CN110648752B - Three-dimensional visualization method and equipment for medical data - Google Patents

Three-dimensional visualization method and equipment for medical data Download PDF

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CN110648752B
CN110648752B CN201810672682.9A CN201810672682A CN110648752B CN 110648752 B CN110648752 B CN 110648752B CN 201810672682 A CN201810672682 A CN 201810672682A CN 110648752 B CN110648752 B CN 110648752B
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data
voxel
medical data
cube
eyes
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CN110648752A (en
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郭红卫
薛邦威
王化
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Beijing Edwia Medical Technology Co ltd
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Beijing Edwia Medical Technology Co ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G16INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY [ICT] SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATION FIELDS
    • G16HHEALTHCARE INFORMATICS, i.e. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY [ICT] SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE HANDLING OR PROCESSING OF MEDICAL OR HEALTHCARE DATA
    • G16H30/00ICT specially adapted for the handling or processing of medical images
    • G16H30/40ICT specially adapted for the handling or processing of medical images for processing medical images, e.g. editing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T15/003D [Three Dimensional] image rendering
    • G06T15/005General purpose rendering architectures
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T19/00Manipulating 3D models or images for computer graphics
    • G06T19/20Editing of 3D images, e.g. changing shapes or colours, aligning objects or positioning parts
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2210/00Indexing scheme for image generation or computer graphics
    • G06T2210/41Medical
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T2215/00Indexing scheme for image rendering
    • G06T2215/16Using real world measurements to influence rendering

Abstract

The invention relates to a method and equipment for three-dimensional visualization of medical data, wherein the method for three-dimensional visualization of medical data comprises the following steps: reconstructing voxel data according to the medical data; volume rendering the reconstructed voxel data; performing voxel editing on the data subjected to volume rendering; and displaying the voxel edited data. By utilizing the method and the system of the invention, the hardware architecture of the modern computer is better matched, so that more complex medical data can be displayed more quickly. Meanwhile, the medical data can be more accurately expressed, and the medical data can be edited and viewed more quickly.

Description

Three-dimensional visualization method and equipment for medical data
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of three-dimensional visualization of medical data, in particular to a method and equipment for three-dimensional visualization of medical data based on volume rendering.
Background
In CT, X-ray beam is used to scan the layer of human body with a certain thickness, the X-ray transmitted through the layer is received by detector, converted into visible light, converted into electric signal by photoelectric conversion, converted into digital signal by A/D converter and input to computer for processing. CT examinations typically include flat scan CT, enhanced CT, and scoliotic CT. Current medical data visualization schemes, such as CT data visualization, are mostly based on a Central Processing Unit (CPU) of a computer to reconstruct a solid polygonal mesh. Since the solid polygonal meshes are sparse and only have surface data, the middle of the mesh body is hollow, which means that the middle of the polygonal mesh is hollow rather than solid, when the solid polygonal mesh is cut off from a certain section, information on a part of the section/section or a specific part of the specific section/section is lost, which is not beneficial to viewing the section/section. If the information of the section/section part is attempted to be reconstructed later, the subsequent reconstruction is difficult and the reconstruction efficiency is low due to the lack of the information on the part of the section/section or the specific part of the specific section/section, which limits the reconstruction authenticity and the display accuracy to a certain extent.
Some existing solutions perform medical visualization based on volume, but calculation and rendering still depend on a CPU, performance and precision are unsatisfactory, and actual interactive viewing requirements are difficult to meet.
There is therefore a great need in the art for improvements to existing medical data visualization techniques.
Disclosure of Invention
It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved medical data visualization solution to solve the accuracy, performance and interactive viewing problems of medical data visualization.
To solve the above technical problems, the inventors of the present invention propose a voxel-based technique and render and edit medical data faster and more finely, with full help of a Central Processing Unit (CPU) and other hardware.
