CN110634986A - Preparation process of solar cell module - Google Patents

Preparation process of solar cell module Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110634986A
CN110634986A CN201810650147.3A CN201810650147A CN110634986A CN 110634986 A CN110634986 A CN 110634986A CN 201810650147 A CN201810650147 A CN 201810650147A CN 110634986 A CN110634986 A CN 110634986A
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Prior art keywords
layer
solar cell
cell module
absorption layer
preparing
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CN201810650147.3A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
白安琪
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Hongyi Technology Co.,Ltd.
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Beijing Apollo Ding Rong Solar Technology Co Ltd
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/18Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/18Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L31/186Particular post-treatment for the devices, e.g. annealing, impurity gettering, short-circuit elimination, recrystallisation
    • H01L31/1864Annealing
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01LSEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; ELECTRIC SOLID STATE DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H01L31/00Semiconductor devices sensitive to infra-red radiation, light, electromagnetic radiation of shorter wavelength or corpuscular radiation and specially adapted either for the conversion of the energy of such radiation into electrical energy or for the control of electrical energy by such radiation; Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment thereof or of parts thereof; Details thereof
    • H01L31/18Processes or apparatus specially adapted for the manufacture or treatment of these devices or of parts thereof
    • H01L31/186Particular post-treatment for the devices, e.g. annealing, impurity gettering, short-circuit elimination, recrystallisation
    • H01L31/1868Passivation
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/50Photovoltaic [PV] energy
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P70/00Climate change mitigation technologies in the production process for final industrial or consumer products
    • Y02P70/50Manufacturing or production processes characterised by the final manufactured product

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of solar cells, in particular to a solar cell module preparation process, which comprises the following process steps: step S1, forming a back electrode layer on the substrate; step S2, forming an absorption layer on the back electrode layer; step S3, performing thermal oxidation on the absorption layer. According to the preparation process of the solar cell module, after the absorption layer is formed on the back electrode, thermal oxidation treatment is carried out on the absorption layer, the absorption layer is promoted to absorb oxygen through thermal oxidation treatment, and the absorption layer absorbs oxygen atoms, so that the selenium vacancy defect of the absorption layer is passivated by using the oxygen atoms, the crystal structure is reshaped, the film quality of the absorption layer is improved, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell module is improved, and the purpose of improving the performance of the solar cell is achieved.

