CN110744158A - Electrolytic finish machining method for micro-wire gear - Google Patents

Electrolytic finish machining method for micro-wire gear Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110744158A
CN110744158A CN201911056204.6A CN201911056204A CN110744158A CN 110744158 A CN110744158 A CN 110744158A CN 201911056204 A CN201911056204 A CN 201911056204A CN 110744158 A CN110744158 A CN 110744158A
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tool electrode
electrode
driven
driving wheel
driven wheel
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CN110744158B (en
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陈扬枝
肖小平
张道平
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South China University of Technology SCUT
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South China University of Technology SCUT
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H9/00Machining specially adapted for treating particular metal objects or for obtaining special effects or results on metal objects
    • B23H9/003Making screw-threads or gears

Abstract

The invention discloses an electrolytic fine machining method of a micro-wire gear, which utilizes a driving wheel and a driven wheel in the wire gear as anodes, and then takes a driving wheel tool electrode meshed with the driving wheel and a driven wheel tool electrode meshed with the driven wheel as cathodes, and when the driving wheel and the driving wheel tool electrode are in a meshed state, a gap for storing electrolyte is formed between the driving wheel and the driving wheel tool electrode, and a gap for storing electrolyte is also formed between the driven wheel and the driven wheel tool electrode; and the driving wheel and the driven wheel are driven by the rotary driver to rotate, and the driving wheel tool electrode and the driven wheel tool electrode are driven by the linear driver to perform linear motion so as to perform electrolytic treatment on the surfaces of the driving wheel and the driven wheel, so that the surface roughness of the driving wheel and the driven wheel is improved, and the control is convenient.

Description

Electrolytic finish machining method for micro-wire gear
Technical Field
The invention relates to a microwire gear processing technology, in particular to an electrolytic finish machining method of a microwire gear.
Background
The line gear is a novel gear designed according to the space conjugate curve meshing principle, and a pair of space conjugate curves (main and auxiliary line tooth contact lines) always keep a point contact meshing state in the transmission process. Because the theoretical tooth profile of the linear gear is a 'line' and the transmission precision of the linear gear is only determined by the precision of the meshing line, the scale of the linear gear can be infinitely small theoretically, and a theoretical basis is provided for the microminiaturization or the microminiaturization and the nanocrystallization of the linear gear.
The micro-machining method of the line gear comprises laser micro-sintering, but the micro-sintering process of the laser has the problems of powder adhesion on an inclined surface, a step effect, excessive energy and the like, which affect the surface precision of the micro-line gear and further affect the transmission precision of the micro-line gear, so that the post-treatment finish machining of the line gear needs to be carried out, the common finish machining methods comprise an electrochemical machining method, a grinding finish machining method and the like, and the electrochemical finish machining method is an effective method for the micro-line gear, and the electrochemical finish machining method is the following electrochemical finish machining method: the workpiece is used as an anode, the tool electrode is used as a cathode, the cathode and the anode are connected with two poles of a power supply, and an electric conduction liquid exists between the cathode and the anode, so that the post-treatment finishing process is realized by electrochemical reaction between the cathode and the anode. At present, no microwire gear post-processing finish machining method which is simple in control mode, convenient for machining of tool electrodes and easy to guarantee precision exists.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to overcome the defects in the prior art and provides an electrolytic finishing method of a microwire gear. The electrolytic finish machining method of the micro-wire gear is simple in control mode and easy to ensure the precision of the wire gear.
