4 m; spraying bonding slurry containing mixed grass and shrub seeds by using a spray seeding vehicle, and performing shallow consolidation on the disturbed surface layer; after the shallow layer consolidation is finished, spreading straw on the surface for covering; maintenance management: comprises the steps of reseeding, seedling supplementing, fertilizing and pest control. The invention has the beneficial effects that: on the basis of scientifically determining the plant types and reasonably configuring, the vegetation recovery of aggregate mine waste dumps in arid and semiarid regions, warm temperature zones, subtropical regions and most regions of the tropical zone in China can be basically met, for example, the vegetation recovery of special fields such as nonferrous metal mine waste rock fields, refuse landfills and the like can be met by reasonably adding measures such as anti-seepage isolation, pollution prevention and control and the like.

Description

Building aggregate mine in-situ soil improvement and greening method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of aggregates, and mainly relates to a method for improving and greening in-situ soil of a building aggregate mine.
Background
The building aggregate is one of important resource type products, and is a massive basic building material which is widest in construction engineering application, largest in quantity and irreplaceable. With the development of economic society of China, the ecological civilization construction is raised as a national strategy, and the ecological environment protection and restoration become one of the central works for the development of the building aggregate industry. At present, the sandstone mine in China is in a key period of transformation from a traditional mine with small dispersion danger and low mess to a green aggregate mine with large scale, industrialization, modernization, environmental protection and harmony. The waste dump is one of the functional units with the most serious land damage, ecological damage and the most difficult recovery and treatment of the building aggregate mine, and is mainly used for removing weathered rocks, sloping soil and the like, and the vegetation recovery base conditions are relatively good because the waste does not have environmental pollution sources such as acid-base infiltration, heavy metals, noxious substances and the like.
At present, the main methods for recovering vegetation in a construction aggregate mine refuse dump comprise natural sealing and raising, soil dressing and afforestation, and the main methods comprise natural sealing and raising, soil dressing and afforestation, spray seeding and greening, and the main methods generally have the prominent problems of high vegetation recovery cost, poor effect, low speed, difficult preservation and the like because of poor soil layer, loose structure, serious water and soil loss, low water storage and soil moisture conservation capacity of the refuse dump. The natural sealing is a common method with the lowest cost, but the vegetation recovery time is long, the water and soil loss cannot be effectively prevented, and the vegetation sparse effect is poor; the method for afforestation by soil replacement is the most popular method with the widest application range, but has high labor cost and low construction efficiency, and can not effectively prevent water and soil loss due to lack of ground cover plants; the alien soil spray seeding is a method which is gradually popularized in nearly 20 years and has a good vegetation recovery effect, but the comprehensive cost of manpower, equipment, materials and the like is high, and a professional construction team is required.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide an in-situ soil improvement and greening method for aggregate mine dump, which is realized by systematic technical methods such as slope protection, in-situ improvement, seeding greening, seedling planting greening, hydraulic spraying, surface layer consolidation, covering and soil moisture conservation and the like.
The object of the present invention is achieved by the following technical means. A building aggregate mine in-situ soil improvement and greening method comprises the following steps:
(1) and repairing facilities: after the waste dump is closed, according to the design requirements of the waste dump main body, checking and repairing facilities of a drainage ditch, an energy dissipation dust sand pool and a stone blocking dam to ensure smooth drainage, safety and stability of the waste dump;
(2) and trench-punching and backfilling: after the waste dump is closed, the waste dump is eroded by rainfall runoff, and the trench needs to be backfilled and leveled before vegetation is restored;
(3) protection of the soil discharge slope: the soil discharge slope surface adopts bamboo fences and ecological bag horizontal step slope protection, and the slope surface is divided to form micro-terrains;
(4) and in-situ improvement: scattering the prepared improved material on the surface of a waste dump, and carrying out loosening and raking mixing;
(5) and in-situ greening: planting arbor species in the improved soil layer according to the spacing of 2-4 m; spraying bonding slurry containing mixed grass and shrub seeds by using a spray seeding vehicle, and performing shallow consolidation on the disturbed surface layer; after the shallow layer consolidation is finished, spreading straw on the surface for covering;
(6) and maintenance management: comprises the steps of reseeding, seedling supplementing, fertilizing and pest control.