According to a first aspect of the present invention, a method for three-dimensional visualization of medical data is provided, which may comprise the following steps: reconstructing voxel data according to the medical data; performing volume rendering on the reconstructed voxel data; performing voxel editing on the data subjected to volume rendering; displaying the edited voxel data.
According to an embodiment of the invention, wherein the reconstructing of the voxel data from the medical data may comprise: constructing the medical data as a volume bounding box; and dividing the stereo bounding box into a plurality of cube squares with equal sizes, and deleting the cube squares with less data.
According to another embodiment of the present invention, the step of volume rendering the reconstructed voxel data may comprise: a light ray reaching the eyes of an observer passes through at least one cubic block and finally reaches the eyes of the observer, each cubic block through which the light ray passes is endowed with different weights according to different degrees of distance from the eyes of the observer, and the closer the light ray is to the eyes of the observer, the higher the weight of the cubic block is; the further away from the observer's eye, the less weight the cube square is.
According to a further embodiment of the present invention, the step of volume rendering the reconstructed voxel data may further comprise: and superposing and mixing the obtained color and the weight of each cubic square to obtain the final color of the pixel point corresponding to the light.
According to a further embodiment of the present invention, the step of voxel editing the data rendered by the volume may comprise: at least a portion of at least one cube square intersecting the ray may be edited such that the at least a portion is transparent with respect to the ray.
According to an embodiment of the present invention, the step of displaying the voxel edited data may include: and displaying the data after the voxel is edited on virtual equipment, a computer screen, augmented reality equipment, a desktop or an internet network.
According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided a medical data three-dimensional visualization apparatus, which may include: a volume reconstruction unit for reconstructing voxel data from the medical data; a volume rendering unit for performing volume rendering on the reconstructed volume data; the voxel editing unit is used for carrying out voxel editing on the data subjected to volume rendering; and the data display unit is used for displaying the data after the voxel is edited.
According to an embodiment of the invention, wherein the volume reconstruction unit may comprise: a volume bounding box containing voxel data of the medical data; the bounding volume contains a plurality of cube blocks of equal size, wherein at least one cube block containing less voxel data is to be deleted.
According to another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the volume rendering unit may include: in the case that a light ray reaching the eyes of the observer will pass through at least one cubic block and finally reach the eyes of the observer, each cubic block through which the light ray passes is given a different weight according to the distance from the eyes of the observer, the closer the light ray is to the eyes of the observer, the greater the weight given to the cubic block; the farther away from the viewer's eye, the less weight the cube square is given.
According to still another embodiment of the present invention, wherein the voxel editing unit may further include: and the final color of the pixel point corresponding to the light ray is obtained by superposing and mixing the obtained color and weight of each cubic square.
According to a further embodiment of the invention, wherein the voxel editing unit may further comprise: at least a portion of at least one cube square intersecting the ray is edited such that the at least a portion is transparent with respect to the ray.
According to an embodiment of the present invention, wherein the data presentation unit includes: a virtual device, a computer screen, an augmented reality device, a desktop, or an internet network for displaying the voxel edited data.
Compared with the scheme in the prior art, the method and the system for three-dimensional visualization of medical data have higher performance and precision than the prior art. For example, the medical data three-dimensional visualization method and system can achieve the observation precision of 0.1mm when observing the three-dimensional structure of a biological sample such as a human cardiovascular and cerebrovascular vessel. When the resolution is upgraded, the resolution of related components and systems used in cooperation with the method is correspondingly improved, and the precision can also be correspondingly improved. For example, in terms of accuracy, when the resolution is doubled, the accuracy may reach 0.05 mm. Compared with the stereo mesh technology in the prior art, the invention adopts the technology that the rendering of stereo pixels or volume pixels, namely voxels or volumes, is dominant, so that the principle is completely different from the conventional medical volume data processing principle, and the performance and the precision are also obviously improved. In summary, with the method and system of the present invention, the modern computer hardware architecture is better matched, so that more complex medical data can be displayed more quickly. Meanwhile, the medical data can be more accurately expressed, and the medical data can be edited and viewed more quickly. The medical data three-dimensional visualization method and the medical data three-dimensional visualization system improve the display precision of medical data such as CT data, accelerate the performance of three-dimensional display of the medical data such as CT data and solve the problem that the medical data such as CT data is inconvenient to edit and view by constructing a data structure matched with modern computer hardware and by means of hardware acceleration, volume rendering and other technologies.