Description

Preparation process of solar cell module
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of solar cells, in particular to a solar cell module preparation process.
Background
The conventional typical process for preparing the CIGS thin-film battery by using the co-evaporation method comprises the steps of firstly preparing a uniform Mo thin-film layer as a back electrode on a substrate by a magnetron sputtering process, wherein the thickness of the Mo layer is about 500 nm; co-evaporation is realized on the Mo layer through four evaporation sources of Cu, In, Ga and Se to prepare a CIGS quaternary compound absorption layer, and the thickness of the absorption layer is about 1.5 mu m; and sequentially preparing a buffer layer on the absorption layer by using a chemical water bath method or a sputtering method and the like, preparing a high-resistance layer and a TCO window layer by using a magnetron sputtering method, and finally preparing a grid line electrode. The quality of a CIGS absorbing layer is a key factor determining the efficiency of a thin film solar cell, however, the CIGS thin film in the existing thin film solar cell has selenium vacancy, which restricts the crystal quality and the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the thin film, wherein the selenium vacancy is a compensation type donor and a composite center defect and is one of main defect types of the CIGS thin film
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem to be solved by the invention is as follows: the selenium vacancy in the CIGS thin film in the existing thin film solar cell can affect the crystal quality and the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the thin film.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the present invention provides a solar cell module manufacturing process, comprising step S1, forming a back electrode layer on a substrate;
step S2, forming an absorption layer on the back electrode layer;
step S3, performing thermal oxidation treatment on the absorption layer.
Further, the thermal oxidation treatment is as follows:
and carrying out thermal annealing treatment on the absorption layer in an oxygen-containing atmosphere.
Further, in step S3, the oxygen-containing atmosphere is an atmosphere containing:
10-100% volume fraction oxygen and 0-90% volume fraction inert gas.
Further, the annealing temperature of the thermal annealing treatment is 100-800 ℃, and the thermal annealing time is 1-10 min.
Further, the solar cell module preparation process further comprises the following steps:
step S4, forming a buffer layer on the absorber layer after the thermal oxidation treatment;
step S5, forming a high resistance layer on the buffer layer;
step S6, forming a window layer on the high resistance layer.
Further, in step S4, forming a buffer layer on the absorber layer after the thermal oxidation by a chemical bath process, where the buffer layer is a cadmium sulfide layer;
in step S5, forming the high resistance layer on the buffer layer by a physical vapor deposition process, wherein the high resistance layer is an intrinsic zinc oxide layer or an aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer;
in step S6, the window layer is formed on the high-resistance layer by a physical vapor deposition process, and the window layer is a transparent conductive oxide layer.
Further, the transparent conductive oxide layer is an aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer or an indium tin oxide layer.
Further, in step S1, the back electrode layer is formed on the substrate by a physical vapor deposition process, and the back electrode layer is a metal Mo layer.
Further, the base material is a glass substrate or a flexible substrate.
Further, in step S2, the absorption layer is formed on the back electrode layer by a three-step co-evaporation process, and the absorption layer is a copper indium gallium selenide layer.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: according to the preparation process of the solar cell module, after the absorption layer is formed on the back electrode, thermal oxidation treatment is carried out on the absorption layer, the absorption layer is promoted to absorb oxygen through thermal oxidation treatment, and the absorption layer absorbs oxygen atoms, so that the selenium vacancy defect of the absorption layer is passivated by using the oxygen atoms, the crystal structure is reshaped, the film quality of the absorption layer is improved, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell module is improved, and the purpose of improving the performance of the solar cell is achieved.
Drawings
The advantages of the above and/or additional aspects of the present invention will become apparent and readily appreciated from the following description of the embodiments taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of which:
fig. 1 is a flow chart of a solar cell module fabrication process according to an embodiment of the present invention;
fig. 2 is a flow chart of a solar cell module fabrication process according to another embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
In order that the above objects, features and advantages of the present invention can be more clearly understood, a more particular description of the invention will be rendered by reference to the appended drawings. It should be noted that the embodiments and features of the embodiments of the present application may be combined with each other without conflict.
As shown in fig. 1, the present invention provides a solar cell module manufacturing process, step S1, forming a back electrode layer on a substrate; step S2, forming an absorption layer on the back electrode layer; step S3, performing thermal oxidation treatment on the absorption layer. According to the preparation process of the solar cell module, after the absorption layer is formed on the back electrode, thermal oxidation treatment is carried out on the absorption layer, the absorption layer is promoted to absorb oxygen through thermal oxidation treatment, and the absorption layer absorbs oxygen atoms, so that the selenium vacancy defect of the absorption layer is passivated by using the oxygen atoms, the crystal structure is reshaped, the film quality of the absorption layer is improved, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell module is improved, and the purpose of improving the performance of the solar cell is achieved.
Preferably, step S3 includes: carrying out thermal annealing treatment on the absorption layer in an oxygen-containing atmosphere, namely carrying out thermal oxidation on the absorption layer to carry out thermal annealing treatment on the absorption layer in an oxygen-containing environment; the oxygen content is sufficient in an oxygen-containing environment, the absorption of oxygen atoms by the absorption layer can be improved, the passivation effect of the oxygen atoms on the absorption layer is improved, the selenium vacancy defect is further reduced, the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell module is enhanced, and the purpose of improving the performance of the solar cell is achieved.