Furthermore, after the gully is backfilled, the new slope surface line and the gully opening are tamped to the foundation, the vegetation needs to be backfilled and leveled before recovery, and the original V-shaped gully can be smoothly connected with the peripheral slope surface by adopting top cutting backfill and slope following accumulation along the edge of the gully top.
Furthermore, ecological bags are horizontally arranged on the slope protection step along the slope feet on the rammed foundation, the long sides of the ecological bags are piled up along the slope feet in a staggered joint mode, the height is 24-60cm, wood piles are used for reinforcing every 2-5m, the wood piles penetrate through the centers of the ecological bags and enter the rammed foundation, and the tops of the wood piles are flush with the top second layer of ecological bags.
Furthermore, after the slope surface protection measures are finished, an in-situ improvement layer is formed, the prepared improvement material is scattered on the surface of the waste dump, and the soil is subjected to loosening and harrowing mixing, wherein the harrowing depth is 10-20 cm.
Further, in-situ greening: firstly, planting arbor tree species on the inner side of a bamboo fence and an ecological bag horizontal-step protection slope according to the spacing of 2-4m of the plant spacing after weathering rock soil on the surface of a refuse dump is improved; and then spraying bonding slurry containing mixed grass and shrub seeds by using a spray seeding vehicle, carrying out shallow consolidation on the disturbed surface layer, and finally, spreading straw on the surface to cover after the shallow consolidation layer is consolidated to form a crop straw covering layer.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) on the basis of scientifically determining the plant types and reasonably configuring, the vegetation recovery method can basically meet the vegetation recovery of aggregate mine refuse dumps in arid and semi-arid regions, warm and warm zones, subtropical regions and most regions of the tropical zone in China, for example, measures such as reasonably increasing anti-seepage isolation, pollution control and the like, and can also meet the vegetation recovery of special fields such as nonferrous metal mine spoil yards, refuse landfills and the like;
(2) in arid and semi-arid regions, the waste dump can be recovered into a composite forest plant community combining arbor, shrub and grass, and the vegetation coverage is between 85 and 95 percent, wherein the vegetation coverage is between 60 and 80 percent;
(3) the vegetation recovery effect of the invention is superior to natural sealing and planting and foreign soil afforestation, and the cost can be reduced by about 20-35% compared with slurry spray seeding and foreign soil spray seeding on the premise of the same recovery effect.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram 1 of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic structural diagram 2 of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram 3 of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The invention will be described in detail below with reference to the following drawings:
the invention provides a building aggregate mine in-situ soil improvement and greening method, which effectively improves the soil structure of a grass-shrub plant root system layer and ensures the healthy growth of the grass-shrub plant by scattering and covering an improvement material and turning, mixing and improving; by arranging slope surface protection measures, the stability of the dumping slope surface is improved, meanwhile, the soil improvement depth is deepened inside the slope protection measures, the water storage and moisture preservation efficiency is enhanced, and the habitat condition suitable for the growth of trees is built so as to improve and promote the overall vegetation recovery effect of the dumping field; the erosion resistance of the surface layer of the refuse dump at the initial stage of vegetation recovery is enhanced through hydraulic spray seeding surface layer consolidation, and nutrition loss and plant seed and seedling damage required by vegetation recovery caused by water and soil loss are effectively prevented; plant straws are covered on the surface layer, so that a new way for comprehensive utilization of agricultural wastes is developed, the water retention and soil moisture preservation capability of the surface layer at the initial stage of vegetation recovery is further enhanced, and the survival rate and the preservation rate of the artificially reconstructed vegetation are improved.
