CN110726578A - Preposed sampling method for testing high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide banding - Google Patents

Preposed sampling method for testing high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide banding Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110726578A
CN110726578A CN201911003472.1A CN201911003472A CN110726578A CN 110726578 A CN110726578 A CN 110726578A CN 201911003472 A CN201911003472 A CN 201911003472A CN 110726578 A CN110726578 A CN 110726578A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
magnetic
sample
detection
carbide
strip
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Pending
Application number
CN201911003472.1A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李昭昆
陈文君
彭志战
陈治山
徐保中
仵永刚
陈志勇
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Luoyang LYC Bearing Co Ltd
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Luoyang LYC Bearing Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201911003472.1A priority Critical patent/CN110726578A/en
Publication of CN110726578A publication Critical patent/CN110726578A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/02Devices for withdrawing samples
    • G01N1/04Devices for withdrawing samples in the solid state, e.g. by cutting
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/28Preparing specimens for investigation including physical details of (bio-)chemical methods covered elsewhere, e.g. G01N33/50, C12Q
    • G01N1/286Preparing specimens for investigation including physical details of (bio-)chemical methods covered elsewhere, e.g. G01N33/50, C12Q involving mechanical work, e.g. chopping, disintegrating, compacting, homogenising
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N27/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electrochemical, or magnetic means
    • G01N27/72Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electrochemical, or magnetic means by investigating magnetic variables
    • G01N27/82Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electrochemical, or magnetic means by investigating magnetic variables for investigating the presence of flaws
    • G01N27/83Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electrochemical, or magnetic means by investigating magnetic variables for investigating the presence of flaws by investigating stray magnetic fields
    • G01N27/84Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electrochemical, or magnetic means by investigating magnetic variables for investigating the presence of flaws by investigating stray magnetic fields by applying magnetic powder or magnetic ink
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N1/00Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation
    • G01N1/28Preparing specimens for investigation including physical details of (bio-)chemical methods covered elsewhere, e.g. G01N33/50, C12Q
    • G01N1/286Preparing specimens for investigation including physical details of (bio-)chemical methods covered elsewhere, e.g. G01N33/50, C12Q involving mechanical work, e.g. chopping, disintegrating, compacting, homogenising
    • G01N2001/2873Cutting or cleaving

Abstract

The invention discloses a preposed sampling method for testing high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide strip, which applies the principle of magnetic powder detection, namely a nondestructive testing method for testing the surface or near-surface defects of a ferromagnetic material by utilizing the interaction of a defect leakage magnetic field and magnetic powder. The method overcomes the defect of directly adopting a microstructure analysis material technology, the selected sample takes into account the radial longitudinal section and the tangential longitudinal section of the raw material, the sampling range is expanded, the method meets the inspection requirements of national standards on the carbide strip, and the accuracy of inspection and grading is improved.