Drawings
FIG. 1 schematically illustrates a flow chart of a method for three-dimensional visualization of medical data according to one aspect of the present invention;
FIG. 2 illustrates the partitioning of a bounding volume into a plurality of cube squares of equal size, according to one embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 3 illustrates the deletion of some of the cube tiles, according to one embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 4 illustrates the optical path traveled by a light ray reaching the eye of an observer before the light ray is seen by the eye of the observer, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. 5A-5B illustrate a schematic diagram of voxel editing according to one embodiment of the present invention;
FIGS. 6A-6B illustrate a schematic diagram of voxel editing according to another embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 7 illustrates a block diagram of a three-dimensional visualization apparatus of medical data according to a second aspect of the invention.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, preferred embodiments of the present invention are described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings. It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention.
Referring to fig. 1, fig. 1 is a three-dimensional visualization method of medical data according to an aspect of the present invention, which may include the following steps: in step 2, medical data files are pre-stored, such as but not limited to CT scan data files or mri scan data files, etc., and the pre-stored medical data files are stored in a hard disk, a floppy disk, an optical disk or a cloud disk of a computer, etc. In step 4, these pre-stored medical data files are read. Such pre-stored medical data files are directly read, for example, by an optical drive, a floppy drive, a scanner, a two-dimensional code scanner, or an internal program running on a computer. In step 6, a medical data file, for example CT scan data, is subjected to reconstruction of voxel data. In step 8, volume rendering is performed on the reconstructed voxel data; in step 10, voxel editing is carried out on the data subjected to volume rendering; in step 12, the voxel edited data is presented, for example, on a virtual device 14, a computer screen 16, an augmented reality device or desktop 18, or an internet network 20.
Referring now to fig. 2, wherein the step 6 of voxel data reconstruction from the medical data may further comprise:
the medical data is divided into a volume bounding box 22, one volume bounding box 22 being shown in fig. 2. The triangular volumetric bounding box 22 shown in fig. 2 is only one cross-section of the volumetric bounding box, but does not mean that the volumetric bounding box 22 of the present invention has a cross-section that is only triangular, but may have other shapes, such as rectangular, square, or trapezoidal, etc. The triangular volumetric bounding box 22 shown in fig. 2-3 is merely an example. It is noted that the voxel data of the medical data enclosed by the different volume enclosures 22 may be different. For example, some stereo bounding boxes 22 may enclose medical data of eyes and their vicinity in the face recognition data, some stereo bounding boxes 22 may enclose medical data of a nose and its vicinity in the face recognition data, some stereo bounding boxes 22 may enclose medical data of an oral cavity and its vicinity in the face recognition data, some stereo bounding boxes 22 may enclose medical data of ears and its vicinity in the face recognition data, some stereo bounding boxes 22 may enclose medical data of a cheek and its vicinity in the face recognition data, and so on. Depending on the imaging requirements, for example, in the case of imaging a cardiovascular system, there may be stereo bounding boxes 22 that enclose the atrium and its vicinity in the cardiovascular data, there may be stereo bounding boxes 22 that enclose the ventricle and its vicinity in the cardiovascular data, there may be stereo bounding boxes 22 that enclose the heart valve and its vicinity in the cardiovascular data, and so on. The term "voxel reconstruction" or "volumetric reconstruction of medical data" as referred to in various embodiments of the present invention refers to the construction of a three-dimensional data structure from medical volumetric data files, such as CT scan image volumetric data, and the subsequent processing to match modern computer hardware architectures and the like.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the volumetric bounding box 22 is divided into a plurality of equally sized cube blocks 24, 26 … …, where different equally sized cube blocks are denoted by different reference numerals because each of the equally sized cube blocks contains medical data that is not identical, as the voxel data of the medical data enclosed by the different volumetric bounding boxes 22 described above may be different. For example, several adjacent equally sized cubic blocks, although all representing medical data such as eyes and their vicinity in face recognition data, may represent data near the eyeball, another may represent data near the retina, other may represent data near the eyelid, and so on in the case of subdivision, as will be understood. In addition, it should be noted that the more the number of cube squares, the finer the three-dimensional unit, and of course, the more computer resources are occupied, and the slower the display performance is.
