CN110638081A - High-efficiency baking method for improving appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves - Google Patents

High-efficiency baking method for improving appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110638081A
CN110638081A CN201910957403.8A CN201910957403A CN110638081A CN 110638081 A CN110638081 A CN 110638081A CN 201910957403 A CN201910957403 A CN 201910957403A CN 110638081 A CN110638081 A CN 110638081A
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China
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baking
temperature
tobacco leaves
dry
wet bulb
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈颐
尹志超
赵高坤
邹聪明
胡彬彬
何聪莲
姜永雷
刘兆宇
杨雪彪
王亚辉
冀新威
普恩平
何军
杨世波
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Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences
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Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences
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Priority to CN201910957403.8A priority Critical patent/CN110638081A/en
Publication of CN110638081A publication Critical patent/CN110638081A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A24TOBACCO; CIGARS; CIGARETTES; SIMULATED SMOKING DEVICES; SMOKERS' REQUISITES
    • A24BMANUFACTURE OR PREPARATION OF TOBACCO FOR SMOKING OR CHEWING; TOBACCO; SNUFF
    • A24B3/00Preparing tobacco in the factory
    • A24B3/10Roasting or cooling tobacco

Abstract

The invention discloses a high-efficiency baking method for improving the quality of K326 tobacco leaves, which is characterized by baking by using biomass fuel, collecting the K326 tobacco leaves which are proper to be ripened, arranging rods into a baking room to be baked, controlling a yellowing period to comprise an initial yellowing period, a middle yellowing period and a later yellowing period, controlling a color fixing period to comprise an initial color fixing period and a later color fixing period, controlling the initial color fixing period to heat at a rate of 1 ℃/1 ~ 2h after the control of the yellowing period is finished, controlling a dry rib period to raise the temperature of a dry ball to 66 ~ 67 ℃, and adjusting the temperature of a wet ball to 40 ~ 42 ℃.

Description

High-efficiency baking method for improving appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of tobacco baking, and particularly relates to a high-efficiency baking method for remarkably improving the proportion and quality of middle and high-quality tobacco leaves after baking, and improving the appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves with short baking time.
Background
Since the introduction of the tobacco K326 variety into China from the United states in 1985, the tobacco K326 variety is a very ideal main material tobacco leaf due to the high yield, orange color, full color, much oil, thick smoke and strong strength, and is one of the characteristic varieties with wide planting area in the southwest tobacco area of China.
In the prior art, no matter the traditional coal-fired baking is adopted, or the traditional coal-fired baking or the baking with biomass fuel, natural gas and points is adopted partially, the temperature in the early stage of K326 color fixation is set to be 48 ~ 49 ℃, the heating rate is 1 ℃/h, the problem that yellowing is easy to cause color fixation difficulty in the tobacco leaf baking process generally exists, the problems of too fast heating and unstable temperature stabilization easily occur when the traditional coal-fired baking is adopted, the baked tobacco leaves are stiff and lack in fragrance, the ratio of ash hanging smoke is large, and the appearance quality of the tobacco leaves is poor, in addition, in the baking process of the K326 tobacco leaves, the prior art generally considers that the appearance quality, the chemical component harmony and the sensory quality of the tobacco leaves can be obviously improved by properly increasing the humidity in the dry tobacco leaf drying period, but the appearance quality problem that the color difference of the front and back of the tobacco leaves is large after baking also exists, and the higher humidity in the dry tobacco leaf drying period can also cause great heat loss and fuel.
Therefore, the development of a baking method for improving the appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves is a key for solving the problems.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides the high-efficiency baking method for improving the appearance quality of the K326 tobacco leaves, which obviously improves the proportion and quality of middle and high-quality tobacco leaves after baking, has short baking time.