The purpose of the invention is realized by the following technical scheme: the electrolytic finishing method of the microwire gear comprises the following steps:
(1) establishing a contact line equation of the tool electrode according to the microwire gear;
(2) constructing a solid model of a driving wheel tool electrode and a solid model of a driven wheel tool electrode based on a contact line equation of the tool electrode;
(3) manufacturing an actual driving wheel tool electrode and an actual driven wheel tool electrode on the basis of the solid model of the driving wheel tool electrode and the solid model of the driven wheel tool electrode, wherein the surface outline of the actual driving wheel tool electrode is offset from the normal offset distance d of the plane of the solid model contact line of the driving wheel tool electrode1And the actual surface contour of the driven wheel tool electrode is flat relative to the physical model contact line of the driven wheel tool electrodeNormal offset distance d of face2
(4) The driving wheel is meshed with a driving wheel tool electrode, the driven wheel is meshed with a driven wheel tool electrode, the driving wheel is connected with a power supply positive electrode to form a first anode, the driven wheel is connected with the power supply positive electrode to form a second anode, the driving wheel tool electrode is connected with a power supply negative electrode to form a first cathode, and the driven wheel tool electrode is connected with the power supply negative electrode to form a second cathode;
(5) the driving wheel and the driven wheel are driven by the corresponding rotary drivers to rotate at a constant speed, the driving wheel tool electrode and the driven wheel tool electrode are driven by the corresponding linear drivers to move in a linear motion at a constant speed, and a gap d is formed between the first anode and the first cathode in the process3A gap d is formed between the second anode and the second cathode4At the gap d3And a gap d4All filled with electrolyte, and d3=d1,d4=d2
Preferably, in step (1), the contact line equation of the tool electrode is established as follows:
(1-1) constructing a meshing coordinate system: coordinate system o-xyz, coordinate system op-xpypzpAnd a coordinate system oq-xqyqzqWherein z, zpAnd zqThe axes intersecting at a point, points o, opAnd oqIn the same plane, point opDistances to the z-axis and x-axis are a and b, respectively, and point oqTo the z-axis and zpThe distances of the axes are l and l', respectively, and the point oqDistance to x axis is l1X axis and xpThe intersection angle between the axes is theta, theta belongs to [0, pi ]](ii) a The active contact line of the driving wheel is fixed on the coordinate system o1-x1y1z1And a coordinate system o1-x1y1z1At angular velocity ω'1Rotate around the coordinate o-xyz system by a rotation angle phi1The driven contact line of the driven wheel is fixed on the coordinate system o2-x2y2z2And a coordinate system o2-x2y2z2At an angle of ω'2Around a coordinate system op-xpypzpRotate at a rotation angle phi2The electrode contact line of the tool electrode is fixed to the coordinate system o3-x3y3z3O of (a)3-x3z3On a plane, coordinate system o3-x3y3z3Along a coordinate system o with a velocity vq-xqyqzqMoving by a moving distance vt;
(1-2) establishing equations for the driving contact line and the driven contact line based on the meshing coordinate system, wherein
The equation for the active contact line is:
the equation for the driven contact line is:
the equation for the electrode contact line of the tool electrode is then:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,and phi is2=iφ1And i is a transmission ratio,gamma is the angle parameter and t is the parameter of the equation of the electrode contact line.
Preferably, the capstan tool electrode comprises an active substrate and a plurality of active electrode teeth fixed on the active substrate, wherein the number of the active electrode teeth is greater than or equal to the number of the teeth of the capstan.
Preferably, the driven wheel tool electrode comprises a driven base plate and a plurality of driven electrode wire teeth fixed on the driven base plate, wherein the number of the driven electrode wire teeth is larger than or equal to that of the driven wheel wire teeth.
Preferably, said distance d1And a distance d2Are equal in size.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. in the electrolytic finish machining method of the micro-wire gear, in the finish machining process of the driving wheel and the driven wheel, only the driving wheel and the driven wheel are required to be driven to rotate at a constant speed, and the tool electrode of the driving wheel and the tool electrode of the driven wheel are driven to do linear motion at a constant speed, so that the electrolytic finish machining method of the micro-wire gear is convenient to control and easy to realize.
2. The electrolytic finish machining method of the micro-wire gear adopts the driving wheel tool electrode and the driven wheel tool electrode to be easy to machine, the driving wheel tool electrode can be well meshed with the driving wheel, and the driven wheel tool electrode is meshed with the driven wheel, so that the precision of the wire gear can be ensured, and the use requirement can be met.
3. In the invention, the fine machining is carried out by adopting the mode that the tool electrode of the driving wheel is meshed with the driving wheel and the tool electrode of the driven wheel is meshed with the driven wheel, so that the area near the contact point of the micro-line gear can be accurately machined, the whole tooth surface of the micro-line gear does not need to be finely machined, and the fine machining efficiency is favorably improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the meshing coordinate system of the electrolytic finishing method of a microwire gear of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic view of the meshing structure of the parallel axis gear of the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the engagement structure of the parallel axis driver and the driver tool electrode of the present invention.
Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of the engagement structure of the parallel shaft driven wheel and the driven wheel tool electrode of the invention.
Fig. 5 is a schematic view of the meshing structure of the cross-axis gear of the present invention.
FIG. 6 is a schematic view of the engagement structure of the driving wheel with intersecting row axes and the tool electrode of the driving wheel.
Fig. 7 is a schematic view of the engagement structure of the cross-shaft driven wheel and the driven wheel tool electrode of the present invention.
Wherein 11 is a parallel axis driving wheel, 111 is a driving contact line of the parallel axis driving wheel, 12 is a parallel axis driven wheel, 121 is a driven contact line of the parallel axis driven wheel, 13 is a driving wheel tool electrode engaged with the parallel axis driving wheel, 131 is an electrode contact line of the driving wheel tool electrode engaged with the parallel axis driving wheel, 14 is a driven wheel tool electrode engaged with the parallel axis driven wheel, 141 is an electrode contact line of the driven wheel tool electrode engaged with the parallel axis driven wheel, 21 is a cross axis driving wheel, 211 is a driving contact line of the cross axis driving wheel, 22 is a cross axis driven wheel, 221 is a driven contact line of the cross axis driven wheel, 23 is a driving wheel tool electrode engaged with the cross axis driving wheel, 231 is an electrode contact line of the driving wheel tool electrode engaged with the cross axis driving wheel, and 24 is a driven wheel tool electrode engaged with the cross axis driven wheel, 241 is the electrode contact line of the driven wheel tool electrode engaged with the crossed shaft driven wheel.
Detailed Description
The invention is further illustrated by the following figures and examples.
An electrolytic finishing method of a microwire gear comprises the following steps:
(1) establishing a contact line equation of the tool electrode according to the microwire gear;
(2) constructing a solid model of a driving wheel tool electrode and a solid model of a driven wheel tool electrode based on a contact line equation of the tool electrode; specifically, a certain volume is established in the main normal vector direction of the driving contact line and the driven contact line, a wheel body of the driving wheel and a wheel body of the driven wheel are respectively established, and then the wheel bodies of the driving wheel and the driven wheel are uniformly circumferentially distributed with line teeth in an array manner to form the driving wheel and the driven wheel; and through the main normal vector direction of the driving contact line and the driven contact line in the tool coordinate system o3-x3y3z3The expression in (1) is used for reversely constructing a certain volume, namely electrode wire teeth on the tool electrode can be respectively constructed, and then the electrode wire teeth are horizontally and uniformly distributed on electrode substrates (an active substrate and a slave substrate) of the tool electrodeA movable base plate) to form a solid model of the driving wheel tool electrode and the driven wheel tool electrode;
(3) manufacturing an actual driving wheel tool electrode and an actual driven wheel tool electrode on the basis of the solid model of the driving wheel tool electrode and the solid model of the driven wheel tool electrode, wherein the surface outline of the actual driving wheel tool electrode is offset from the normal offset distance d of the plane of the solid model contact line of the driving wheel tool electrode1And the actual surface profile of the driven wheel tool electrode is offset from the normal of the plane of the dummification contact line of the driven wheel tool electrode by a distance d2The electrolyte is stored between the driving wheel tool electrode and the tooth surface of the driving wheel and between the driven wheel tool electrode and the tooth surface of the driven wheel, so that the electrolysis is ensured to be effectively carried out.