Description

Preposed sampling method for testing high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide banding
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of quality inspection of steel raw materials, and particularly relates to a preposed sampling method for inspecting high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide strips.
Background
The bearing is an important basic component in the mechanical industry, works in a high-speed and alternating motion environment, bears the action of various stresses, mainly alternating stresses, and therefore the mechanical property of the bearing is required to be uniform. Because the high-carbon chromium bearing steel contains higher alloy elements, the crystal segregation formed during the smelting and cooling of the steel extends to form a carbide enrichment zone during the hot rolling deformation, and the existence of the strip-shaped carbide causes the alloy components in the steel structure to be uneven and cannot be eliminated in the general heat treatment process, so that the mechanical property of the bearing steel is uneven, thereby reducing the quality and the service life of the bearing. The severe band-shaped carbide structure also causes large deformation of the workpiece during quenching, increases the anisotropy of the hot deformed steel, and becomes a source of quench cracks. In the production practice, when magnetic powder detection is carried out on the finished bearing ring for many times, the magnetic marks on the end surface and the inner and outer diameters in batches are displayed, and the magnetic marks are determined to be caused by carbide strips through detection, so that the bearing ring can only be scrapped in batches due to high requirements of bearing products. Therefore, the evaluation and control of the bearing strip carbides must be very accurate and reliable.
The evaluation of the metal material structure depends on the microstructure analysis technology of the material, the microstructure analysis of the material generally comprises three main stages, namely sample preparation, microstructure display and microstructure analysis, the sampling is the first procedure of metallographic sample preparation, and if the sampling is improper, the detection purpose cannot be achieved. The test surface and test direction of the test piece of the strip-shaped structure rating are defined by the standards as a longitudinal section parallel to the forging and rolling directions, for example, as shown in FIG. 1, and the size of the test piece is determined by the testThe area of the test surface is less than 400mm2The thickness of the sample is 15 mm-20 mm, and if the sample is too large, the grinding plane is too large, so that the grinding time is prolonged, the sample is not easy to grind, and the real tissue cannot be displayed.
The reality is that: in the test, the strip-shaped carbide of the raw material is required to be graded as accurately as possible, particularly for important bearing products, and when the grading is accurate, sampling is required to be accurate, but because the metallographic specimen is small, a part with the strip-shaped carbide is not necessarily obtained, or a relatively serious part is obtained.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a preposed sampling method for inspecting the high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide strip, which applies the principle of magnetic powder detection and selects a part with relatively serious carbide strip as far as possible, so that the subsequent metallographic specimen preparation is more targeted, the carbide strip is more accurately graded, and the quality of a bearing product is effectively ensured.
The purpose of the invention can be realized by adopting the following technical scheme: a kind of test high carbon chromium bearing steel carbide banding preposition sampling method, use the principle of magnetic particle detection, namely utilize the principle of interaction of magnetic leakage field of defect and magnetic particle to detect ferromagnetic material surface or near a nondestructive test method of surface defect, gather the picture formed by magnetic particle while detecting usually to be called the magnetic mark, because the banding carbide forms the element segregation, the metallographic structure changes and causes the magnetic conductivity change, thus form the magnetic leakage field at the interface of two-phase, can produce the magnetic mark under the strong magnetic field to reveal; because the rolling direction of the carbide strip is parallel to that of the steel, a direct energization method is adopted, namely, a sample is magnetized in the circumferential direction, so that magnetic force lines and the carbide strip are perpendicular to each other, and magnetic powder detection is carried out; the magnetic marks generated by the carbides are in a strip shape, the carbide distribution zones are parallel to each other, the display directions of the magnetic marks are relatively regular, the outlines of the magnetic marks are not clear, the magnetic powder adsorption is loose and not dense compared with the related magnetic marks, and the repeatability is realized.
The preposed sampling method for detecting the high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide belt shape comprises the following specific steps:
1. according to different diameters of steel bar materials, cutting different numbers of samples from the end parts of the steel bar materials according to requirements;
2. marking a corresponding sample number at the end of each sample, and marking a serial number of a detection surface;
3. quenching and tempering the sample, wherein the quenching heating temperature is as follows: heating at 820-850 deg.c for 1.5min according to the thickness of sample; the tempering heating temperature is 150 ℃ and the time is 1-2 h; the coolant is oil;
4. grinding each detection surface of the sample to enable the surface roughness to reach at least Ra1.6; grinding the two end surfaces of the sample, wherein the surface roughness reaches Ra3.2, but the two ends are smooth and have no inclination, so that the sample is stably clamped when electrified and magnetized;