Further, the oxygen-containing atmosphere refers to an atmosphere comprising: 10-100% of oxygen and 0-90% of inert gas by volume fraction, namely, in the thermal annealing environment, a single oxygen or a mixed gas of oxygen and inert gas is adopted, and when the oxygen is mixed with the inert gas, the volume fraction of the oxygen is more than 10%, so that the passivation effect of oxygen atom absorption of the absorption layer can be ensured, and meanwhile, the mixed environment of the oxygen and the inert gas can avoid the influence of other gases (such as reducing gas) on the thermal oxidation effect in the thermal annealing process; the step S3 is specifically to perform a thermal annealing process on the absorption layer in a pure oxygen environment or an environment in which oxygen and an inert gas are mixed. In one embodiment of the present application, the volume fraction of oxygen is 10% and the volume fraction of inert gas is 90%; the volume fraction of the oxygen is 50%, and the volume fraction of the inert gas is 50%; the volume fraction of the oxygen is 100 percent, and the volume fraction of the inert gas is 0 percent, namely the pure oxygen atmosphere. The inert gas used may be, for example, nitrogen, argon, or the like.
In the application, the annealing temperature for carrying out thermal annealing treatment on the absorption layer is 100-800 ℃, and the thermal annealing time is 1-10 min; in one embodiment of the present application, the absorption layer is thermally annealed in a pure oxygen environment, the annealing temperature is 100 ℃, and the annealing time is 1 min; in another embodiment of the present application, the absorption layer is thermally annealed in a pure oxygen environment, the annealing temperature is 400 ℃, and the annealing time is 8 min; in another embodiment of the present application, the absorber layer is thermally annealed in a pure oxygen environment at 800 ℃ for 10 min.
As shown in fig. 2, the process for manufacturing a solar cell module further includes: step S4, forming a buffer layer on the thermally oxidized absorber layer; step S5, forming a high resistance layer on the buffer layer; step S6, forming a window layer on the high resistance layer. Therefore, the substrate, the back electrode, the absorption layer, the buffer layer, the high-resistance layer and the window layer form the solar cell module, PN junctions are formed among the absorption layer, the buffer layer and the high-resistance layer, and the window layer is a front electrode. Wherein the base material can be a glass substrate or a flexible substrate such as a stainless steel substrate; in step S1, the back electrode layer is formed on the substrate by a physical vapor deposition process, where the back electrode layer is a metal Mo layer, and preferably, the physical vapor deposition process is a magnetron sputtering process, and of course, other physical vapor deposition processes may also be used to manufacture the metal Mo layer in this application. In step S2, the absorption layer is formed on the back electrode layer by a three-step co-evaporation process, and the absorption layer is a Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) layer. In step S4, forming a buffer layer on the thermally oxidized absorption layer by a chemical bath process, where the buffer layer is a cadmium sulfide (CdS) layer; in step S5, forming the high resistance layer on the buffer layer by a physical vapor deposition process, where the high resistance layer is an intrinsic zinc oxide (i-ZnO) or an aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) layer, and preferably, the physical vapor deposition process is a magnetron sputtering process; of course, other physical vapor deposition processes may be used to fabricate the high resistance layer in this application; step S6: forming the window layer on the high resistance layer by a physical vapor deposition process, wherein the window layer is a Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) layer; preferably, the physical vapor deposition process is a magnetron sputtering process; of course, other physical vapor deposition processes may be used to fabricate the window layer in this application; the transparent conductive oxide layer is an aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) layer or an Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) layer in the present application.
The following specifically describes the solar cell module preparation process provided by the present application, taking a stainless steel substrate as a base material as an example:
depositing a uniform Mo back electrode layer on a stainless steel substrate by using a magnetron sputtering method;
preparing a copper indium gallium selenide absorption layer by using a three-step co-evaporation method; then carrying out thermal annealing on the absorption layer in an oxygen-containing atmosphere, wherein the annealing temperature is 500 ℃, the annealing time is 10min, and the used gas is pure oxygen;
preparing a cadmium sulfide buffer layer by using a chemical bath method;
preparing an intrinsic zinc oxide layer by using a magnetron sputtering method;
the indium tin oxide layer was prepared using a magnetron sputtering method.
In summary, in the solar cell module preparation process provided by the invention, after the absorption layer is formed on the back electrode, the thermal oxidation treatment is performed on the absorption layer, and the thermal oxidation treatment is performed on the absorption layer to promote the absorption of oxygen by the absorption layer, so that the absorption layer absorbs oxygen atoms, thereby passivating the selenium vacancy defect of the absorption layer by the oxygen atoms, reshaping the crystal structure, improving the film quality of the absorption layer, further improving the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the solar cell module, and achieving the purpose of improving the performance of the solar cell.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that the terms "upper", "lower", and the like indicate orientations or positional relationships based on the orientations or positional relationships shown in the drawings, which are merely for convenience in describing the present invention and simplifying the description, and do not indicate or imply that the referred device or element must have a specific orientation, be constructed in a specific orientation, and operate, and thus, should not be construed as limiting the present invention. Furthermore, the terms "first" and "second" are used for descriptive purposes only and are not to be construed as indicating or implying relative importance.
In the description of the present invention, it should be noted that, unless otherwise explicitly specified or limited, the terms "mounted," "connected," and "connected" are to be construed broadly, e.g., as meaning either a fixed connection, a removable connection, or an integral connection; can be mechanically or electrically connected; the communication may be direct, indirect via an intermediate medium, or internal to both elements. The specific meanings of the above terms in the present invention can be understood in specific cases to those skilled in the art. In addition, in the description of the present invention, "a plurality" means two or more unless otherwise specified.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents, improvements and the like that fall within the spirit and principle of the present invention are intended to be included therein.