(4) The driving wheel is meshed with a driving wheel tool electrode, the driven wheel is meshed with a driven wheel tool electrode, the driving wheel is connected with a power supply positive electrode to form a first anode, the driven wheel is connected with the power supply positive electrode to form a second anode, the driving wheel tool electrode is connected with a power supply negative electrode to form a first cathode, and the driven wheel tool electrode is connected with the power supply negative electrode to form a second cathode;
(5) the driving wheel and the driven wheel are driven by the corresponding rotary drivers to rotate at a constant speed, the driving wheel tool electrode and the driven wheel tool electrode are driven by the corresponding linear drivers to move in a linear motion at a constant speed, and a gap d is formed between the first anode and the first cathode in the process3A gap d is formed between the second anode and the second cathode4At the gap d3And a gap d4All filled with electrolyte, and d3=d1,d4=d2. Said distance d1And a distance d2Are equal in size. The driving wheel and the driven wheel are driven to rotate, and the driving wheel tool electrode and the driven wheel tool electrode are driven horizontally, so that the driving mode is simple and the control is convenient.
In step (1), the contact line equation of the tool electrode is established as follows:
(1-1) As shown in FIG. 1, an engagement coordinate system is constructed: coordinate system o-xyz, coordinate system op-xpypzpAnd a coordinate system oq-xqyqzqWherein z, zpAnd zqThe axes intersecting at a point, points o, opAnd oqIn the same plane, point opDistances to the z-axis and x-axis are a and b, respectively, and point oqTo the z-axis and zpThe distances of the axes are l and l', respectively, and the point oqDistance to x axis is l1X axis and xpThe intersection angle between the axes is theta, theta belongs to [0, pi ]](ii) a The active contact line of the driving wheel is fixed on the coordinate system o1-x1y1z1And a coordinate system o1-x1y1z1At angular velocity ω'1Rotate around the coordinate o-xyz system by a rotation angle phi1The driven contact line of the driven wheel is fixed on the coordinate system o2-x2y2z2And a coordinate system o2-x2y2z2At an angle of ω'2Around a coordinate system op-xpypzpRotate at a rotation angle phi2The electrode contact line of the tool electrode is fixed to the coordinate system o3-x3y3z3O of (a)3-x3z3On a plane, coordinate system o3-x3y3z3Along a coordinate system o with a velocity vq-xqyqzqMoving by a moving distance vt;
(1-2) establishing equations for the driving contact line and the driven contact line based on the meshing coordinate system, wherein
The equation for the active contact line is:
the equation for the driven contact line is:
the equation for the electrode contact line of the tool electrode is then:
wherein the content of the first and second substances,and phi is2=iφ1And i is a transmission ratio,gamma is the angle parameter and t is the parameter of the equation of the electrode contact line.
The driving wheel tool electrode comprises a driving substrate and a plurality of driving electrode line teeth fixed on the driving substrate, wherein the number of the driving electrode line teeth is larger than or equal to that of the driving wheel line teeth. The driven wheel tool electrode comprises a driven base plate and a plurality of driven electrode line teeth fixed on the driven base plate, wherein the number of the driven electrode line teeth is larger than or equal to that of the driven wheel line teeth. The number of electrode wire teeth on the tool electrode is not less than the number of wire teeth of the wire gear, which can ensure that the surface of the wire gear is subjected to sufficient electrolytic reaction to improve the finish machining effect, thereby ensuring the surface roughness of the wire gear.
Specifically, when θ is ═ pi, the wire gear to be electrolytically finish-machined is a parallel axis gear, and the process of treating the parallel axis gear by using the electrolytic finishing method of a microwire gear of the present invention is as follows:
let i equal 5, γ equal 0, θ equal pi, a equal 9mm, b equal 0, l equal 1.5mm, l equal10mm, then the capstan contact line equation can be obtained from equations (1), (2), and (3):
driven wheel contact line equation:
electrode contact line equation for tool electrode:
based on the equation, and according to the step (2), establishing a solid model of the parallel axis gear and the tool electrode corresponding to the parallel axis gear, in the present embodiment, d1=d20.05 mm. The parallel axis gears include a parallel axis drive wheel and a parallel axis driven wheel as shown in figure 2. The driving contact line of the driving wheel of the parallel shaft is positioned on the line tooth of the driving wheel of the parallel shaft, and the driven contact line of the driven wheel of the parallel shaft is positioned on the line tooth of the driven wheel of the parallel shaft. As shown in fig. 3 and 4, the parallel axis driver is engaged with the driver tool electrode, the parallel axis driven wheel is engaged with the driven wheel tool electrode, and the parallel axis driver is connected with the positive power supply electrode as the first anode, the parallel axis driven wheel is connected with the positive power supply electrode as the second anode, the driver tool electrode is connected with the negative power supply electrode as the first cathode, and the driven wheel tool electrode is connected with the negative power supply electrode as the second cathode.