In one embodiment of the invention, such as in FIG. 3, cube blocks containing smaller volumetric data are removed, such as cube blocks 30, 32 in FIG. 3, which are larger cube blocks 30, 32 formed with 4 equal sized cube blocks 28 removed. The reason why the 4 equal-sized cubic blocks 28 at the larger cubic block 30 and the 4 equal-sized cubic blocks 28 at the larger cubic block 32 are deleted is that the larger cubic block 30 or 32 contains less medical data, for example, in the case of displaying medical data near a cheek, the change in structure, shape, and shape of the cheek is not so large in a small range, and therefore, in order to reduce the computational complexity of the computer, the cubic block in which the voxel data is contained in a smaller size, for example, the 4 cubic blocks 28 contained in each of the larger cubic blocks 30 and 32, etc., may be deleted. In the case of containing more medical data, the cube block is not suitable for deletion, and a refined display is needed. For example, in the case of displaying medical data in the vicinity of the nose, since the nose includes structures of the external nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus, shapes, and shapes that vary widely within a small range, it is not appropriate to delete the cube 28 for the accuracy of display.
In one embodiment of the present invention, and with reference to FIG. 4, FIG. 4 illustrates the optical path traveled by a light ray 34 that is to reach an observer's eye 46, just prior to the light ray 34 being seen by the observer's eye 46, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. Step 8, wherein the volume rendering of the reconstructed voxel data may comprise: a ray 34 reaching the observer's eye 46, passing through at least one cubic block, such as cubic blocks 38, … … 40, 42, etc., and finally reaching the observer's eye 46, each cubic block through which the ray 34 passes being given a different weight according to how close it is to the observer's eye 46, the closer it is to the observer's eye, the more the cubic block is weighted; the further away from the observer's eye, the less weight the cube square is. For example, a cube 42 closest to the observer's eye 46 is given a weight of 0.4, a cube 40 next closest to the observer's eye 46 is given a weight of 0.3, and a cube 38 farthest from the observer's eye 46 is given a weight of 0.1 … …, so that the distance to the observer's eye 46 is different, and each cube through which light passes is given a different weight, because cubes 38 farther from the observer's eye 46 are blocked more, the color contribution is smaller, the weight is smaller, and cubes closer to the observer's eye 46, such as cube 42, are blocked less, the color contribution is larger, and the weight is larger.
In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, the step 8 of volume rendering the reconstructed voxel data may further comprise: and superposing and mixing the obtained color and the weight of each cubic square to obtain the final color of the pixel point corresponding to the light. For example, the cube square 42 closest to the viewer's eye 46 is given a weight of 0.4, the color of cube square 42 being red; the cube square 40 next closest to the viewer's eye 46 is given a weight of 0.3, the color of cube square 40 being green; the cube tile 38 farthest from the viewer's eye 46 is given a weight of 0.1, and the color of the cube tile 40 is blue … …, so that the final color displayed on the display screen 44 is the superimposed mixed color of the color and the weight of each cube tile of 0.4 × red +0.3 × green +0.1 × blue + … …, that is, the final color of the pixel point corresponding to the light is obtained. In one embodiment of the invention, the rendering of the voxels is performed by volume rendering by parallel processing of three-dimensional elements by means of computer hardware, thereby rendering the medical data, e.g. CT data, in three dimensions.
