CN110715297A - 等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统及方法 - Google Patents

等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统及方法 Download PDF

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CN110715297A
CN110715297A CN201910980091.2A CN201910980091A CN110715297A CN 110715297 A CN110715297 A CN 110715297A CN 201910980091 A CN201910980091 A CN 201910980091A CN 110715297 A CN110715297 A CN 110715297A
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gasification furnace
waste
plasma gasification
garbage
flue gas
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孙萍
罗康
杨国祥
赵渊
胡克勤
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Wuhan Fengying Energy Technology Engineering Co Ltd
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Abstract

本发明涉及一种等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统及方法,无害化处理系统包括垃圾坑、垃圾焚烧炉、余热锅炉、烟气净化系统、造粒机、渗滤液处理装置和汽轮机,烟气净化系统包括脱硫塔、布袋除尘器和脱硝装置,无害化处理系统还包括等离子体气化炉,垃圾坑产生的渗滤液经渗滤液处理装置处理后产生渗滤液浓缩液,渗滤液浓缩液和布袋除尘器收集的飞灰掺混后,由造粒机制成飞灰颗粒,送至等离子体气化炉处理;脱硫塔产生的硫酸钙作为等离子体气化炉助熔剂;所述等离子体气化炉焚烧产生的合成气送至垃圾焚烧炉燃烧,所述脱硝装置的废脱硝催化剂经破碎后送入等离子体气化炉处理。本发明可以解决垃圾焚烧电厂残余固废、危废难以处理,成本高等问题。