When electrolysis is carried out, the parallel shaft driving wheel and the parallel shaft driven wheel rotate under the driving of the rotary driver, the driving wheel tool electrode and the driven wheel tool electrode move linearly under the driving of the linear driver, and the axis of the rotation motion is vertical to the direction of the linear motion; the driving contact line of the parallel shaft driving wheel is meshed with the electrode contact line of the driving wheel tool electrode, the driven contact line of the parallel shaft driven wheel is meshed with the electrode contact line of the driven wheel tool electrode, and a certain gap d is always kept between the first anode and the first cathode under the drive of the rotary driver and the linear driver30.05 mm; a certain gap d is always kept between the second anode and the second cathode40.05 mm. The cathode and the anode are separated by electrolyte, and the electrolyte is sprayed to the wire teeth meshed with the anode and the cathode through an external nozzle, so that the surfaces of the parallel shaft driving wheel and the parallel shaft driven wheel are fully obtained in the processAnd (4) electrolytic treatment, so that the precision of the parallel shaft driving wheel and the parallel shaft driven wheel is improved.
When theta is 2 pi/3, the wire gear to be electrolytically finished is a crossed-axis gear, and the process of processing the crossed-axis gear by adopting the electrolytic finishing method of the microwire gear comprises the following steps:
let i be 5, i is,θ=2π/3,a=0,b=0,l=0,l1=0mm,z(tc)=3.5π,φ1then the capstan contact line equation can be obtained from equations (1), (2) and (3):
driven wheel contact line equation:
electrode contact line equation for tool electrode:
based on the equation, a solid model of the crossed axis gear and the tool electrode corresponding to the crossed axis gear is established according to the step (2), and in the implementation, d1=d20.05 mm. Then, as shown in fig. 5, the cross-axis gear includes a cross-axis drive wheel and a cross-axis driven wheel. The driving contact line of the driving wheel of the cross shaft is positioned on the line tooth of the driving wheel of the cross shaft, and the driven contact line of the driven wheel of the cross shaft is positioned on the line tooth of the driven wheel of the cross shaft. As shown in fig. 6 and 7, the cross-axis driver is engaged with the driver tool electrode, the cross-axis driven wheel is engaged with the driven wheel tool electrode, and the cross-axis driver is connected to the positive power supply electrode as a first anode, the cross-axis driven wheel is connected to the positive power supply electrode as a second anode, the driver tool electrode is connected to the negative power supply electrode as a first cathode, and the driven wheel tool electrode is connected to the negative power supply electrode as a second cathodeThe driving wheel tool electrode is used as a second cathode and is connected with the negative pole of the power supply.
When electrolysis is carried out, the crossed shaft driving wheel and the crossed shaft driven wheel rotate under the driving of the rotary driver, the driving wheel tool electrode and the driven wheel tool electrode do linear motion under the driving of the linear driver, and the axis of the rotary motion and the direction of the linear motion form a certain included angle; specifically, the included angle between the axis of the driving wheel of the cross shaft and the linear motion direction of the tool electrode of the driving wheel is gamma, and the included angle between the axis of the driven wheel of the cross shaft and the linear motion direction of the tool electrode of the driven wheel is pi-theta-gamma; the driving contact line of the driving wheel of the cross shaft is meshed with the electrode contact line of the tool electrode of the driving wheel, the driven contact line of the driven wheel of the cross shaft is meshed with the electrode contact line of the tool electrode of the driven wheel, and a certain gap d is always kept between the first anode and the first cathode under the drive of the rotary driver and the linear driver30.05 mm; a certain gap d is always kept between the second anode and the second cathode40.05 mm. The cathode and the anode are separated by electrolyte, and the electrolyte is sprayed to the linear teeth where the anode and the cathode are meshed through an external nozzle.
