CN110810341A - Bee colony overwintering breeding method suitable for mature honey production - Google Patents

Bee colony overwintering breeding method suitable for mature honey production Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110810341A
CN110810341A CN201911120241.9A CN201911120241A CN110810341A CN 110810341 A CN110810341 A CN 110810341A CN 201911120241 A CN201911120241 A CN 201911120241A CN 110810341 A CN110810341 A CN 110810341A
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bee
overwintering
colony
honey
box
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Inventor
彭文君
吴黎明
刘富海
刘然
薛晓锋
田文礼
王凯
韩胜明
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Institute of Apicultural Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Apicultural Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K67/00Rearing or breeding animals, not otherwise provided for; New breeds of animals
    • A01K67/033Rearing or breeding invertebrates; New breeds of invertebrates

Abstract

The invention provides a bee colony overwintering breeding method suitable for mature honey production, and belongs to the technical field of bee keeping. The overwintering method of bee colony is characterized by that on the basis of preventing and controlling bee mite, changing queen and cultivating overwintering bee with proper age the overwintering bee colony is regulated to 8-20 foot frame, three box bodies are used for overwintering, 8 honey combs are placed in top box, 4-8 half honey combs are placed in middle box body according to the bee colony, no external sugar feed is fed, bee space is widened to 12-15mm, only one empty comb is placed in middle position of bottom box for honey bee to pass through, the temperature is lower than-25 deg.C, and the heat-insulating treatment is not implemented at the temperature higher than-25 deg.C. The method greatly improves the stress resistance and the service life of the bees, reduces the death rate of the overwintering bee colony bees, improves the health level of the bee colony and the spring colony vigor of the bee colony, is beneficial to spring breeding and effective collection of early spring honey sources, and has low cost and easy popularization and use.

Description

Bee colony overwintering breeding method suitable for mature honey production
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of bee breeding, in particular to a bee colony overwintering breeding method suitable for mature honey production.
Background
China is a big bee breeding country, bees can produce a large amount of bee products with rich nutrition for people to consume, and also plays an important role in pollination of crops, and bee breeding becomes a main source for increasing economic income of farmers.
The honey is the most important bee product, is a natural food which is well loved by consumers, and has rich nutrient components and active functions. The international commission on food codes defines honey as: the honey is collected by the bee, the nectar or the secretion of the plant or the excretion of the insect is brought back to the honeycomb for storage, and the special secretion of the bee is added for conversion and dehydration to mature natural sweet substances, thereby definitely proposing that the honey should be mature in the honeycomb.
The non-mature honey is not fully brewed, has high water content and is easy to ferment and deteriorate, enterprises usually need to adopt a heating and concentrating mode to reduce the water content to below 18 percent so as to be convenient for long-term storage, and the heating and concentrating process not only destroys the nutrient active ingredients of the honey, but also generates harmful substances such as furfurals and the like due to Maillard reaction, oxidation reaction and the like, thereby having potential harm to the health of human bodies. The nutritional quality and the function of the fully brewed natural cap-sealed mature honey are superior to those of the non-fully brewed non-mature honey and the hot processed concentrated honey, which are generally accepted by scientists and consumers at home and abroad.
The development of mature honey production is a feasible way to improve the quality level of honey, and therefore, more and more scholars call for encouragement of mature honey production and establishment of mature honey production bases.
The existing bee colony breeding mode is not suitable for producing mature honey, the mode is characterized by frequent honey feeding, white sugar feeding in a honey shortage season and weak colony vigor, the bred bees have poor physique, high overwintering mortality rate, slow breeding in spring, difficulty in forming strong colonies, low honey yield and difficulty in producing mature honey.
The key to producing mature honey is healthy and large colony, and for bee-keeping production, overwintering is one of the key processes. In the overwintering mode of the bee colony in the prior art, a large amount of white sugar is supplemented, heat preservation is enhanced, the bee colony with a weak flat box is overwintering, the overwintering death rate of bees is high, the health degree is low, the bee colony is slow in breeding in spring, weak in colony vigor and easy to suffer from diseases, early spring honey sources are difficult to fully utilize, the yield of bee products is low, and obstacles are also created for the rapid and healthy propagation of subsequent bee colonies and further for strong colony breeding and mature honey production. The good overwintering breeding method can improve the stress resistance and the bee colony health degree of the bees, prolong the service life of the bees, reduce the death rate of the overwintering bees, further improve the colony vigor and reproductive capacity of the bee colonies in spring, and is the basis for breeding strong colonies and producing mature honey.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a bee colony overwintering breeding method suitable for mature honey production, which aims to reduce the death rate of overwintering bees, improve the stress resistance, the service life and the reproductive capacity of the overwintering bees, improve the colony vigor and the production capacity, increase the honey yield and produce the mature honey.