Description

等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统及方法
技术领域
本发明涉及生活垃圾焚烧领域,更具体地说,涉及一种等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统及方法。
背景技术
城市生活垃圾在处理方式上呈现出焚烧发电比例逐年提高,填埋比例逐年下降的趋势,焚烧发电正快速成为生活垃圾处理的主导方向。随着垃圾焚烧电厂数量规模的扩大,其焚烧后的残余废物的量也越来越来,其中垃圾焚烧飞灰,废脱硝催化剂,吸收二噁英和重金属后的废活性炭等都属于危险废物。
飞灰是垃圾焚烧电厂产生量最大的危废。生活垃圾含水量较高,进厂含水率一般高达60%,需在垃圾焚烧电厂的垃圾坑中堆放4-7天时间,产生的渗滤液经净化处理后达标排放或回用,渗滤液净化处理会产生浓缩液和污泥,含有重金属等有害物质,一般进行安全填埋处理。针对目前填埋场库容紧缺,土地污染严重的现状,安全填埋也不是最佳的处置方案。目前垃圾焚烧电厂主要采用半干法脱硫工艺,其脱硫副产品为硫酸钙,一般通过结晶形成二水硫酸钙,也称工业石膏。目前,工业副产石膏的综合利用率仅为48.1%,由于不同地域对石膏的需求量不一样,加之高昂的运输成本,导致很多垃圾焚烧电厂的副产品石膏无法处理,堆积时间长后对环境和土地造成污染。
目前、电厂还采用喷射活性炭粉末至烟道中的方式吸收烟气中的二噁英和重金属等,产生的废活性炭在布袋除尘器中与飞灰一起收集;电厂采用SCR脱硝工艺时,其核心是其催化剂,催化剂的寿命一般最高5年,在使用寿命到期后成为危废,一般进行再生处理,但催化剂不能无限再生,再生2-3次后需进行资源化处理,处理费用在2000元/吨以上,给垃圾焚烧电厂带来一定的经济负担。
综上所述,生活垃圾焚烧电厂在有效利用生活垃圾焚烧发电的同时,会产生大量的渗滤液浓缩液、污泥、飞灰、废活性炭、废脱硝催化剂等固废和危废,目前采用的处理方式普遍采用安全填埋的方式,在目前国内填埋场库容紧张,土地污染严重、处置成本高的情况下,垃圾焚烧电厂产生的上述固废、危废的处置问题亟待有效解决方案。
发明内容
本发明要解决的技术问题在于,提供一种等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统及方法,可以解决垃圾焚烧电厂残余固废、危废难以处理,成本高等问题。
本发明解决其技术问题所采用的技术方案是:构造一种等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统,包括垃圾坑、垃圾焚烧炉、余热锅炉、烟气净化系统、造粒机、渗滤液处理装置和汽轮机,所述烟气净化系统包括脱硫塔、布袋除尘器和脱硝装置,无害化处理系统还包括等离子体气化炉,垃圾坑产生的渗滤液经渗滤液处理装置处理后产生渗滤液浓缩液,渗滤液浓缩液和布袋除尘器收集的飞灰掺混后,由造粒机制成飞灰颗粒,送至等离子体气化炉处理;所述脱硫塔产生的硫酸钙作为等离子体气化炉助熔剂;所述等离子体气化炉焚烧产生的合成气送至垃圾焚烧炉燃烧,所述脱硝装置的废脱硝催化剂经破碎后送入等离子体气化炉处理。
上述方案中,所述脱硫塔采用半干法工艺。
上述方案中,所述垃圾焚烧炉上设有合成气燃烧器,所述合成气燃烧器连接等离子体气化炉合成气出口。
上述方案中,所述等离子体气化炉上还设有生活垃圾入口。
本发明还提供了一种等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害化处理方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:
步骤1:生活垃圾由垃圾运输车辆运送进厂后,直接倒入垃圾坑中,生活垃圾中的水分以渗滤液的形式经垃圾坑底部滤网流出,渗滤液经渗滤液处理装置处理后达标排放,产生渗滤液浓缩液;
步骤2:步骤1中的生活垃圾经过预处理后送至生活垃圾焚烧炉焚烧,高温烟气通过余热锅炉换热产生蒸汽,推动汽轮机发电,降温后的烟气先通过脱硫装置,产生副产品硫酸钙;
步骤3:在脱硫塔和布袋除尘器之间的烟道内喷射活性炭粉末,用于吸附烟气中的二噁英、重金属,废活性炭粉末最终在布袋除尘器中收集,形成飞灰;
步骤4:经过脱硫后的烟气通入布袋除尘器,过滤掉飞灰,同时通过喷射活性炭吸附烟气中的重金属和二噁英,废活性炭和飞灰由布袋除尘器底部排出;经过布袋除尘器后,烟气进入脱硝装置,脱除NOx,最后经烟囱排放;
步骤1中的部分生活垃圾作为等离子体气化炉原料提供热量;渗滤液浓缩液和步骤3中产生的飞灰掺混,经造粒机造粒后,送入等离子体气化炉处理;步骤2中产生的硫酸钙作为助溶剂,在等离子体气化炉中与重金属形成低共熔物,实现液态排渣,经水淬冷后形成玻璃体底渣;步骤3中的废弃的脱硝催化剂经破碎后送至等离子体气化炉处理;等离子体气化炉产生的合成气送至生活垃圾焚烧炉以回收热量。
实施本发明的等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统,具有以下有益效果:
1、本发明实现了生活垃圾焚烧电厂固废、危废零排放,解决了生活垃圾焚烧电厂以往难以处理飞灰、渗滤液浓缩液、污泥等残余物的困境。
2、处理废弃活性炭不仅能彻底摧毁二噁英,固化重金属,活性炭还能为等离子体气化炉提供热量,降低了系统的功耗,创新的提出以硫酸钙作为助溶剂,不仅能够有效降低灰熔点,实现液态排渣,还能实现脱硫副产物的有效利用。
3、处理废弃脱硝催化剂,降低垃圾焚烧电厂经济负担;等离子体气化炉产生的合成气送至垃圾焚烧炉回收能量,提高锅炉效率和整体发电效率。
附图说明
下面将结合附图及实施例对本发明作进一步说明,附图中:
图1是本发明等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统的示意图;
图2是本发明等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害化处理方法的流程图。
具体实施方式