The above-mentioned embodiments are preferred embodiments of the present invention, and the present invention is not limited thereto, and any other modifications or equivalent substitutions that do not depart from the technical spirit of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. An electrolytic finishing method of a microwire gear is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) establishing a contact line equation of the tool electrode according to the microwire gear;
(2) constructing a solid model of a driving wheel tool electrode and a solid model of a driven wheel tool electrode based on a contact line equation of the tool electrode;
(3) solid model of driving wheel tool electrodeAnd manufacturing an actual driving wheel tool electrode and an actual driven wheel tool electrode on the basis of the solid model of the driven wheel tool electrode, wherein the surface contour of the actual driving wheel tool electrode is offset from the normal offset distance d of the plane of the solid model contact line of the driving wheel tool electrode1And the actual surface profile of the driven wheel tool electrode is offset from the normal of the plane of the dummification contact line of the driven wheel tool electrode by a distance d2
(4) The driving wheel is meshed with a driving wheel tool electrode, the driven wheel is meshed with a driven wheel tool electrode, the driving wheel is connected with a power supply positive electrode to form a first anode, the driven wheel is connected with the power supply positive electrode to form a second anode, the driving wheel tool electrode is connected with a power supply negative electrode to form a first cathode, and the driven wheel tool electrode is connected with the power supply negative electrode to form a second cathode;
(5) the driving wheel and the driven wheel are driven by the corresponding rotary drivers to rotate at a constant speed, the driving wheel tool electrode and the driven wheel tool electrode are driven by the corresponding linear drivers to move in a linear motion at a constant speed, and a gap d is formed between the first anode and the first cathode in the process3A gap d is formed between the second anode and the second cathode4At the gap d3And a gap d4All filled with electrolyte, and d3=d1,d4=d2
2. The electrolytic finishing method of microwire gears according to claim 1, characterized in that in step (1), the contact line equation of the tool electrode is established as follows:
(1-1) constructing a meshing coordinate system: coordinate system o-xyz, coordinate system op-xpypzpAnd a coordinate system oq-xqyqzqWherein z, zpAnd zqThe axes intersecting at a point, points o, opAnd oqIn the same plane, point opDistances to the z-axis and x-axis are a and b, respectively, and point oqTo the z-axis and zpThe distances of the axes are l and l', respectively, and the point oqDistance to x axis is l1X axis and xpThe intersection angle between the axes is theta, theta belongs to [0, pi ]](ii) a The active contact line of the driving wheel is fixed on the coordinate system o1-x1y1z1And a coordinate system o1-x1y1z1At angular velocity ω'1Rotate around the coordinate o-xyz system by a rotation angle phi1The driven contact line of the driven wheel is fixed on the coordinate system o2-x2y2z2And a coordinate system o2-x2y2z2At an angle of ω'2Around a coordinate system op-xpypzpRotate at a rotation angle phi2The electrode contact line of the tool electrode is fixed to the coordinate system o3-x3y3z3O of (a)3-x3z3On a plane, coordinate system o3-x3y3z3Along a coordinate system o with a velocity vq-xqyqzqMoving by a moving distance vt;
(1-2) establishing equations for the driving contact line and the driven contact line based on the meshing coordinate system, wherein
The equation for the active contact line is:
this is the formula (1)
The equation for the driven contact line is:
this is represented by the formula (2),
the equation for the electrode contact line of the tool electrode is then:
this is represented by the formula (3),
wherein the content of the first and second substances,and phi is2=iφ1And i is a transmission ratio,gamma is the angle parameter and t is the parameter of the equation of the electrode contact line.
3. The electrolytic finishing method of a microwire gear according to claim 1, characterized in that: the driving wheel tool electrode comprises a driving substrate and a plurality of driving electrode line teeth fixed on the driving substrate, wherein the number of the driving electrode line teeth is larger than or equal to that of the driving wheel line teeth.
4. The electrolytic finishing method of a microwire gear according to claim 1, characterized in that: the driven wheel tool electrode comprises a driven base plate and a plurality of driven electrode line teeth fixed on the driven base plate, wherein the number of the driven electrode line teeth is larger than or equal to that of the driven wheel line teeth.
5. The electrolytic finishing method of a microwire gear according to claim 1, characterized in that: said distance d1And a distance d2Are equal in size.
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