Step1 repairing facilities
After the waste dump is closed, facilities such as a drainage ditch, an energy dissipation dust and sand pool, a stone blocking dam and the like need to be checked and repaired according to the design requirements of the waste dump main body, so that smooth drainage and safety and stability of the waste dump are ensured. And mechanically covering soil on the surface layer of the dump, wherein the soil source is slope soil or surface soil which is mined, stripped and independently piled, and the thickness of the covered soil is 10-30 cm according to the quantity of the soil source. According to the dumping sequence designed by the dumping field, the top dumping is of strongly weathered rock soil and a fourth loose accumulation, and soil covering is not needed.
Step2 gully backfilling
After the waste dump is closed, the waste dump is eroded by rainfall runoff, V-shaped gullies are formed at the middle lower part of a side slope mostly, as shown in figure 1, an original waste dump slope surface line 101, a V-shaped gully erosion area 102, a V-shaped gully bottom line 103, a gully backfill excavation area 104, a gully backfill area 105, a gully backfill new slope surface line 106 and a gully opening tamping foundation 107 are needed after the gully backfill, the gully is required to be backfilled and leveled before vegetation recovery, and top cutting backfill and downslope accumulation are adopted along the edge of the gully top, so that the original V-shaped gully can be in round connection with the peripheral slope.
Step3 protection of soil discharge slope
The soil discharge slope surface adopts bamboo fences and ecological bag horizontal step slope protection to divide the slope surface to form micro-landforms, the blocking and storing functions of slope protection measures are fully exerted, the erosion of slope runoff on the slope surface is relieved, the thickness and water storage and soil moisture conservation capacity of soil bodies inside the bamboo fences and the ecological horizontal step are enhanced, and favorable micro-landforms are provided for later-stage arbor seedling planting.
As shown in figure 2, the bamboo fence slope protection, the bamboo fence 201 column uses the log pile 202 with the diameter of 5-8cm and the length of 60-100cm, the weaving strip uses the bamboo strip with the width of 3-5cm or the poplar willow strip with the width of 2-3cm, the branch and the like, and the local materials are preferentially used. The original wood piles 202 are arranged along contour lines, the distance is 30-50cm, the height of the bamboo fence is 30-40cm, the depth of the soil is 50% -60% of the height of the original wood piles 202, the wood piles are fixed in a cross weaving mode through weaving strips in a warp and weft weaving mode, the inner side of the bamboo fence is filled with an improved soil layer, the soil filling is level with the top of the fence, and therefore the later-stage arbor nursery stock planting is facilitated.
Ecological bag horizontal step slope protection, and the ecological bag 203 is arranged along the slope foot on the tamping basis to achieve the effect of protecting the slope foot by using a new earth filling side enclosure, wherein the ecological bag 203 is sewn by adopting 110-plus 135g/m2 polyester filament needle-punched non-woven geotextile, and the specification after filling is 12-15cm 30-35cm 65-70 cm; stacking the long edges of the ecological bags 203 along the staggered joints of the slope feet, wherein the height is 24-60cm (2-4 layers), reinforcing the ecological bags every 2-5m by adopting a wood pile, penetrating the centers of the ecological bags 203 into a tamped foundation by the wood pile, wherein the wood pile adopts a log pile 202 with the diameter of 4-10cm and the length is 40-100cm, the top of the wood pile is flush with the top of the second ecological bag 203, the ecological bag 203 at the top layer is ensured not to be penetrated by the wood pile, and the tearing and weathering of the ecological bag 203 are prevented;
the ecological bag 203 is filled with the improved soil and plant seeds, and the mass ratio of the soil after filling and improving is as follows: 85-95% of weathered rock soil, 5-10% of organic fertilizer, 1-2% of rice chaff, 0.1-0.3% of compound fertilizer and 0.1-0.5% of water-retaining agent; wherein the stone content of the weathered rock soil is less than 5%, and the maximum particle size is less than 5 cm; the plant seeds are selected from single or mixed grass seeds, 10-15g of the plant seeds are mixed in each ecological bag 203, one or more of festuca arundinacea, wild cattle grass, elymus, bluegrass and paddock is selected in the semi-arid area and the cold temperate zone of the arid area, and one or more of festuca arundinacea, rye, bermuda grass, paspalum natans and bluegrass is selected in the warm temperate zone, the subtropical zone and the tropical zone.