The invention is realized by the following steps: the method comprises the steps of fresh leaf harvesting, rod weaving and furnace charging, yellowing period control, color fixing period control and dry stem control, and specifically comprises the following steps:
A. and (3) fresh leaves are collected: collecting tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco plants which are ripe;
B. rod weaving and furnace charging: the collected tobacco leaves are woven into rods and put into a bulk curing barn to be cured;
C. controlling the yellowing stage, namely performing staged baking by adopting biomass fuel, wherein the staged baking comprises primary yellowing control, middle yellowing control and later yellowing control, the primary yellowing control is to increase the temperature of a dry bulb from room temperature to 34-35 ℃ and adjust the temperature of a wet bulb from room temperature to 32-33 ℃ at a heating rate of 1 ℃/h, then stabilize the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature and bake the leaf tips of tobacco leaves in a high temperature layer to obviously yellow, the middle yellowing control is to increase the temperature of the dry bulb to 38 ~ ℃ and adjust the temperature of the wet bulb to 35 ~ ℃ at a heating rate of 1 ℃/1-2 h after the primary yellowing stage is finished, then stabilize the temperature of the dry bulb and the wet bulb and bake the leaf yellow 8 to be about high, and the later yellowing control is to increase the temperature of the dry bulb to 42 ~ ℃ and maintain the temperature of the wet bulb at a heating rate of 1 ℃/1 ~ h after the middle yellowing stage is finished, then stabilize the temperature of the dry bulb and the wet bulb and the dry bulb until the tobacco leaves are completely yellow and withered;
D. controlling the fixation period, namely performing staged baking by adopting biomass fuel, wherein the staged baking comprises initial fixation control and later fixation control, the initial fixation control is to increase the dry bulb temperature to 45 ~ 46 ℃ and adjust the wet bulb temperature to 36 ~ 37 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/1.5 ~ 2h after the step C is finished, then stabilizing the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature, baking until the branch veins of the bottom platform are all yellow and the tip is hooked and curled, the later fixation control is to increase the dry bulb temperature to 55 ~ 56 ℃ and adjust the wet bulb temperature to 38 ~ 39 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h after the initial fixation is finished, and then stabilizing the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature, baking until the leaves of the tobacco leaves in the whole furnace are dried and the large winding drum is finished;
E. and D, controlling a stem drying period, namely, carrying out staged baking by adopting biomass fuel, raising the temperature of a dry bulb to 66 ~ 67 ℃ and the temperature of a wet bulb to 40 ~ 42 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h after the step D is finished, then, stabilizing the dry and wet bulb temperatures, baking until the main vein of the tobacco leaves in the whole curing barn is dried, and finally, cooling along with the furnace and discharging from the furnace.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. according to the invention, the temperature is slowly increased to 45 ~ 46 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/1.5 ~ 2h in the early stage of color fixing, the temperature is controlled, and the tobacco is baked by using the biomass fuel, so that compared with the traditional coal-fired baking, the temperature control is stable, the condition of violent temperature increase or violent temperature reduction is avoided, the process is accurately executed, the problem that the tobacco is easy to yellow and difficult to color fixing in the baking process is solved, the proportion of ash hanging smoke is reduced, the phenomena of black smoke baking and green smoke baking which are easy to occur in the traditional baking are effectively avoided, and the appearance quality of the baked tobacco is obviously improved.
2. According to the baking characteristics of K326 tobacco leaves, the dry-wet bulb temperature and the heating rate in the yellowing period, the color fixing period and the stem drying period are controlled, particularly, the dry-bulb temperature is increased to 66 ~ 67 ℃ and the wet-bulb temperature is adjusted to 40 ~ 42 ℃ by controlling the high temperature and the low humidity in the stem drying period, compared with the existing baking process, on one hand, the removal of moisture in main veins can be accelerated, the main veins of the tobacco leaves are dried 1/3-1/2 in the color fixing period, the residual moisture is not much, only the surface of the main veins is thick, the tissue is compact, the moisture evaporation is slow, but a large amount of ventilation and dehumidification are not needed, the front-back color difference of the tobacco leaves is reduced, the appearance quality of the tobacco leaves is greatly improved, on the other hand, gaps among tobacco rods in a baking room are enlarged, the high-temperature low-humidity stem drying effectively reduces the heat loss and the waste of fuel, so that the baking time can be obviously shortened, and the emission of pollutants can be effectively reduced.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples, but is not limited thereto in any way, and any modification or improvement based on the teaching of the present invention is within the scope of the present invention.