5. performing magnetic powder detection by adopting a wet remanence method, wherein the surface of a sample is clean and free of pollution and corrosion before magnetization, the sample is magnetized and electrified for 2-3 times, the magnetization time of each time is 0.5-1 s, the magnetized sample cannot be contacted with a ferromagnetic object, the magnetic suspension is fully stirred before soaking, the magnetized sample is soaked in the magnetic suspension for not less than 30 s after stopping stirring, then the sample is slowly taken out, kept stand for 1-2 min, and then magnetic mark detection is performed;
6. according to the previous tests, if no magnetic mark is shown, the banded grade of the carbide of the sample usually does not exceed 2 grades, and if no special requirement exists, the raw material can be judged to be qualified without further inspection; and if the magnetic marks are displayed, selecting the area with the most serious magnetic marks, manufacturing a metallographic specimen according to the standard regulation of GB/T18254 high-carbon chromium bearing steel, and finally inspecting and grading.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the method overcomes the defect of directly adopting a microstructure analysis material technology, the selected sample takes into account the radial longitudinal section and the tangential longitudinal section of the raw material, the sampling range is expanded, the method meets the inspection requirements of national standards on the carbide strip, and the accuracy of inspection and grading is improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic drawing of a sample site for inspection of a bearing ring specified in GB/T18254-2016 high carbon chromium bearing Steel with a carbide strip having a steel diameter > 60 mm;
FIG. 2 is a cut block diagram of a sample having a bar diameter greater than 40 mm;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of sample A;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of sample B;
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of sample C;
FIG. 6 is a cut block diagram of a sample having a bar diameter of less than 40 mm;
FIG. 7 is a schematic view of sample E;
FIG. 8 is a schematic view of sample D;
FIG. 9 is a photograph showing the band-shaped magnetic traces of carbide in the sample;
in fig. 9: 1. carbide strip-shaped magnetic marks; 2. and (5) sampling.
Detailed Description
The invention is described in further detail below with reference to the following figures and specific examples:
as shown in fig. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, a preposed sampling method for testing the high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide strip shape has the following specific technical scheme:
1. cutting a sample:
cutting out samples from the end parts of the steel bars by a linear cutting machine according to the graph shown in figure 2, figure 3, figure 4 and figure 5, cutting out bars with the diameter phi of more than 40mm into A, B, C samples according to the graph shown in figure 2; and cutting the bar stock with the diameter phi of less than or equal to 40mm into D, E test samples according to the graph shown in figure 6, figure 7 and figure 8. The dimensions of the samples are shown in tables 1 and 2 below:
table 1:
table 2:
2. the end of each sample is marked with the corresponding sample number A, B, C, D, E, and the detection surface marks Δ are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 as shown.
3. Quenching and tempering the sample:
① quenching, heating at 820-850 deg.C;
② quenching and heating time, keeping the temperature for 1.5min according to the thickness of the sample per 1 mm;
③ Coolant oil;
④, the tempering temperature is 150 ℃;
⑤ the tempering time is 1-2 h.
4. Grinding each detection surface of the sample to enable the surface roughness to reach at least Ra1.6; and (3) grinding the two end surfaces of the sample, wherein the surface roughness reaches Ra3.2, but the two ends are smooth and have no inclination, so that the sample is stably clamped when electrified and magnetized.
5. The magnetic powder detection is carried out by adopting a wet-type remanence method, and fluorescent magnetic powder and non-fluorescent magnetic powder can be used:
① starting the magnetic powder detection equipment, and inspecting the state of each part of the flaw detection equipment comprehensively, wherein each part of the equipment has good action performance and no fault;
② if non-fluorescent magnetic powder is used for detection, it is ensured that the white light illumination on the surface of the sample is not less than 1000lx, and if fluorescent magnetic powder is used for detection, it is ensured that the ultraviolet irradiance on the surface of the sample is not less than 1000 muW/cm2The white light illumination is not higher than 20 lx;
③ stirring the magnetic suspension evenly, using A-15/50 artificial standard test piece to check the comprehensive performance of the equipment, the display of the artificial groove on the test piece is clear and complete, and after the check is qualified, carrying out magnetic powder detection;
④, determining magnetizing current according to the formula I ═ 30-40D
In the formula: i-magnetizing current (A), D-equivalent diameter, perimeter/π (mm) of the sample cross-section
⑤ before magnetization, the surface of the sample should be clean and free of pollution and corrosion, the sample is placed between two electrodes of a magnetic powder detection device along the length direction to be clamped tightly and ensure good clamping, and loosening or sparking is prevented;
⑥ magnetizing and electrifying the sample for 2-3 times, wherein each time of magnetization time is 0.5-1 s, the magnetized sample can not contact with the ferromagnetic object;
⑦ inspecting by magnetic suspension soaking method, stirring the magnetic suspension before soaking, soaking the magnetized sample in the magnetic suspension for at least 30 s after stopping stirring, slowly taking out the sample, standing for 1-2 min, and inspecting the magnetic traces.
6. According to the accumulation of the previous test results, if no magnetic mark is found, the strip grade of the carbide of the sample usually does not exceed 2 grades, if no special requirement exists, the raw material can be judged to be qualified, and no further inspection is needed; and if the magnetic marks are displayed, selecting the area with the most serious magnetic marks, manufacturing a metallographic specimen according to the standard regulation of GB/T18254 high-carbon chromium bearing steel, and finally inspecting and grading.
7. FIG. 9 is a photograph showing the band-like magnetic traces of carbide in the sample.