Step4 in-situ modification
As shown in fig. 3, after the slope surface protection measures are finished, an in-situ improvement layer 301 is formed, the prepared mixed improvement material is spread on the surface 303 of a waste dump, and the soil is subjected to loosening and raking mixing, wherein the rake turning depth is 10-20 cm; the improved material is formed by mixing various materials in inorganic, organic and biochemical improved materials, and the average dosage per square meter of the mixed improved material is as follows:
inorganic modifier: 50-200g of bentonite, 100g of vermiculite, 100g of perlite, 300g of perlite and 100g of rock wool;
organic modifier: 600g of coconut husk 200-;
biochemical modifying agent: 50-150g of hydrophilic water-absorbing polyurethane foam particles, 50-200g of water-retaining agent, 30-50g of compound fertilizer, 5-15g of microbial soil improver and 5-15g of biological fermentation inoculant.
Step5 in-situ greening
As shown in fig. 2 and 3, after weathering rock soil improvement is carried out on the surface 303 of a waste dump, arbor tree species (evergreen arbor 204 and fallen leaf arbor 205) are planted on an improved soil layer on the inner side of a horizontal-step protection slope of a bamboo fence and an ecological bag according to the spacing of 2-4m, 3-8 kinds of the tree species are selected, coniferous broad leaves and fallen leaf evergreen mixed seedlings are planted in a container seedling specification of 2-3 years, and seedlings are planted before rainy seasons. Randomly arranging and planting shrub seedlings 206 on the slope, wherein the row spacing of the seedlings is 2-5m, and selecting 1-2-year-old container seedlings.
In arid and semiarid and cold temperate regions, the types of arbor trees are preferably selected: arborvitae, pinus sylvestris, pinus tabulaeformis, ulmus pumila, robinia pseudoacacia, goldenrain tree, paper mulberry, white wax, ailanthus altissima, willow and the like; shrubs: caragana microphylla, sea buckthorn, amorpha fruticosa, loblolly tree, berberis pruinosa, fructus forsythiae, winter jasmine, rosa davurica and the like;
in warm temperate zones, subtropical zones and tropical regions, the types of arbor trees are preferably selected: black pine, slash pine, loblolly pine, Chinese red pine, camphor, cyclobalanopsis glauca, chinquapin, chinaberry, pistacia chinensis, ailanthus altissima, quercus acutissima, drynaria, anyou, fat bull, casuarina equisetifolia and the like; shrubs: rhus chinensis Mill, Ligustrum lucidum ait, pittosporum tobira, Yunnan yellow jasmine, photinia fraseri, negundo chastetree, spiraea crispa, Japanese datura, pyracantha fortuneana, rhododendron and the like.
Then, spraying the bonding slurry containing the mixed grass and shrub seeds by using a spray seeding vehicle to disturb the grass and shrub seedsThe superficial layer is solidified, and the superficial layer solidified layer 302 is used for improving the water retention and soil moisture conservation capability. According to the proportion of each 100 square meters, 0.5-2kg of hydrated lime, 3-5kg of waste newspaper scraps, 3-8kg of adhesive, 1.5-2.5kg of mixed grass seeds and 6-8m of water are used3Preparing mixed slurry, and selecting drought-tolerant barren-tolerant flower, grass and shrub seeds as plant seeds.
In arid and semiarid and cold temperate zones, shrub seeds are preferably selected: 50-200g of acacia, 50-2g00 g of amorpha fruticosa, 300g of vitex negundo linn, 100g of caragana microphylla, 100g of corolla parviflora, 100g of vitex negundo linn, 100g of prunus armeniaca, 500g of prunus armeniaca, 100 g-2 g of rhus typhina, 300g of elyta amurensis linn, 100g of poa pratensis, 100g of festuca arundinacea, 300g of alfalfa, 25-100g of coreopsis tinctoria and the like.