The method comprises the steps of fresh leaf harvesting, rod weaving, furnace loading, yellowing period control, color fixing period control and tendon drying period control, and specifically comprises the following steps:
A. and (3) fresh leaves are collected: collecting tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco plants which are ripe;
B. rod weaving and furnace charging: the collected tobacco leaves are woven into rods and put into a bulk curing barn to be cured;
C. controlling the yellowing stage, namely performing staged baking by adopting biomass fuel, wherein the staged baking comprises primary yellowing control, middle yellowing control and later yellowing control, the primary yellowing control is to increase the temperature of a dry bulb from room temperature to 34-35 ℃ and adjust the temperature of a wet bulb from room temperature to 32-33 ℃ at a heating rate of 1 ℃/h, then stabilize the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature and bake the leaf tips of tobacco leaves in a high temperature layer to obviously yellow, the middle yellowing control is to increase the temperature of the dry bulb to 38 ~ ℃ and adjust the temperature of the wet bulb to 35 ~ ℃ at a heating rate of 1 ℃/1-2 h after the primary yellowing stage is finished, then stabilize the temperature of the dry bulb and the wet bulb and bake the leaf yellow 8 to be about high, and the later yellowing control is to increase the temperature of the dry bulb to 42 ~ ℃ and maintain the temperature of the wet bulb at a heating rate of 1 ℃/1 ~ h after the middle yellowing stage is finished, then stabilize the temperature of the dry bulb and the wet bulb and the dry bulb until the tobacco leaves are completely yellow and withered;
D. controlling the fixation period, namely performing staged baking by adopting biomass fuel, wherein the staged baking comprises initial fixation control and later fixation control, the initial fixation control is to increase the dry bulb temperature to 45 ~ 46 ℃ and adjust the wet bulb temperature to 36 ~ 37 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/1.5 ~ 2h after the step C is finished, then stabilizing the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature, baking until the branch veins of the bottom platform are all yellow and the tip is hooked and curled, the later fixation control is to increase the dry bulb temperature to 55 ~ 56 ℃ and adjust the wet bulb temperature to 38 ~ 39 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h after the initial fixation is finished, and then stabilizing the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature, baking until the leaves of the tobacco leaves in the whole furnace are dried and the large winding drum is finished;
E. and D, controlling a stem drying period, namely, carrying out staged baking by adopting biomass fuel, raising the temperature of a dry bulb to 66 ~ 67 ℃ and the temperature of a wet bulb to 40 ~ 42 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h after the step D is finished, then, stabilizing the dry and wet bulb temperatures, baking until the main vein of the tobacco leaves in the whole curing barn is dried, and finally, cooling along with the furnace and discharging from the furnace.
And D, collecting any one or more of lower leaves, middle leaves and upper leaves of the tobacco plants in the step A.
The tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco strains which are well-cured in the step A are represented as follows: the color of the leaves is light yellow, the main veins are white and bright, the branch veins are white, the leaf tips and the leaf margins roll down, the leaf surfaces are wrinkled, mature spots exist, and most of the antler hair falls off.
B, after the tobacco leaves are woven into rods, the tobacco leaves are put into an ascending type bulk curing barn, and the tobacco leaves are woven into the rods in the same principle, namely, the tobacco leaves are the same in quality and the same in position and are proper in density; the principle of loading into the bulk curing barn is the same as that of the furnace.
The density of tobacco loading in the curing barn in the step B is 42-45 kg/m3And loading the tobacco to more than 95 percent of the volume of the curing barn.
And C, controlling the tobacco leaves in the high-temperature layer to be yellow 1/3 by controlling the stable dry and wet bulb temperature baking in the early yellowing stage for 12-18 h, controlling the stable dry and wet bulb temperature baking in the middle yellowing stage for 15-20 h to enable the tobacco leaves in the high-temperature layer to be yellow 2/3, and controlling the stable dry and wet bulb temperature baking in the later yellowing stage for 18-25 h to enable the tobacco leaves in the bottom stage to be completely yellow.