为了对本发明的技术特征、目的和效果有更加清楚的理解,现对照附图详细说明本发明的具体实施方式。
如图1所示,本发明等离子体气化炉3协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害化处理系统,包括垃圾坑1、垃圾焚烧炉2、等离子体气化炉3、余热锅炉4、烟气净化系统、造粒机9、渗滤液处理装置10和汽轮机11。
垃圾坑1底部设有滤网和渗滤液收集池,用于渗滤液的排出和收集;渗滤液处理装置10为选择性渗透膜反应器,渗滤液经处理后,重金属等有害物质保留在渗滤液浓缩液中,透过膜的部分达标排放或回用。
垃圾焚烧炉2为炉排炉或循环流化床锅炉4、燃烧室上设合成气燃烧器,通过管道连接等离子体气化炉3合成气出口。烟气净化系统包括脱硫塔5、布袋除尘器6、SCR脱硝装置和烟囱8。脱硫塔5采用半干法工艺,副产品硫酸钙熔点低,可作为玻璃生产过程中的助溶剂,本发明创新的采用硫酸钙作为等离子体气化炉3助熔剂,用于降低反应物的灰熔点,实现液态排渣。
布袋除尘器6下方收集飞灰(含废活性炭粉末),含有二恶英及重金属等有害物,进行单独收集和储存。
SCR脱硝装置7是一种选择性催化还原技术,是目前最成熟的烟气脱硝技术,SCR中使用的催化剂大多以TiO2为载体,以V2O5或V2O5-WO3或V2O5-MoO3为活性成分,催化剂使用寿命到期后,成为危废。
飞灰造粒机9将渗滤液浓缩液、飞灰混合后制成飞灰颗粒。
等离子体气化炉3用于处理垃圾焚烧电厂产生的渗滤液浓缩液、飞灰(含废活性炭)、废脱硝催化剂,产生的合成气送至垃圾焚烧炉2焚烧,回收热量。等离子体气化炉3为电弧等离子体气化炉3,由等离子火炬和气化炉3本体组成,中心温度可达到5000℃,彻底摧毁二噁英等有害物质,加上硫酸钙助熔剂后,可实现液态排渣,液态排渣经水淬冷后形成玻璃体熔渣,有害物质浸出率低于欧盟标准。
如图2所示,本发明还提供了一种等离子体气化炉3协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害化处理方法,包括如下步骤:
步骤1:生活垃圾由垃圾运输车辆运送进厂后,直接倒入垃圾坑1中,堆放4-7天,生活垃圾中的水分以渗滤液的形式经垃圾坑1底部滤网流出,渗滤液经水处理系统处理后达标排放,产生少量渗滤液浓缩液;
步骤2:生活垃圾堆放4-7天后水分达到入炉水平(约40%),经过预处理后送至生活垃圾焚烧炉2焚烧,高温烟气通过余热锅炉4换热产生蒸汽,推动汽轮机11发电。降温后的烟气先通过脱硫装置,除去SO2等含硫成分,并产生副产品硫酸钙;
步骤3:在脱硫塔5和布袋除尘器6之间的烟道内喷射活性炭粉末,用于吸附烟气中的二噁英、重金属等有害物质,废活性炭粉末最终在布袋除尘器6中收集;
步骤4:经过脱硫后的烟气通入布袋除尘器6,过滤掉飞灰,同时通过喷射活性炭吸附烟气中的重金属和二噁英等有毒成分,废活性炭和飞灰由布袋除尘器6底部排出。经过布袋除尘器6后,烟气进入SCR脱硝装置,脱除NOx,最后经烟囱8达标排放;
步骤5:步骤1中的少量生活垃圾作为等离子体气化炉3原料提供热量,降低等离子体气化炉3火炬耗电量,提升其经济性;步骤1和步骤2中产生的渗滤液浓缩液和步骤3中产生的飞灰掺混,经造粒机9造粒后,送入等离子体气化炉3处理;
步骤6:步骤2中产生的硫酸钙作为助溶剂,在等离子体气化炉3中与重金属形成低共熔物,实现液态排渣,经水淬冷后形成玻璃体底渣,其重金属等有害物质浸出率低于欧盟标准;
步骤7:步骤3中的SCR脱硝催化剂废弃后,经破碎后送至等离子体气化炉3处理。
步骤8:等离子体气化炉3产生一定量的合成气,其主要成分为H2和CO,送至生活垃圾焚烧炉2以回收热量;等离子体气化炉3产生的玻璃化底渣为无毒渣,可作为路基或建材使用。
实施例:
以1000t/d生活垃圾处理量的电厂为例,生活垃圾经专用运输车辆运送至垃圾焚烧电厂垃圾坑1、堆放4-7天时间,垃圾坑1底部设有滤网和渗滤液池,堆放4-7天后,水分一般由60%降低至40%,热值可达到3000kcal/kg左右,达到基本入炉要求。渗滤液经渗滤液处理装置10处理后,达标排放或回用,产生的渗滤液浓缩液。按照1000t/天垃圾进厂量,产生的渗滤液浓缩液总量约17t/天(渗滤液浓缩液约为渗滤液总量的5%)。
生活垃圾由垃圾坑1内的抓斗投入垃圾焚烧炉2中,垃圾在炉内焚烧,产生高温烟气,首先进入余热锅炉4换热产生蒸汽推动汽轮机11发电,换热降温后的烟气经脱硫塔5,采用半干法脱硫,产生副产品硫酸钙,利用其低熔点,可用于玻璃制造行业中的助熔剂。本发明利用硫酸钙作为等离子体气化炉的助熔剂,与重金属形成低共熔物,实现液态排渣。
脱除SO2等含硫气体后的烟气进入布袋除尘器6收集飞灰(含废活性炭粉末)。飞灰从布袋除尘器6底部排出,以危废标准暂存。对于1000t/d的垃圾焚烧电厂,飞灰产生量约为30t/d(含废活性炭粉末)。
经除尘处理后的烟气进入SCR脱硝装置7,脱出烟气中的NOx后经烟囱8达标排放。SCR脱硝采用催化剂大多以TiO2为载体,以V2O5或V2O5-WO3或V2O5-MoO3为活性成分,使用寿命一般能达到5年,达到使用寿命后替换下来的废脱硝催化剂成为危废。
取少量生活垃圾(约50t/d)作为等离子体气化炉燃料,提供热量,降低等离子体炉的能耗;总量约17t/d渗滤液浓缩液与总量约30t/d的飞灰混合造粒,得到含水率20%左右的飞灰颗粒,作为等离子体气化炉3处理的原料。脱硫塔5反应后生成的硫酸钙作为等离子体气化炉的助熔剂。生活垃圾、飞灰颗粒、硫酸钙分别从不同的进料口进入等离子体气化炉反应,等离子火炬提供主要热量。等离子的中心温度可达5000℃,彻底摧毁二噁英等有害物质,同时液态排渣后淬冷形成玻璃体熔渣,固定重金属,浸出率低于欧盟水平,可作为建材,路基等直接使用。
上面结合附图对本发明的实施例进行了描述,但是本发明并不局限于上述的具体实施方式,上述的具体实施方式仅仅是示意性的,而不是限制性的,本领域的普通技术人员在本发明的启示下,在不脱离本发明宗旨和权利要求所保护的范围情况下,还可做出很多形式,这些均属于本发明的保护之内。