In warm temperate zone, subtropical zone and tropical zone, the seeds of grass irrigation are preferably selected: 25-150g of acacia, 25-100g of amorpha fruticosa, 25-150g of hippophae rhamnoides, 50-250g of lespedeza pedeza, 100g of negundo chastetree fruit, 50-105g of common floweringquince herb, 100g of cassia tora, 100g of rhus chinensis, 300g of paper mulberry, 50-150g of albizia julibrissin, 100g of festuca arundinacea, 50-150g of rye, 50-250g of alfalfa, 25-100g of coreopsis tinctoria, 25-100g of evening primrose and the like.
And finally, after the shallow bonding layer 302 is bonded, straw such as rice straws and wheat straws is paved on the surface of the shallow bonding layer to cover the shallow bonding layer to form a crop straw covering layer 304, the amount of the straw per 100 square meters is 50-200kg, the straw is sparse and naturally staggered to form a net shape, the effects of heat preservation, moisture preservation and scouring prevention are realized, a warm and humid environment suitable for microbial activities is created, the improvement of shallow soil is accelerated, and effective nutrients can be provided for slope plants after the straw is degraded.
Step6 maintenance management
The later maintenance management period is a complete growing season, and the main contents are reseeding, seedling supplementing, fertilizing, pest control and the like. The method fully utilizes local rainfall weather, and carries out seeding and seedling supplementing according to the seedling emergence condition and the survival rate of the nursery stock, wherein 3-5g of compound fertilizer is applied per square meter in spring, and 5-10g of additional fertilizer is applied per square meter in autumn. Watering and moistening by a watering cart are needed in continuous drought, so that the growth of seedlings is promoted, and the preservation rate of the seedlings is improved.
Detailed description of the preferred embodiment
Taking a certain aggregate mine in Fuyang of Zhejiang as an example, 5000 square meters of demonstration engineering is completed in a dump, the slope has the gradient of 36 degrees and the slope length of 20m, weak weathering waste stones are accumulated, the surface layer is covered with fourth series slope soil stripped in mining, the thickness is 20cm, the grass coverage is about 25 percent after natural seal cultivation is carried out for 1 year, as the natural recovery effect is not ideal, the slope fine ditches are eroded violently, the slope foot forms a V-shaped erosion ditch 1, the ditch has the length of 7.4m, the depth of 2.2m, the ditch mouth top width of 3.9m and the bottom width of 1.7m, and the ditch tends to penetrate through the slope top. The method provided by the invention is adopted for in-situ improvement and greening.
(1) Manually flattening and tamping a foundation along a V-shaped gully opening, wherein the width of the foundation is 0.8m, the length of the foundation is 8m, ecological bags are distributed along the gully foot on the tamping foundation, and the specification of the ecological bags after being filled is 12cm by 30cm by 70 cm; stacking the ecological bags with long edges along the slope feet in a staggered joint mode, wherein the height of each ecological bag is 36cm (3 layers), reinforcing the ecological bags by using wood piles every 3m, penetrating the ecological bags through the centers, entering a tamping foundation, and using log piles with the diameter of 5cm and the length of 80 cm; the ecological bag is filled with the improved soil and plant seeds, and the mass ratio of the filling materials is as follows: 85% of weathered rock soil, 6% of organic fertilizer, 1% of rice chaff, 0.1% of compound fertilizer and 0.3% of water-retaining agent, and 12g of seeds are uniformly mixed in each ecological bag by mixing tall fescue and bermuda grass; along the edge of the ditch top, the ditch is manually cut to back fill and is piled along the slope, so that the original V-shaped gully can be smoothly connected with the peripheral slope surface.