And D, controlling the color fixing early stage to enable the veins of the tobacco leaves in the whole curing barn to be yellow through stable dry and wet bulb temperature curing for 20-25 h, and controlling the color fixing later stage to enable the veins and the mesophyll of the tobacco leaves in the whole curing barn to be dried through stable dry and wet bulb temperature curing for 18-25 h.
And E, baking for 24-36 hours at stable dry and wet bulb temperatures until the main veins of the tobacco leaves in the full curing barn are dried.
Example 1
S100: collecting tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco strains which are suitable for ripening in Jiuxin town in Jiangxian district of Yuxi city.
S200: the harvested tobacco leaves are woven into rods according to the principle that the tobacco leaves are homogeneous on the same rod, the same part and proper density, and then the tobacco leaves are woven into rods according to the principle that the tobacco leaves are homogeneous on the same furnace at 42 kg/m3Is loaded into an elevated bulk curing barn to a volume of 96% for curing.
S300: performing stage baking by using biomass fuel, wherein the stage baking comprises early yellowing control, middle yellowing control and late yellowing control, the dry bulb temperature is increased to 34 ℃ from the room temperature, the wet bulb temperature is adjusted to 32 ℃ from the room temperature at the early yellowing control at the rate of 1 ℃/h, and then the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature are stabilized for baking for 16h to obviously yellow the leaf tips of the tobacco leaves in the high temperature layer; controlling the temperature rise rate of 1 ℃/1.5h after the early yellowing stage is finished, raising the dry bulb temperature to 39 ℃, adjusting the wet bulb temperature to 35 ℃, and then stabilizing the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature and baking for 15h to about 8h of high-temperature lamina yellow; and controlling the yellowing later stage to raise the dry bulb temperature to 42 ℃ and keep the wet bulb temperature at 36 ℃ at a temperature rise rate of 1 ℃/1.5h after the yellowing middle stage is finished, and then stably baking the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature for 18h until the tobacco leaves are completely yellow and withered.
S400: the biomass fuel is adopted for staged baking, including initial fixation control and later fixation control, the initial fixation control is that after S300 baking is finished, the dry bulb temperature is increased to 45 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/2h, the wet bulb temperature is adjusted to 36 ℃, and then the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature are stabilized for baking for 25h until the vein of the bottom platform is full yellow and the tip of the bottom platform is hooked and curled; and after the color fixing initial stage is finished, the temperature of the dry bulb is increased to 55 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h, the temperature of the wet bulb is adjusted to 39 ℃, and then the dry bulb and the wet bulb are stably baked for 22h until the leaves of the tobacco leaves in the whole furnace are dried and the large winding drum is finished.
S500: and (3) carrying out stage baking by using biomass fuel, raising the temperature of a dry bulb to 66 ℃ at a heating rate of 1 ℃/h after S400 baking is finished, adjusting the temperature of a wet bulb to 40 ℃, then, stabilizing the dry and wet bulb temperatures, baking for 2h until the main pulse of the tobacco leaves in the whole baking room is dried, and finally, cooling along with the furnace and discharging from the furnace.
Example 2
S100: collecting tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco strains which are suitable for ripening in Jiuxin town in Jiangxian district of Yuxi city.
S200: the harvested tobacco leaves are woven into rods according to the principle that the tobacco leaves are homogeneous on the same rod, the same part and proper density, and then the tobacco leaves are loaded into an ascending type bulk curing barn according to the principle that the tobacco leaves are homogeneous on the same furnace and the density of the tobacco leaves is 44 kg/m3 until the tobacco leaves are 97% of the volume to be cured.