The overwintering breeding method of the bee colony suitable for mature honey production comprises the following steps:
(1) based on the prevention and control of bee mites, the replacement of queen bees and the cultivation of overwintering bees with the right age;
(2) the overwintering bee colony is adjusted to be 8-20 foot frames by taking totally-covered honeybees and semi-honeybees as bee food without feeding any external sugar feed, and overwintering is carried out by using three boxes.
The invention relates to a method for breeding bee colonies through winter, which only keeps the temperature outside a box at the temperature of lower than-25 ℃ in the whole process of the winter, and does not keep the temperature at the temperature of higher than-25 ℃.
In the step (2) of the method, the sunny weather with the daytime temperature of about 12-14 ℃ is selected before overwintering, and the bee colony is directly adjusted and merged, preferably 14 ℃; for the bee colony combination below 7 frames of bees, the bee colonies are combined into the bee colony with 8-18 feet frame of bee colony according to different conditions.
Preferably, the overwintering bee colony is adjusted to be in a 15-18 foot frame shape, and three boxes are used for overwintering.
In the three box bodies, food accounting for 60-80% of total bee food is placed in the top box, half honeybees and empty honeybees are placed in the middle box, and only one empty honeybee is placed in the middle of the bottom box for honeybees to pass up and down.
Preferably, 8 honeyspleens are placed in the top box, wherein: the middle two half honey combs, and the two sides of each half honey comb are respectively covered with 3 honey combs in a full sealing way; 4-8 half honeyspleens are placed in the middle box according to the situation of the bee colony, the middle part is placed first, and the empty spleens on the two sides are complemented.
In the method, the bee space in the box body is widened to 12-15 mm.
In the method, the excessive queen bees after the bee colonies are combined can be closed by a queen bee cage and stored in bee ways on two sides of a honey comb in the middle of a top box.
The method of the invention does not feed white sugar, oxidized pollen, substitute feed or antibiotics in the whole breeding process of the bee colony in the winter.
Preferably, the invention selects the bee species with strong spawning ability, strong colony maintenance, strong disease resistance and stress resistance, strong collection ability and feed saving.
The overwintering breeding method for the bee colonies suitable for mature honey production provided by the invention has the following beneficial effects:
(1) the overwintering survival rate of bees is improved. The method adopts mature honey to feed bees, after overwintering, the overwintering bees with 18-foot frames and 8-foot frames are combined after autumn breeding, the average colony situation of the spring bee colonies is 16.3-foot frames and 6.9-foot frames, and the average survival rate of the overwintering bees is 90.6 percent and 86.2 percent.
(2) Improving health level of bee colony. The bee body has good quality, is not easy to be ill, does not need to feed antibiotics (no residue in the product), and has long service life.
(3) The method of the invention saves more feed: the conventional overwintering method is that 5-foot framed bees overwinter, and the average consumed feed is 1.72 kg/foot framed bee; by using the method, the bees in the 8-foot frame and the bees in the 18-foot frame overwinter, the average consumed feed is 1.03 kg/foot frame bee and 0.93 kg/foot frame bee respectively, and the feed consumption rate is obviously lower than that of the conventional overwinter bee colony.
(4) The production capacity of bees is enhanced. The group is strong, the cold resistance is strong, and the winter can be over; the feeding capacity and the reproductive capacity of the bees are high, the attendance rate of the bees in the honey flowing period is high, and the honey yield is high. The honey yield of a 6kg (around 24 foot frame) bee colony is greater than 3 bee colonies of 3kg (around 12 foot frame).
(5) Improves the quality of honey and is beneficial to obtaining mature honey. The method adopts strong colony and multiple box bodies, has large bee breeding space and large honey storage space, does not generate bee separation heat, and does not influence the honey yield. The conversion time of honey in the beehive is long, the honey concentration can reach more than 43 Baume degrees (the honey concentration is about 17% at normal temperature, and the honey can be stored for a long time), and the honey in the strong bee hive ripens quickly: the humidity in the strong honeycomb in the honey flowing period is 55%, and the honey is high in yield and quality.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of distribution of a three-box overwintering bee colony honeycomb.