(2) The soil discharge slope surface adopts the slope protection measures of bamboo fences and ecological bag horizontal steps, the bamboo fences and the ecological bag horizontal steps are arranged in a staggered mode, the bamboo fences and the ecological bag horizontal steps are arranged 5m downwards from a top line of the slope, and the distance is 5 m. Wherein, the bamboo fence slope protection column adopts log piles with the diameter of 5cm and the length of 80cm, and the weaving strips are bamboo boards with the width of 5 cm. The wooden piles are arranged along the contour line, the distance is 40cm, the height of the fence is 35cm, the soil penetration depth of the wooden piles is 45cm, weaving strips are woven in a warp-weft mode and are fixed with the wooden piles in a crossed mode, and the improved soil layer is filled in the inner side of the fence; ecological bags are laid on the slope surface, the slope surface is excavated into a reverse slope horizontal step along the contour line, the width of the horizontal step is 30cm, and the ecological bags are piled up along the contour line in a staggered joint mode.
(3) After the slope protection measures are finished, the prepared improved materials are scattered on the surface of a dumping field, and the materials are manually loosened and raked and mixed, wherein the rake turning depth is 10 cm.
The average amount of the mixing modification material per square meter is as follows:
inorganic modifier: 50g of bentonite and 100g of vermiculite;
organic modifier: 500g of coconut chaff, 2000g of rice chaff, 1000g of straw scraps (with the length of 0-5cm) and 1500g of organic fertilizer;
biochemical modifying agent: 50g of hydrophilic water-absorbing polyurethane foam particles, 50g of water-retaining agent, 35g of compound fertilizer, 5g of microbial soil improver and 5g of biological fermentation inoculant.
(4) After the weathered rock soil on the surface layer is improved, 63 plants of all the slash pine, camphor tree, ailanthus altissima and quercus acutissima are planted on the improved soil layer on the inner side of the bamboo fence and the horizontal step of the ecological bag according to the spacing of 3m, and 2-year-old container seedlings are selected for the seedlings. 315 strains of rhus chinensis, privet, photinia fraseri and rhododendron are randomly planted on the slope, and the plant spacing and the row spacing are 2 m.
(5) Spraying the bonding slurry containing the mixed grass and shrub seeds by using a spray seeding vehicle, and performing shallow consolidation on the disturbed surface layer. According to the proportion of each 100 square meters, 1.5kg of hydrated lime, 3kg of waste newspaper scraps, 3kg of adhesive, 2kg of mixed grass seeds and 6-8m of water are used3A mixed slurry is prepared. 0.25g of plant seeds per square meter of acacia, 0.25g of amorpha fruticosa, 0.25g of thorns, 1g of lespedeza, 2.5g of cassia tora, 1g of rhus chinensis, 3g of festuca arundinacea, 1.5g of alfalfa, 0.25g of coreopsis tinctoria and 0.25g of coreopsis tinctoria.
(6) After the shallow layer is solidified, straw stalks are spread on the surface of the soil to cover the soil, the quantity of the stalks per square meter is 1.5kg, the stalks are sparse and naturally staggered to form a net shape, the effects of heat preservation, moisture preservation and scouring prevention are realized, a warm and humid environment suitable for microbial activities is created, the improvement of shallow layer soil is accelerated, and effective nutrients can be provided for slope plants after the stalks are degraded.
(7) And the later-period maintenance management period is a complete growing season, the local rainfall weather is fully utilized, sowing and seedling supplementing are carried out according to the seedling emergence condition and the survival rate of the seedlings, 5g of compound fertilizer is applied every square meter in spring, and 5g of additional fertilizer is applied every square meter in autumn.
After the vegetation is recovered for one year, the survival rate of planted trees and shrubs is 90%, the vegetation coverage is more than 95%, 10 kinds of trees and shrubs are distributed at high frequency and grow well, the hidden dangers of water and soil loss of a refuse dump, erosion and slumping of a slope surface and the like are effectively controlled, the comprehensive cost of recovering the vegetation is reduced by about 25% compared with that of the vegetation sprayed with alien soil, and meanwhile, poor market competition caused by lack of a professional spraying construction team is avoided. In the implementation process of the method, local common workers can be qualified and finished after technical background exchange, and the operability and the popularization prospect of the mine in-situ improvement and greening method are greatly improved.