S300: performing stage baking by using biomass fuel, wherein the stage baking comprises early yellowing control, middle yellowing control and late yellowing control, the dry bulb temperature is increased to 35 ℃ from the room temperature, the wet bulb temperature is adjusted to 33 ℃ from the room temperature at the early yellowing control at the rate of 1 ℃/h, and then the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature are stabilized for baking for 12h to obviously yellow the leaf tips of the tobacco leaves in a high temperature layer; controlling the temperature rise rate of 1 ℃/1h after the early yellowing stage is finished in the middle yellowing stage, raising the dry bulb temperature to 40 ℃, adjusting the wet bulb temperature to 35 ℃, and then stabilizing the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature and baking for 18h to about 8h of high-temperature lamina yellow; and controlling the yellowing later stage to raise the dry bulb temperature to 43 ℃ and keep the wet bulb temperature at 35 ℃ at a heating rate of 1 ℃/1h after the yellowing middle stage is finished, and then stably baking the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature for 20h until the tobacco leaves are completely yellow and withered.
S400: performing staged baking by using biomass fuel, including initial color fixing control and later color fixing control, wherein the initial color fixing control is to raise the dry bulb temperature to 46 ℃ and adjust the wet bulb temperature to 37 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/1.5h after S300 baking is finished, and then, the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature are stabilized and baked for 23h until the basilar veins of the base platform are all yellow and the tip hooking and curling are performed; and after the color fixing initial stage is finished, the temperature of the dry bulb is increased to 56 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h, the temperature of the wet bulb is adjusted to 38 ℃, and then the dry bulb and the wet bulb are stably baked for 18h and 25h until the leaves of the tobacco leaves in the whole furnace are dried and the large winding drum is finished.
S500: and (3) carrying out stage baking by using biomass fuel, raising the temperature of a dry bulb to 67 ℃ and regulating the temperature of a wet bulb to 42 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h after S400 baking is finished, then, stabilizing the dry and wet bulb temperatures for baking for 36h until the main pulse of the tobacco leaves in the whole baking room is dried, and finally, cooling along with the furnace and discharging from the furnace.
Example 3
S100: collecting tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco strains which are suitable for ripening in Jiuxin town in Jiangxian district of Yuxi city.
S200: will be identical to S200 of example 1.
S300: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were the same as in S300 of example 1.
S400: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were the same as in S400 of example 1.
S500: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were the same as in S500 of example 1.
Example 4
S100: collecting tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco strains which are suitable for ripening in Jiuxin town in Jiangxian district of Yuxi city.
S200: will be identical to S200 of example 1.
S300: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were identical to S300 of example 2.
S400: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were identical to S400 of example 2.
S500: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were identical to S500 of example 2.
Test group 1 was conducted as in example 1, test group 2 was conducted as in example 2, control group 1 was conducted as in example 3, and control group 2 was conducted as in example 4, and the results of the baking test are shown in tables 1 and 2.
TABLE 1 different Fuel emissions in Jiuxin town of Jiang and Chuan of Yuxi City
TABLE 2 quality of cured tobacco in Jiuxin town of Jiang and Chuan district of Yuxi City
As can be seen from Table 1:
1. the baking time of the test group 1 is saved by 24 hours compared with that of the control group 1; carrying out high-speed cultivation at 1733.79mg/m lower smoke emission than that of the control group 1; reducing the CO emission by 20319mg/m compared with that of a control group during the thin film fruit growing; the baking labor is reduced by 1.96/furnace compared with the control group 1.
2. The baking time of the test group 2 is saved by 36 hours compared with that of the control group 2; carrying out high-speed cultivation at 1662.88mg/m lower smoke emission than that of the control group 2; reducing 20728mg/m of CO emission compared with the control group 2; the baking labor is reduced by 1.88/furnace compared with the control group 2.
As can be seen from Table 2:
1. the appearance quality and color of the tobacco leaves in the test group 1 are 1 point higher than those in the control group 1; the identity is 1 point higher than that of the control group; the oil content and the identity are both 2 points higher than those of a control group; the residual injury was 1.5 points lower than that of the control group.
2. The leaf structure of the tobacco leaf appearance quality of the test group 2 is 1 minute higher than that of the control group 2; the identity is 1 point higher than that of the control group; the oil content and the identity are both 2 points higher than those of a control group; the residual injury was 0.4 point lower than that of the control group.
Example 5
S100: tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco plants which are ripe in Yunlong county of Lu Ni Ming city are collected.