Claims (5)

1.一种等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统,包括垃圾坑、垃圾焚烧炉、余热锅炉、烟气净化系统、造粒机、渗滤液处理装置和汽轮机,所述烟气净化系统包括脱硫塔、布袋除尘器和脱硝装置,其特征在于,无害化处理系统还包括等离子体气化炉,垃圾坑产生的渗滤液经渗滤液处理装置处理后产生渗滤液浓缩液,渗滤液浓缩液和布袋除尘器收集的飞灰掺混后,由造粒机制成飞灰颗粒,送至等离子体气化炉处理;所述脱硫塔产生的硫酸钙作为等离子体气化炉助熔剂;所述等离子体气化炉焚烧产生的合成气送至垃圾焚烧炉燃烧,所述脱硝装置的废脱硝催化剂经破碎后送入等离子体气化炉处理。
2.根据权利要求1所述等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统,其特征在于,所述脱硫塔采用半干法工艺。
3.根据权利要求1所述等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统,其特征在于,所述垃圾焚烧炉上设有合成气燃烧器,所述合成气燃烧器连接等离子体气化炉合成气出口。
4.根据权利要求1所述等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理系统,其特征在于,所述等离子体气化炉上还设有生活垃圾入口。
5.一种等离子体气化炉协同垃圾焚烧电厂的无害处理方法,其特征在于,包括如下步骤:
步骤1:生活垃圾由垃圾运输车辆运送进厂后,直接倒入垃圾坑中,生活垃圾中的水分以渗滤液的形式经垃圾坑底部滤网流出,渗滤液经渗滤液处理装置处理后达标排放,产生渗滤液浓缩液;
步骤2:步骤1中的生活垃圾经过预处理后送至生活垃圾焚烧炉焚烧,高温烟气通过余热锅炉换热产生蒸汽,推动汽轮机发电,降温后的烟气先通过脱硫装置,产生副产品硫酸钙;
步骤3:在脱硫塔和布袋除尘器之间的烟道内喷射活性炭粉末,用于吸附烟气中的二噁英、重金属,废活性炭粉末最终在布袋除尘器中收集,形成飞灰;
步骤4:经过脱硫后的烟气通入布袋除尘器,过滤掉飞灰,同时通过喷射活性炭吸附烟气中的重金属和二噁英,废活性炭和飞灰由布袋除尘器底部排出;经过布袋除尘器后,烟气进入脱硝装置,脱除NOx,最后经烟囱排放;
步骤1中的部分生活垃圾作为等离子体气化炉原料提供热量;渗滤液浓缩液和步骤3中产生的飞灰掺混,经造粒机造粒后,送入等离子体气化炉处理;步骤2中产生的硫酸钙作为助溶剂,在等离子体气化炉中与重金属形成低共熔物,实现液态排渣,经水淬冷后形成玻璃体底渣;步骤3中的废弃的脱硝催化剂经破碎后送至等离子体气化炉处理;等离子体气化炉产生的合成气送至生活垃圾焚烧炉以回收热量。
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CN112915742A (zh) * 2021-01-21 2021-06-08 浙江德创环保科技股份有限公司 一种垃圾焚烧发电厂全厂废水零排放的方法

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112915742A (zh) * 2021-01-21 2021-06-08 浙江德创环保科技股份有限公司 一种垃圾焚烧发电厂全厂废水零排放的方法

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