CN110625344A - Method for manufacturing curved surface component with unequal wall thickness - Google Patents

Method for manufacturing curved surface component with unequal wall thickness Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110625344A
CN110625344A CN201911145368.6A CN201911145368A CN110625344A CN 110625344 A CN110625344 A CN 110625344A CN 201911145368 A CN201911145368 A CN 201911145368A CN 110625344 A CN110625344 A CN 110625344A
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curved surface
decomposed
welding
different thicknesses
plane
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CN201911145368.6A
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CN110625344B (en
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张涛
韩秀全
王彬
孟莉莉
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AVIC Manufacturing Technology Institute
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AVIC Manufacturing Technology Institute
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21DWORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21D22/00Shaping without cutting, by stamping, spinning, or deep-drawing
    • B21D22/02Stamping using rigid devices or tools
    • B21D22/022Stamping using rigid devices or tools by heating the blank or stamping associated with heat treatment
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23PMETAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS
    • B23P15/00Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass
    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06TIMAGE DATA PROCESSING OR GENERATION, IN GENERAL
    • G06T17/00Three dimensional [3D] modelling, e.g. data description of 3D objects
    • G06T17/20Finite element generation, e.g. wire-frame surface description, tesselation

Abstract

A method of manufacturing a variable wall thickness curved surface member, comprising: establishing a three-dimensional model of the curved surface component, and performing size accumulation on the position to be processed according to the processing allowance to form a to-be-decomposed three-dimensional model; unfolding the three-dimensional model to be decomposed to form a planar model to be decomposed, and splitting according to different thicknesses to form data modules with different thicknesses; processing and forming corresponding entity modules according to the size of the data module, and welding entity modules with different thicknesses together by adopting a fusion welding method to form plane blanks with different wall thicknesses; putting the plane blank on a hot forming die for preheating, and pressing by a press machine to form a curved surface blank; and finishing the curved surface blank to form a finished curved surface member. The invention realizes the forming of the curved surface component with unequal wall thickness by one-time hot forming, shortens the development process of the component, thereby reducing the development cost, has the function of stress removal by hot forming and does not need heat treatment.