S200: the harvested tobacco leaves are woven into rods according to the principle that the tobacco leaves are homogeneous on the same rod, the same part and proper density, and then the tobacco leaves are loaded into an ascending type bulk curing barn according to the principle that the tobacco leaves are homogeneous on the same furnace and the density of the tobacco leaves is 45 kg/m3 until the tobacco leaves are 98% of the volume to be cured.
S300: performing stage baking by using biomass fuel, wherein the stage baking comprises early yellowing control, middle yellowing control and late yellowing control, the dry bulb temperature is increased to 35 ℃ from the room temperature, the wet bulb temperature is adjusted to 32 ℃ from the room temperature at the early yellowing control at the rate of 1 ℃/h, and then the dry and wet bulb temperatures are stabilized for baking for 18h until the leaf tips of the tobacco leaves in a high temperature layer obviously become yellow; controlling the temperature rise rate of 1 ℃/2h after the early yellowing stage is finished in the middle yellowing stage, raising the dry bulb temperature to 40 ℃, adjusting the wet bulb temperature to 35 ℃, and then stabilizing the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature and baking for 20h to about 8h of high-temperature lamina yellow; and controlling the yellowing later stage to raise the dry bulb temperature to 42 ℃ and keep the wet bulb temperature to 36 ℃ at a temperature rise rate of 1 ℃/2h after the yellowing middle stage is finished, and then stably baking the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature for 25h until the tobacco leaves are completely yellow and withered.
S400: the biomass fuel is adopted for staged baking, including initial fixation control and later fixation control, the initial fixation control is that after S300 baking is finished, the dry bulb temperature is increased to 45 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/1.5, the wet bulb temperature is adjusted to 37 ℃, and then the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature are stabilized for baking for 24 hours until the basilar veins of the base platform are all yellow and the tip hooking and curling are carried out; and after the color fixing initial stage is finished, the temperature of the dry bulb is increased to 55 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h, the temperature of the wet bulb is adjusted to 39 ℃, and then the dry bulb and the wet bulb are stably baked for 20h until the leaves of the tobacco leaves in the whole furnace are dried and the large winding drum is finished.
S500: and (3) carrying out stage baking by using biomass fuel, raising the dry bulb temperature to 67 ℃ and adjusting the wet bulb temperature to 41 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h after S400 baking is finished, then, stabilizing the dry and wet bulb temperatures for baking for 32h until the main pulse of the tobacco leaves in the whole baking room is dried, and finally, cooling along with the furnace and discharging from the furnace.
Example 6
S100: tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco plants which are ripe in Yunlong county of Lu Ni Ming city are collected.
S200: the harvested tobacco leaves are made into rods according to the principle of same rod, same part and proper density, and then according to the principle of same furnace, 43kg/m3Is loaded into an elevated bulk curing barn to a volume of 96% for curing.
S300: performing stage baking by using biomass fuel, wherein the stage baking comprises early yellowing control, middle yellowing control and late yellowing control, the dry bulb temperature is increased to 34 ℃ from the room temperature, the wet bulb temperature is adjusted to 33 ℃ from the room temperature at the early yellowing control at the rate of 1 ℃/h, and then the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature are stabilized for baking for 14h to obviously yellow the leaf tips of the tobacco leaves in the high temperature layer; controlling the temperature rise rate of 1 ℃/1.5h after the early yellowing stage is finished, raising the dry bulb temperature to 38 ℃, adjusting the wet bulb temperature to 36 ℃, and then stably baking the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature for 16h to about 8h of high-temperature layer leaf yellow; and controlling the yellowing later stage to raise the dry bulb temperature to 43 ℃ and keep the wet bulb temperature at 35 ℃ at a temperature rise rate of 1 ℃/1.5h after the yellowing middle stage is finished, and then stably baking the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature for 23h until the tobacco leaves are completely yellow and withered.