In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, referring to FIGS. 5A-5B, FIGS. 5A-5B illustrate a schematic diagram of voxel editing according to an embodiment of the present invention. The step 10 of voxel editing the volume rendered data may comprise: at least a portion of at least one cube block intersecting the ray, such as a blank area 50 within the gray area in fig. 5B, can be edited such that the at least a portion, such as blank area 50, is transparent to the ray. For example, as shown in fig. 5B, in one embodiment, only a part of the data determined by the parameters may be displayed according to a certain parameter configuration, and the rest of the data may be hidden, for example, the data in the portion shown in the blank area 50 in fig. 5B may be hidden, so that the interference of other parts may be eliminated, and the data in a specific part may be focused on. Fig. 5A is the situation before the blank area 50 is hidden, as shown by the grey area 48. For example, in the case of viewing cardiovascular surface data, where it is likely that the data inside the cardiovascular tube is not of interest to the viewer, the data inside the cardiovascular tube needs to be hidden to more clearly view the voxel data of the cardiovascular surface, where for example at least a portion of at least one cube block intersecting the ray may be edited (e.g., to hide partial volume data), e.g., a blank area 50 within the gray area in fig. 5B is mentioned as an effect after editing, so that the at least a portion, e.g., blank area 50, is transparent with respect to the ray. As an embodiment, the volume-based section viewing and editing is based on voxel data elimination, filtering and display, so that any section and any part can be viewed, and repeated reading and conversion from medical data such as CT data to three-dimensional data can be effectively reduced.
Fig. 6A-6B illustrate a schematic diagram of voxel editing according to another embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, a plane 54 may be used to intersect the medical voxel data to continue to hide data on one side of the plane, e.g., hide, cull, or filter data 56 on the right side of the plane, so that the profile data at the plane may be viewed, see fig. 6B. For example, a plane may be used to dissect an organ, such as the heart, to view a section of the heart organ, such as the left data 52 shown in fig. 6B.
In an embodiment of the present invention, the step of displaying the voxel edited data includes: the voxel edited data is presented, for example, on a virtual device 14, a computer screen 16, an augmented reality device or desktop 18, or an internet network 20. . As an implementation mode, the data presentation provides an extremely extensible interface, and the data presentation can be executed independently or synchronized through a network. The three-dimensional data can be displayed on a desktop or by means of equipment such as VR (virtual reality).
According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided a three-dimensional visualization apparatus for medical data, and fig. 7 illustrates a block diagram of the three-dimensional visualization apparatus for medical data according to the second aspect of the present invention. The method can comprise the following steps: a voxel reconstruction unit 62 for reconstructing voxel data from the medical data; a volume rendering unit 64 for volume rendering the reconstructed voxel data; a voxel editing unit 66 for voxel editing the volume rendered data; and a data display unit 68 for displaying the voxel edited data.
In an embodiment of the invention, the volume reconstruction unit 62 may comprise: a volume bounding box containing voxel data of the medical data; the bounding volume contains a plurality of cube blocks of equal size, wherein at least one cube block containing less voxel data is to be deleted.
In an embodiment of the present invention, wherein the volume rendering unit 64 may include: in the case that a light ray reaching the eyes of the observer will pass through at least one cubic block and finally reach the eyes of the observer, each cubic block through which the light ray passes is given a different weight according to the distance from the eyes of the observer, the closer the light ray is to the eyes of the observer, the greater the weight given to the cubic block; the farther away from the viewer's eye, the less weight the cube square is given.
In an embodiment of the present invention, wherein the voxel editing unit 66 comprises: and the final color of the pixel point corresponding to the light ray is obtained by superposing and mixing the obtained color and weight of each cubic square.