FIG. 2 is a top view of the inside of the three-box overwintering bee colony and the top box.
FIG. 3 is a conventional flat-box overwintering bee colony.
Detailed Description
The following examples are intended to illustrate the invention but are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Modifications or substitutions to methods, procedures, or conditions of the invention may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
Unless otherwise specified, the chemical reagents used in the examples are all conventional commercially available reagents, and the technical means used in the examples are conventional means well known to those skilled in the art.
Example 1 overwintering breeding method of bee colonies suitable for mature honey production
In the later period of the flower season of the Beijing vitex strip (7 middle ten days), the honey spleens and half honey spleens which are needed for overwintering are remained to be fully sealed, and the new queen bees are bred at the same time. In 8-month middle ten days, newly mated and oviposited queen bees are used for replacing old queen bees in the bee colony, and meanwhile, the bee mites are thoroughly controlled by a physical method and a low-toxicity mite killing agent by utilizing the seed breaking period during queen bee replacement. After the new queen bee is oviposited, the honey spleens are used as sugar feed (without feeding any external sugar feed), and the newly harvested rape pollen in the current year is used as protein feed to promote the queen bee to oviposit and culture overwintering bees.
In the middle and late 10 months, on sunny days with the temperature of 12-14 ℃ in the afternoon, the overwintering bee colony is combined to a 18-foot frame (only one queen is left, and redundant queens are loaded into a queen controller) in a multi-colony grouping mode, and the state that bees are more than the spleen is kept. The distribution of the hive body and the honeycomb of the bee colony is as follows: 8 honeycombs are placed on the top box (3 totally-enclosed honeycombs are placed on two sides respectively, two half honeycombs with empty honeycombs on the lower half parts are placed in the middle part, bee ways are enlarged to enable the honeycombs to be evenly distributed in the box body), 8 half honeycombs are placed in the middle box body, and an empty honeycomb is placed in the middle part of the bottom box for honey bees to pass up and down (figure 1).
When the temperature is reduced to below 4 ℃, the bees gather into balls by taking the half honey comb in the middle of the top box as the center to live through the winter, and the box is not opened any more in the whole process of the winter without special conditions such as mouse damage and the like.
The bee colony is placed in a place where the bee colony is dry in the back air, and the box body and the box cover of the beehive are fixed well so as to prevent the box cover and the beehive from being blown over by the wind. Meanwhile, the whole overwintering process is not insulated, and the beehive is erected by using a frame, so that the bee colony is gathered tightly, the activity is reduced, and the beehive is prevented from being soaked by rain and snow and blocking a hive entrance.
Example 2 feed consumption and evaluation of changes in colony vigor by colony during overwintering period (Honey as complete sugar feed)
The 3 types of overwintering bee colonies were organized to compare the feed consumption of the colonies. Types 1 and 2 are three-box 18-foot framed bees and three-box 8-foot framed bees which adopt the bee colony overwintering method of the invention respectively: in clear weather with 12-14 ℃ afternoon in the middle and last ten days of 10 months, the overwintering bee colony is combined to 18-foot frames and 8-foot frames in a bee colony combining mode. The distribution of the hive body and the honeycomb of the bee colony is as follows: 8 combs (3 combs with full covers are respectively placed at two sides of the top box, two half combs with empty combs at the lower half parts are placed in the middle part, and bee paths are enlarged to evenly distribute the combs in the box body) (figure 2); the middle box body is provided with a half-honey spleen and an empty spleen (8 half-honey spleens are placed in the middle of the type 1, 4 half-honey spleens are placed in the middle of the type 2, and 2 empty spleens are placed on two sides of the type 2 respectively); a hollow spleen is arranged in the middle of the bottom box for honey bees to pass up and down; type 3 is conventional flat-box overwintering, and 5-foot framed bees of larger group vigor are selected for comparison (six combs: full-closed honeybees on both sides and half-closed honeybees in the middle) (FIG. 3), and internal and external heat preservation treatment is adopted according to a conventional overwintering method.
The data of colony vigor and honey spleen weight before and after overwintering are counted and shown in table 1.