S400: the biomass fuel is adopted for staged baking, including initial fixation control and later fixation control, the initial fixation control is that after S300 baking is finished, the dry bulb temperature is increased to 46 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/2h, the wet bulb temperature is adjusted to 36 ℃, and then the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature are stabilized for baking for 20h until the vein of the bottom platform is full yellow and the tip of the bottom platform is hooked and curled; and after the color fixing initial stage is finished, the temperature of the dry bulb is increased to 56 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h, the temperature of the wet bulb is adjusted to 38 ℃, and then the dry and wet bulb temperatures are stabilized and baked for 18h until the leaves of the tobacco leaves in the whole furnace are dried and the large winding drum is finished.
S500: and (3) carrying out stage baking by using biomass fuel, raising the temperature of a dry bulb to 66 ℃ at a heating rate of 1 ℃/h after S400 baking is finished, adjusting the temperature of a wet bulb to 40 ℃, then stabilizing the dry and wet bulb temperatures for baking for 24h until the main pulse of the tobacco leaves in the whole baking room is dried, and finally cooling along with the furnace and discharging from the furnace.
Example 7
S100: tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco plants which are ripe in Yunlong county of Lu Ni Ming city are collected.
S200: will be identical to S200 of example 5.
S300: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were identical to S300 of example 5.
S400: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were identical to S400 of example 5.
S500: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were identical to S500 of example 5.
Example 8
S100: tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco plants which are ripe in Yunlong county of Lu Ni Ming city are collected.
S200: will be identical to S200 of example 6.
S300: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were identical to S300 of example 6.
S400: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were identical to S400 of example 6.
S500: staged baking was carried out using coal as fuel, and the others were identical to S500 of example 6.
Test group 3 was conducted as in example 5, test group 4 was conducted as in example 6, control group 3 was conducted as in example 7, and control group 4 was conducted as in example 8, and the test results are shown in tables 3 and 4.
TABLE 3 different Fuel emissions in Yunlong county of Kunming City
TABLE 4 appearance quality of cured tobacco in Yunlong Xiang county of Kunming City
As can be seen from Table 3:
1. the baking time of the test group 3 is saved by 28 hours compared with that of the control group 3, and the smoke emission is reduced by 1721.88mg/m through heavy planting compared with that of the control group 3; reducing the CO emission by 20319mg/m compared with the control group 3; the baking time was reduced by 1.95/furnace compared with the control group 3.
2. The baking time of the test group 4 is 12 hours less than that of the control group 4; carrying out high-speed cultivation at 1720.79mg/m lower smoke emission than that of the control group 4; carrying out high-yield cultivation on the seeds with reduced CO emission by 20152mg/m compared with that of a control group 4; the baking labor is reduced by 1.88/furnace compared with the control group 4.
As can be seen from Table 4:
1. the appearance quality and identity of the tobacco leaves in the test group 3 are 1 minute higher than those in the control group 3; the oil content and the chroma are both 2 points higher than those of the control group.
2. The appearance quality and oil content of the tobacco leaves of the test group 4 are 1 minute higher than those of the control group 4; the chroma was 2 points higher than the control group.

Claims (8)

1. A high-efficiency baking method for improving the appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves is characterized by comprising the steps of fresh leaf harvesting, rod weaving, furnace charging, yellowing period control, color fixing period control and tendon drying period control, and specifically comprises the following steps:
A. and (3) fresh leaves are collected: collecting tobacco leaves of K326 tobacco plants which are ripe;
B. rod weaving and furnace charging: the collected tobacco leaves are woven into rods and put into a bulk curing barn to be cured;
C. controlling the yellowing stage, namely performing staged baking by adopting biomass fuel, wherein the staged baking comprises primary yellowing control, middle yellowing control and later yellowing control, the primary yellowing control is to increase the temperature of a dry bulb from room temperature to 34-35 ℃ and adjust the temperature of a wet bulb from room temperature to 32-33 ℃ at a heating rate of 1 ℃/h, then stabilize the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature and bake the leaf tips of tobacco leaves in a high temperature layer to obviously yellow, the middle yellowing control is to increase the temperature of the dry bulb to 38 ~ ℃ and adjust the temperature of the wet bulb to 35 ~ ℃ at a heating rate of 1 ℃/1-2 h after the primary yellowing stage is finished, then stabilize the temperature of the dry bulb and the wet bulb and bake the leaf yellow 8 to be about high, and the later yellowing control is to increase the temperature of the dry bulb to 42 ~ ℃ and maintain the temperature of the wet bulb at a heating rate of 1 ℃/1 ~ h after the middle yellowing stage is finished, then stabilize the temperature of the dry bulb and the wet bulb and the dry bulb until the tobacco leaves are completely yellow and withered;