Although the invention herein has been described with reference to particular embodiments, it is to be understood that these embodiments are merely illustrative of the principles and applications of the present invention. It is therefore to be understood that numerous modifications may be made to the illustrative embodiments and that other arrangements may be devised without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims. It should be understood that features described in different dependent claims and herein may be combined in ways different from those described in the original claims. It is also to be understood that features described in connection with individual embodiments may be used in other described embodiments.

Claims (5)

1. A building aggregate mine in-situ soil improvement and greening method is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
(1) and repairing facilities: after the waste dump is closed, according to the design requirements of the waste dump main body, checking and repairing facilities of a drainage ditch, an energy dissipation dust sand pool and a stone blocking dam to ensure smooth drainage, safety and stability of the waste dump;
(2) and trench-punching and backfilling: after the waste dump is closed, the waste dump is eroded by rainfall runoff, and the trench needs to be backfilled and leveled before vegetation is restored;
(3) protection of the soil discharge slope: the soil discharge slope surface adopts bamboo fences and ecological bag horizontal step slope protection, and the slope surface is divided to form micro-terrains;
(4) and in-situ improvement: scattering the prepared improved material on the surface of a waste dump, and carrying out loosening and raking mixing;
(5) and in-situ greening: planting arbor species in the improved soil layer according to the spacing of 2-4 m; spraying bonding slurry containing mixed grass and shrub seeds by using a spray seeding vehicle, and performing shallow consolidation on the disturbed surface layer; after the shallow layer consolidation is finished, spreading straw on the surface for covering;
(6) and maintenance management: comprises the steps of reseeding, seedling supplementing, fertilizing and pest control.
2. The in-situ soil improvement and greening method for building aggregate mines as claimed in claim 1, wherein: after the gully is backfilled, a new slope surface line and a gully opening are tamped to form a foundation, the foundation needs to be backfilled and leveled before vegetation is restored, and the original V-shaped gully can be smoothly connected with a peripheral slope surface by adopting top cutting backfill and slope following accumulation along the edge of the gully top.
3. The in-situ soil improvement and greening method for building aggregate mines as claimed in claim 1, wherein: and (3) horizontally-stepped slope protection of the ecological bags, arranging the ecological bags along the slope feet on the tamping foundation, stacking the ecological bags with the long sides staggered along the slope feet at the height of 24-60cm, reinforcing the ecological bags by adopting wood piles every 2-5m, penetrating the wood piles through the centers of the ecological bags to enter the tamping foundation, and leveling the tops of the wood piles with the second layer of ecological bags on the tops.
4. The in-situ soil improvement and greening method for building aggregate mines as claimed in claim 1, wherein: after the slope protection measures are finished, an in-situ improvement layer is formed, the prepared improvement material is scattered on the surface of a dumping yard, and the soil is subjected to loosening and raking mixing, wherein the rake turning depth is 10-20 cm.
5. The in-situ soil improvement and greening method for building aggregate mines as claimed in claim 1, wherein: in-situ greening: firstly, planting arbor tree species on the inner side of a bamboo fence and an ecological bag horizontal-step protection slope according to the spacing of 2-4m of the plant spacing after weathering rock soil on the surface of a refuse dump is improved; and then spraying bonding slurry containing mixed grass and shrub seeds by using a spray seeding vehicle, carrying out shallow consolidation on the disturbed surface layer, and finally, spreading straw on the surface to cover after the shallow consolidation layer is consolidated to form a crop straw covering layer.
CN201910893593.1A 2019-09-20 2019-09-20 Building aggregate mine in-situ soil improvement and greening method Pending CN110832964A (en)

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CN112854251A (en) * 2020-12-31 2021-05-28 中国建筑股份有限公司 Multistage construction platform for critical stable slope and construction method thereof
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