Claims (10)

1. A solar cell module preparation process is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
step S1, forming a back electrode layer on the substrate;
step S2, forming an absorption layer on the back electrode layer;
step S3, performing thermal oxidation treatment on the absorption layer.
2. The process for preparing a solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein: the thermal oxidation treatment comprises the following steps:
and carrying out thermal annealing treatment on the absorption layer in an oxygen-containing atmosphere.
3. The process for preparing a solar cell module according to claim 2, wherein: in step S3, the oxygen-containing atmosphere is an atmosphere containing:
10-100% volume fraction oxygen and 0-90% volume fraction inert gas.
4. The process for preparing a solar cell module according to claim 2, wherein: the annealing temperature of the thermal annealing treatment is 100-800 ℃, and the thermal annealing time is 1-10 min.
5. The process for preparing a solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein: further comprising:
step S4, forming a buffer layer on the absorber layer after the thermal oxidation treatment;
step S5, forming a high resistance layer on the buffer layer;
step S6, forming a window layer on the high resistance layer.
6. The process for preparing a solar cell module according to claim 5, wherein:
in step S4, forming a buffer layer on the thermally oxidized absorber layer by a chemical bath process, where the buffer layer is a cadmium sulfide layer;
in step S5, forming the high resistance layer on the buffer layer by a physical vapor deposition process, wherein the high resistance layer is an intrinsic zinc oxide layer or an aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer;
in step S6, the window layer is formed on the high-resistance layer by a physical vapor deposition process, and the window layer is a transparent conductive oxide layer.
7. The process for preparing a solar cell module according to claim 6, wherein: the transparent conductive oxide layer is an aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer or an indium tin oxide layer.
8. The process for preparing a solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein:
in step S1, the back electrode layer is formed on the substrate by a physical vapor deposition process, and the back electrode layer is a metal Mo layer.
9. The process for preparing a solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein: the base material is a glass substrate or a flexible substrate.
10. The process for preparing a solar cell module according to claim 1, wherein:
in step S2, the absorption layer is formed on the back electrode layer by a three-step co-evaporation process, and the absorption layer is a copper indium gallium selenide layer.
CN201810650147.3A 2018-06-22 2018-06-22 Preparation process of solar cell module Pending CN110634986A (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101452969A (en) * 2008-12-29 2009-06-10 上海太阳能电池研究与发展中心 Copper zincium tin sulfur compound semiconductor thin-film solar cell and manufacturing method
CN103094372A (en) * 2011-10-31 2013-05-08 香港中文大学 Solar cell and manufacturing method thereof
CN104576837A (en) * 2015-01-26 2015-04-29 苏州瑞晟纳米科技有限公司 New technology for preparing cadmium-free buffer layer in CIGS thin film solar cell based on solution method
CN106229383A (en) * 2016-09-10 2016-12-14 华南理工大学 A kind of equally distributed copper-indium-galliun-selenium film solar cell of gallium element and preparation method thereof

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101452969A (en) * 2008-12-29 2009-06-10 上海太阳能电池研究与发展中心 Copper zincium tin sulfur compound semiconductor thin-film solar cell and manufacturing method
CN103094372A (en) * 2011-10-31 2013-05-08 香港中文大学 Solar cell and manufacturing method thereof
CN104576837A (en) * 2015-01-26 2015-04-29 苏州瑞晟纳米科技有限公司 New technology for preparing cadmium-free buffer layer in CIGS thin film solar cell based on solution method
CN106229383A (en) * 2016-09-10 2016-12-14 华南理工大学 A kind of equally distributed copper-indium-galliun-selenium film solar cell of gallium element and preparation method thereof

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