D. controlling the fixation period, namely performing staged baking by adopting biomass fuel, wherein the staged baking comprises initial fixation control and later fixation control, the initial fixation control is to increase the dry bulb temperature to 45 ~ 46 ℃ and adjust the wet bulb temperature to 36 ~ 37 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/1.5 ~ 2h after the step C is finished, then stabilizing the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature, baking until the branch veins of the bottom platform are all yellow and the tip is hooked and curled, the later fixation control is to increase the dry bulb temperature to 55 ~ 56 ℃ and adjust the wet bulb temperature to 38 ~ 39 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h after the initial fixation is finished, and then stabilizing the dry bulb temperature and the wet bulb temperature, baking until the leaves of the tobacco leaves in the whole furnace are dried and the large winding drum is finished;
E. and D, controlling a stem drying period, namely, carrying out staged baking by adopting biomass fuel, raising the temperature of a dry bulb to 66 ~ 67 ℃ and the temperature of a wet bulb to 40 ~ 42 ℃ at the heating rate of 1 ℃/h after the step D is finished, then, stabilizing the dry and wet bulb temperatures, baking until the main vein of the tobacco leaves in the whole curing barn is dried, and finally, cooling along with the furnace and discharging from the furnace.
2. The high-efficiency baking method for improving the appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves according to claim 1, wherein any one or more of lower leaves, middle leaves and upper leaves of the tobacco plant are harvested in the step A.
3. The high-efficiency baking method for improving the appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves according to claim 2, wherein the properly-cured K326 tobacco leaves in the step A are represented by the following formula: the color of the leaves is light yellow, the main veins are white and bright, the branch veins are white, the leaf tips and the leaf margins roll down, the leaf surfaces are wrinkled, mature spots exist, and most of the antler hair falls off.
4. The high-efficiency baking method for improving the appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves according to claim 1, wherein the tobacco leaves in the step B are arranged in an ascending type bulk curing barn after being woven into rods, and the principle of the tobacco leaf weaving into the rods is that the tobacco leaves are the same in quality and the same in position and are proper in density; the principle of loading into the bulk curing barn is the same as that of the furnace.
5. The high-efficiency baking method for improving the appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves according to claim 4, wherein the density of tobacco loaded in the baking room in the step B is 42-45 kg/m3And loading the tobacco to more than 95 percent of the volume of the curing barn.
6. The high-efficiency baking method for improving the appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves according to claim 1, wherein in the step C, the tobacco leaves in the high-temperature layer are controlled to be yellowed 1/3 by stable dry and wet bulb temperature baking for 12-18 h in the early yellowing stage, the tobacco leaves in the high-temperature layer are controlled to be yellowed 2/3 by stable dry and wet bulb temperature baking for 15-20 h in the middle yellowing stage, and the tobacco leaves in the bottom stage are controlled to be completely yellowed by stable dry and wet bulb temperature baking for 18-25 h in the later yellowing stage.
7. The high-efficiency baking method for improving the appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves according to claim 1, wherein in the step D, the color fixing early stage is controlled to enable the branches of the tobacco leaves in the whole oven to be yellow through stable dry and wet bulb temperature baking for 20-25 hours, and the color fixing later stage is controlled to enable the branches and the mesophyll of the tobacco leaves in the whole baking room to be dried through stable dry and wet bulb temperature baking for 18-25 hours.
8. The high-efficiency baking method for improving the appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves according to claim 1, wherein the main vein of the tobacco leaves in the whole curing barn is dried by baking for 24-36 hours at stable dry and wet bulb temperatures in the step E.
CN201910957403.8A 2019-10-10 2019-10-10 High-efficiency baking method for improving appearance quality of K326 tobacco leaves Pending CN110638081A (en)

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