Claims (1)

1. A preposed sampling method for testing the high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide banding is characterized in that: the detection method is a nondestructive detection method for detecting the surface or near-surface defects of a ferromagnetic material by using the principle of magnetic powder detection, namely the interaction principle of a defect leakage magnetic field and magnetic powder, wherein an image formed by magnetic powder aggregation during detection is generally called as a magnetic trace, and the magnetic conductivity changes due to the segregation of elements formed by strip-shaped carbides and the change of metallographic structures, so that the leakage magnetic field is formed at a two-phase interface, and the magnetic trace display can be generated under the strong magnetic field; because the rolling direction of the carbide strip is parallel to that of the steel, a direct energization method is adopted, namely, a sample is magnetized in the circumferential direction, so that magnetic force lines and the carbide strip are perpendicular to each other, and magnetic powder detection is carried out; magnetic traces generated by carbides are in a strip shape, distribution bands of the carbides are parallel to each other, the display directions of the magnetic traces are relatively regular, the outlines of the magnetic traces are not clear, magnetic powder adsorption is loose and not dense compared with related magnetic traces, reproducibility is achieved, and whether the steel carbide strip exists or not can be determined under the indication of the magnetic traces, so that a metallographic sample can be made in a targeted manner, and the accuracy of rating is improved;
the preposed sampling method for detecting the high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide belt shape comprises the following specific steps:
1) according to different diameters of steel bars, cutting out different numbers of samples from the end part of the steel bar according to requirements;
2) marking a corresponding sample number at the end part of each sample, and marking a serial number of a detection surface;
3) quenching and tempering the sample, wherein the quenching heating temperature is as follows: heating at 820-850 deg.c for 1.5min according to the thickness of sample; the tempering heating temperature is 150 ℃ and the time is 1-2 h; the coolant is oil;
4) grinding each detection surface of the sample to enable the surface roughness to reach at least Ra1.6; grinding the two end surfaces of the sample, wherein the surface roughness reaches Ra3.2, but the two ends are smooth and have no inclination, so that the sample is stably clamped when electrified and magnetized;
5) carrying out magnetic powder detection by adopting a wet remanence method, wherein the surface of a sample is clean and free of pollution and corrosion before magnetization, the sample is magnetized and electrified for 2-3 times, the magnetization time of each time is 0.5-1 s, the magnetized sample cannot be contacted with a ferromagnetic object, the magnetic suspension is detected by a magnetic suspension soaking method, the magnetic suspension is fully stirred before soaking, the magnetized sample is soaked in the magnetic suspension for not less than 30 s after stopping stirring, then the sample is slowly taken out, and is kept stand for 1-2 min, and then magnetic trace detection is carried out;
6) according to the verification of the previous tests, if no magnetic mark is shown, the banded grade of the carbide of the sample usually does not exceed 2 grades, and if no special requirement exists, the raw material can be judged to be qualified without further inspection; and if the magnetic marks are displayed, selecting the area with the most serious magnetic marks, manufacturing a metallographic specimen according to the standard regulation of GB/T18254 high-carbon chromium bearing steel, and finally inspecting and grading.
CN201911003472.1A 2019-10-22 2019-10-22 Preposed sampling method for testing high-carbon chromium bearing steel carbide banding Pending CN110726578A (en)

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