TABLE 1 comparison of feed consumption and colony potential reduction in overwintering bee colonies
Table 1 the results show that: the overwintering survival rate of the large group of bees with the cold area, no heat preservation and three boxes for overwintering is more than 86 percent and is far higher than 64 percent of the conventional overwintering bee group. Whereas the feed consumption (1.72kg) of the queen-frame bees of the conventional overwintering bee colony is much higher than that of the overwintering management bee colony (about 1kg) based on the technology of the invention.
The overwintering results of the bee colonies of the type 1 and the type 2 show that the bee colonies overwintering by adopting the technology have larger colony vigor, higher bee survival rate and less feed consumption of the podded bees. However, the overwintering bee balls are too large and the total consumption of honey is too large due to the overlarge colony vigor, and the overwintering is not facilitated. Therefore, it is recommended that the population potential of the overwintering bee colony is controlled below the 20-foot frame.
Example 3 Effect of different overwintering feeds on the overwintering of bees
The 4 types of overwintering bee colonies were organized to compare the effect of different overwintering feeds on bee overwintering. Wherein the food of types 1 and 3 is honey comb brewed by collecting plant nectar by bees, and is not supplemented with external sugar feed; the food of type 2 and type 4 is prepared by replacing honey comb with sugar comb obtained by artificially feeding white sugar according to conventional feed supplement mode of overwintering bee colony.
The types 1 and 2 are obtained by adopting a three-box 8-foot frame bee, and adopting a bee colony merging mode if the colony vigor is not enough 8-foot frame. The distribution of the hive body and the honeycomb of the bee colony is as follows: 8 combs (3 totally-covered combs/sugar combs are respectively placed at two sides of the top box, two half combs/sugar combs with empty combs at the lower half parts are placed in the middle of the top box, and bee ways are enlarged to enable the combs to be evenly distributed in the box body); the middle box body is provided with a half honey/sugar spleen and an empty spleen (4 half honey/sugar spleens are arranged in the middle and 2 empty spleens are respectively arranged at two sides); an empty spleen is arranged in the middle of the bottom box for honey bees to pass through up and down. Respectively marking 200 newly-emerged worker bees with red and white before overwintering, and regularly checking the survival condition of the marked bees after overwintering until the marked bees cannot be found.
The type 3 and type 4 are conventional flat-box overwintering, 5-foot frame bees with larger colony vigor are selected for comparison (six combs: full-closed honey/sugar combs are arranged on two sides, and half-closed honey/sugar combs are arranged in the middle), and internal and external heat preservation treatment is adopted according to a conventional overwintering method. Before overwintering, 100 newly-emerged worker bees are respectively marked with red and white, and the survival condition of the marked bees is checked regularly after overwintering until the marked bees cannot be found.
TABLE 2 comparison of feed consumption and colony potential reduction in overwintering bee colonies
Table 2 the results show that: compared with the bee colony with the same colony vigor and the honey as the feed, the bee overwintering mortality rate of the bee colony fed with the white sugar as the feed is obviously higher. The life of the overwintering bees fed with honey is obviously longer than that of the bees fed with white sugar, and the overwintering bees fed with the three-box large-group overwintering bees are longer than those fed with the conventional overwintering bees.
Example 4 evaluation of colony Productivity after overwintering
The 3 types of overwintering bee colonies of the tissues are compared with the reproductive capacity and the collecting capacity of the bees after overwintering. Types 1 and 2 are three-box 18-foot framed bees and three-box 8-foot framed bees, respectively: in clear weather with 12-14 ℃ afternoon in the middle and last ten days of 10 months, the overwintering bee colony is combined to 18-foot frames and 8-foot frames in a bee colony combining mode. The distribution of the hive body and the honeycomb of the bee colony is as follows: 8 combs (3 combs with full covers are respectively placed at two sides of the top box, two half combs with empty combs at the lower half parts are placed in the middle, and bee ways are enlarged to enable the combs to be evenly distributed in the box body); the middle box body is provided with a half-honey spleen and an empty spleen (8 half-honey spleens are placed in the middle of the type 1, 4 half-honey spleens are placed in the middle of the type 2, and 2 empty spleens are placed on two sides of the type 2 respectively); a hollow spleen is arranged in the middle of the bottom box for honey bees to pass up and down; the type 3 is conventional flat-box overwintering, 5-foot framed bees with large colony vigor are selected for comparison (six combs: full-closed honeybees on both sides and half-closed honeybees in the middle), and internal and external heat preservation treatment is adopted according to a conventional overwintering method.