In an embodiment of the present invention, the voxel editing unit 66 further comprises: at least a portion of at least one cube square intersecting the ray is edited such that the at least portion is transparent with respect to the ray.
In one embodiment of the present invention, wherein the data presentation unit 68 comprises: a virtual device, a computer screen, an augmented reality device, a desktop, or an internet network for displaying the voxel edited data.
Compared with the stereo mesh technology in the prior art, the invention adopts the technology that the rendering of stereo pixels or volume pixels, namely voxels or volumes, is dominant, so that the principle is completely different from the conventional medical volume data processing principle, and the performance and the precision are also obviously improved. In summary, with the method and system of the present invention, the modern computer hardware architecture is better matched, so that more complex medical data can be displayed more quickly. Meanwhile, the medical data can be more accurately expressed, and the medical data can be edited and viewed more quickly. The medical data three-dimensional visualization method and the medical data three-dimensional visualization system improve the display precision of medical data such as CT data, accelerate the performance of three-dimensional display of the medical data such as CT data and solve the problem that the medical data such as CT data is inconvenient to edit and view by constructing a data structure matched with modern computer hardware and by means of hardware acceleration, volume rendering and other technologies.

Claims (6)

1. A method for three-dimensional visualization of medical data, comprising:
reconstructing voxel data according to the medical data;
volume rendering the reconstructed voxel data;
performing voxel editing on the data subjected to volume rendering; wherein the voxel editing comprises at least one of voxel hiding, voxel filtering and voxel eliminating;
displaying the data after voxel editing;
wherein volume rendering the reconstructed voxel data comprises:
a light ray reaching the eyes of an observer passes through at least one cubic block and finally reaches the eyes of the observer, each cubic block through which the light ray passes is endowed with different weights according to different degrees of distance from the eyes of the observer, and the closer the light ray is to the eyes of the observer, the higher the weight of the cubic block is; the farther away from the viewer's eyes, the smaller the weight of the cube square;
and superposing and mixing the obtained color and the weight of each cubic square to obtain the final color of the pixel point corresponding to the light.
2. The method for three-dimensional visualization of medical data according to claim 1, wherein the reconstructing of voxel data from the medical data comprises:
dividing voxel data of the medical data into a stereo bounding box;
and dividing the stereo bounding box into a plurality of cube squares with equal sizes, and deleting the cube squares with smaller volume data.
3. A method for three-dimensional visualization of medical data as defined in claim 2, wherein the step of voxel editing the volume rendered data comprises:
at least a portion of at least one cube square intersecting the ray may be edited such that the at least a portion is transparent with respect to the ray.
4. A device for three-dimensional visualization of medical data, comprising:
a volume reconstruction unit for reconstructing voxel data from the medical data;
a volume rendering unit, configured to perform volume rendering on the reconstructed voxel data;
the voxel editing unit is used for carrying out voxel editing on the data subjected to volume rendering;
the data display unit is used for displaying the data after the voxel editing;
wherein the volume rendering unit includes:
a light ray reaching the eyes of an observer passes through at least one cubic block and finally reaches the eyes of the observer, each cubic block through which the light ray passes is endowed with different weights according to different degrees of distance from the eyes of the observer, and the closer the light ray is to the eyes of the observer, the higher the weight of the cubic block is; the farther away from the viewer's eyes, the smaller the weight of the cube square;
and superposing and mixing the obtained color and the weight of each cubic square to obtain the final color of the pixel point corresponding to the light.
5. The medical data three-dimensional visualization apparatus as defined in claim 4, wherein the volume reconstruction unit comprises:
a volume bounding box containing voxel data of said medical data;
the bounding volume contains a plurality of cube blocks of equal size, wherein at least one cube block containing less voxel data is to be deleted.
6. The medical data three-dimensional visualization device of claim 5, wherein the voxel editing unit further comprises:
at least a portion of at least one cube square intersecting the ray is edited such that the at least portion is transparent with respect to the ray.
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