After overwintering, 3 types of bee colonies are adjusted to be 5-foot frame bee colonies with the same colony vigor, spring breeding is conducted, the collecting capacity of the chaste tree honey is compared with that of the chaste tree honey which starts in the middle of 6 months, the colony vigor is stronger than that of the 5-foot frame, bee separation measures are taken, and the colony vigor is less than that of the 5-foot frame, and the bee colonies in the same group are complemented. The same feeding management measures are adopted, and honey shaking treatment is not carried out in the period. Comparing the colony vigor of the bees at 1/4 month and 20/6 month, emptying honey in test colonies (entering a chaste tree big honey flow period) at 20/6 month, capturing the collected outdoor bees at 1/7 month, comparing the weight of the honey sacs, and comparing the honey yield at 10/7 month.
TABLE 3 comparison of colony vigor development and productivity after overwintering
The results in Table 3 show that the population of the overwintering bee colony by adopting the method of the invention is remarkably developed faster than that of the conventional overwintering bee colony, and the average weight of honey sacs, the honey collecting capacity and the number of covered honeybees in a box are also remarkably redundant to that of the conventional overwintering bee colony.
The above examples are only for describing the preferred embodiments of the present invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, and various modifications and improvements made to the technical solution of the present invention by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the present invention should fall within the protection scope defined by the claims of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. A bee colony overwintering breeding method suitable for mature honey production is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) based on the prevention and control of bee mites, the replacement of queen bees and the cultivation of overwintering bees with the right age;
(2) the overwintering bee colony is adjusted to be 8-20 foot frames by taking totally-covered honeybees and semi-honeybees as bee food without feeding any external sugar feed, and overwintering is carried out by using three boxes.
2. The method for overwintering bee colonies as claimed in claim 1, wherein the temperature is kept at a temperature below-25 ℃ and kept at a temperature above-25 ℃ without heat preservation treatment.
3. The method for overwintering cultivation of bee colonies as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (2), the temperature of the day is selected to be 12-14 ℃ or so before overwintering, and the bee colonies can be directly adjusted to be combined, preferably to be 14 ℃; the bee colonies below 7 frames of bees are combined, and the bee colonies are combined into the bee colonies with 8-18-foot frame of bee colony according to different conditions.
4. The bee colony overwintering cultivation method as claimed in claim 3, wherein the overwintering colony vigor is adjusted to 15-18 foot frames, and overwintering is performed by using a three-box body.
5. The method for overwintering and breeding the bee colonies as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the box body in the step (2), foodstuffs accounting for 60% -80% of total bee foodstuffs are placed in the top box, half honeycombs and empty honeycombs are placed in the middle box, and only one empty honeycomb is placed in the middle part of the bottom box for the bees to pass up and down.
6. The bee colony overwintering cultivation method as claimed in claim 5, characterized in that 8 honeycombs are placed in the top box, wherein: the middle part is 2 half honey spleens, and the two sides are 3 full-sealed honey spleens respectively; 4-8 half honeyspleens are placed in the middle box according to the situation of the bee colony, the middle part is placed first, and the empty spleens on the two sides are complemented.
7. The bee colony overwintering cultivation method as claimed in any one of the claims 1-6, characterized in that the bee space widening in the box is 12-15 mm.
8. A method for overwintering bee colonies as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the surplus queen bees are closed by queen cages and stored in the bee spaces on both sides of the honey comb in the middle of the upper housing.
9. The bee colony overwintering cultivation method as claimed in any one of the claims 1-8, characterized in that during the whole colony breeding and overwintering cultivation process, no white sugar, oxidized pollen, substitute feed or antibiotics are fed.
10. The method for overwintering bee colonies as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the species of bees are selected for their strong egg laying ability, strong colony maintenance, strong disease and stress resistance, strong collection ability and feed saving.
CN201911120241.9A 2019-11-15 2019-11-15 Bee colony overwintering breeding method suitable for mature honey production Pending CN110810341A (en)

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CN113575519A (en) * 2021-07-28 2021-11-02 四川农业大学 Method for improving honey quality

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