Description

Method for manufacturing curved surface component with unequal wall thickness
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of processing and manufacturing of curved surface components, in particular to a manufacturing method of a curved surface component with different wall thicknesses.
Background
In recent years, titanium alloy components with complex structures are applied more, the types of parts are not limited to simple sheet metal parts and machining parts any more, and some parts have the characteristics of the sheet metal parts and the machining parts at the same time. For example, a titanium alloy curved part used in an aircraft in the aerospace field has four sides of a frame with a large thickness and a different thickness, and a skin with a rib structure in the middle.
In the manufacturing method, firstly, the problem of precision matching of parts subjected to respective hot forming is solved, and because the forming precision of the middle thin-wall part is different from that of the frame with large thickness, one problem which often occurs in practical work is that the sizes of openings of forming parts with different thicknesses are not matched, so that welding or assembling cannot be carried out. In addition, the butt joint of the frame and the skin part of the component of the structure is mostly uneven in wall thickness, which brings difficulty to welding, and the welding quality can be ensured only by performing equal-thickness treatment on the model. The third problem is that the welded blank is subjected to heat treatment after welding in order to ensure the profile accuracy of parts and the performance of welding seams. The problems lead to high development cost and long development period of the member, and meanwhile, the matching precision of different formed parts is not easy to guarantee.
Disclosure of Invention
The embodiment of the invention provides a manufacturing method of a curved surface component with unequal wall thickness, which realizes the forming of the curved surface component with unequal wall thickness by one-time hot forming and shortens the development process route of the component, thereby reducing the development cost, reducing the technical risks of multiple hot forming and combined tailor welding and providing a new technical approach for the curved surface component with unequal wall thickness.
The embodiment of the invention provides a manufacturing method of a curved surface component with unequal wall thickness, which comprises the following steps:
establishing a three-dimensional model of the curved surface component, and performing size accumulation on the position to be processed according to the processing allowance to form a to-be-decomposed three-dimensional model;
unfolding the three-dimensional model to be decomposed to form a planar model to be decomposed, and splitting according to different thicknesses to form data modules with different thicknesses;
processing and forming corresponding entity modules according to the size of the data module, and welding entity modules with different thicknesses together by adopting a fusion welding method to form plane blanks with different wall thicknesses;
putting the plane blank on a hot forming die for preheating, and pressing by a press machine to form a curved surface blank;
and finishing the curved surface blank to form a finished curved surface member.
Further, when the three-dimensional model to be decomposed is unfolded to form the planar model to be decomposed, the three-dimensional model to be decomposed is unfolded to form the planar model to be decomposed by taking the outer curved surface of the three-dimensional model to be decomposed as the curved surface sheet body and taking the plane perpendicular to the middle section of the curved surface sheet body as the unfolding plane.
Further, the step of unfolding the three-dimensional model to be decomposed to form a planar model to be decomposed, and splitting the planar model according to different thicknesses to form data modules with different thicknesses specifically includes:
unfolding the three-dimensional model to be decomposed to form a planar model to be decomposed;
designing welding positioning holes for assembling and welding entity modules with different thicknesses on a to-be-decomposed plane model and hot-pressing positioning holes for hot forming of a plane blank;
and splitting the to-be-decomposed plane model according to different thicknesses to form data modules with different thicknesses.
Further, before the step of forming corresponding solid modules according to the size of the data module and welding the solid modules with different thicknesses together by using a fusion welding method to form planar blanks with different wall thicknesses, the manufacturing method further comprises:
and designing a butt joint structure for the butt joint edge of each data module connected with the adjacent data module.
Further, the butt joint structure reserves a welding part with the same thickness as each adjacent data module for the butt joint edge of the data module.
Further, if there is a corner on the same data module, the corner is designed to be U-shaped.
Further, the welding seam of the welding edge of each solid module is not more than 0.1 mm.
In conclusion, the invention effectively solves the problem that the molding surface precision is not matched when the entity modules with different wall thicknesses are respectively subjected to thermoforming by unfolding the plane of the curved surface member, splitting to form entity modules with different wall thicknesses, then performing tailor welding to form plane blanks with different wall thicknesses and then performing overall thermoforming, and has the following advantages:
(1) the development process route of the curved surface member is shortened, the working procedures of hot forming, welding and heat treatment and tooling cost are effectively reduced, and the development cost of the curved surface member is obviously reduced;
(2) the member manufactured by the method has high appearance precision, avoids the problems of assembly coordination and secondary deformation caused by assembling and welding after forming or machining a plurality of parts, and has the stress removing function in hot forming after welding, so that heat treatment is not needed after hot forming;
(3) compared with a welding mode between bent parts, the solid modules with unequal wall thicknesses adopt a flat plate assembly welding mode and have the advantages of simple tool structure and easy guarantee of welding seam quality;
(4) in addition, when the skin grid area of the rectification skin manufactured by the method is chemically milled, the inner edges of the formed frames with different wall thicknesses are used for positioning, so that the method is simple and accurate, and the precision of chemically milled ribs is easy to guarantee.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions of the embodiments of the present invention, the drawings needed to be used in the embodiments of the present invention will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings described below are only some embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious for those skilled in the art to obtain other drawings based on these drawings without creative efforts.
FIG. 1 is a flow chart of a method for manufacturing a curved member with a different wall thickness according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic flow chart of the method for manufacturing the fairing skin.
Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of the data module in fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a butt-joint structure between the side frames, the front frame and the skin in fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a butt-joint structure between the side frames, the rear frame and the skin in fig. 3.
In the figure:
11-an intermediate skin; 12-side frame; 121-docking site a; 13-front frame; 131-docking site B; 14-rear frame; 141-docking site C; 15-hot pressing the positioning hole; 16-welding positioning holes; 17-U shaped corner.
Detailed Description
The embodiments of the present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the drawings and examples. The following detailed description of the embodiments and the accompanying drawings are provided to illustrate the principles of the invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention, i.e., the invention is not limited to the embodiments described, but covers any modifications, alterations, and improvements in the parts, components, and connections without departing from the spirit of the invention.
It should be noted that the embodiments and features of the embodiments in the present application may be combined with each other without conflict. The present application will be described in detail below with reference to the embodiments with reference to the attached drawings.
Fig. 1 is a flowchart of a manufacturing method of a curved surface member with an unequal wall thickness according to an embodiment of the present invention, and as shown in fig. 1, the manufacturing method includes the following steps S100 ~, step S500:
and S100, establishing a three-dimensional model of the curved surface component, and performing size accumulation on the position to be processed according to the processing allowance to form a to-be-decomposed three-dimensional model.
In the step, the three-dimensional model of the curved surface component is established by adopting software such as CAD, UG, PRO/E, Solidworks or 3 DMAX. The purpose of accumulating the sizes of the positions to be processed according to the processing allowance is to facilitate the positions to have enough sizes for subsequent processing.
And S200, unfolding the three-dimensional model to be decomposed to form a planar model to be decomposed, and splitting according to different thicknesses to form data modules with different thicknesses.
It should be further noted that the step of unfolding the three-dimensional model to be decomposed to form a planar model to be decomposed, and splitting the planar model according to different thicknesses to form data modules with different thicknesses specifically includes:
step S201, unfolding the three-dimensional model to be decomposed to form a planar model to be decomposed.
In this step, when the three-dimensional model to be decomposed is expanded to form the planar model to be decomposed, the three-dimensional model to be decomposed is expanded to form the planar model to be decomposed by taking the outer curved surface of the three-dimensional model to be decomposed as the curved surface sheet body and taking the plane perpendicular to the middle section of the curved surface sheet body as the expansion plane, so that the obtained planar model can be more accurate.
Step S202, designing welding positioning holes for assembling and welding the entity modules with different thicknesses on the plane model to be decomposed, and hot-pressing positioning holes for hot forming of the plane blank.
In this step, the purpose of providing the hot press positioning hole and the welding positioning hole is to position in the subsequent processing procedure, so as to ensure more accurate processing precision.
And step S203, splitting the to-be-decomposed plane model according to different thicknesses to form data modules with different thicknesses.
In a preferred embodiment, in this step, if there is a corner on the same data module, the corner is designed to be U-shaped, and the U-shaped corner is used to facilitate positioning during welding between subsequent entity modules with different thicknesses.
And step S300, processing and forming corresponding entity modules according to the size of the data module, and welding entity modules with different thicknesses together by adopting a fusion welding method to form plane blanks with different wall thicknesses.
It should be further noted that, before the step of forming the corresponding solid modules according to the size of the data module and welding the solid modules with different thicknesses together by using a fusion welding method to form the planar blanks with different wall thicknesses, the manufacturing method further includes:
and designing a butt joint structure for the butt joint edge of each data module connected with the adjacent data module.
In this step, the butt joint structure is used for facilitating welding between the solid modules with different thicknesses in the subsequent welding process.
Furthermore, the butt joint structure reserves a welding part with the same thickness as each adjacent data module for the butt joint edge of the data module, so that the welding seams between the subsequent adjacent entity modules are positioned on the same plane, and the part of the welding seam protruding out of the plane after welding is convenient to remove.
Specifically, in this step, the weld of the welding edge of each solid module is not greater than 0.1 mm. The assembly test of the processing result shows that the processing precision is very easy to guarantee because each entity module is of a flat-plate structure when processing, and the blank of each entity module after processing can reach the joint gap precision of the laser welding butt joint edge without clamping.
And step S400, putting the plane blank on a hot forming die for preheating, and pressing by a press machine to form a curved surface blank.
In the step, the preheating time is set according to the material selected for the different plane blanks, and the pressure maintaining time of the press machine are set so as to ensure that the qualified curved surface blanks are formed after pressing.
And step S500, performing finish machining on the curved surface blank to form a finished curved surface component.
In this step, the curved surface blank is finish-machined according to the assembly size of the curved surface member.
In conclusion, the invention effectively solves the problem that the molding surface precision is not matched when the entity modules with different wall thicknesses are respectively subjected to thermoforming by unfolding the plane of the curved surface member, splitting to form entity modules with different wall thicknesses, then performing tailor welding to form plane blanks with different wall thicknesses and then performing overall thermoforming, and has the following advantages:
(1) the development process route of the curved surface member is shortened, the working procedures of hot forming, welding and heat treatment and tooling cost are effectively reduced, and the development cost of the curved surface member is obviously reduced;
(2) the member manufactured by the method has high appearance precision, avoids the problems of assembly coordination and secondary deformation caused by assembling and welding after forming or machining a plurality of parts, and has the stress removing function in hot forming after welding, so that heat treatment is not needed after hot forming;
(3) the solid module with unequal wall thickness adopts a flat plate assembly welding mode, and compared with a welding mode between bent parts, the welding fixture has the advantages of simple structure and easy guarantee of welding seam quality.
Fig. 2 is a schematic flow chart of the method for manufacturing a fairing skin according to the present invention.
Referring to fig. 3, the plane model of the fairing skin is decomposed into data modules including a middle skin 11, side frames 12 at both sides of the middle skin 11, and a front frame 13 and a rear frame 14 at both ends of the middle skin 11, wherein,
the side frames 12 and the rear frame 14 have the same thickness, and the thickness is greater than that of the front frame 13, and the thickness of the front frame 13 is greater than that of the middle skin 11.
It should be noted that the fairing skin is made of TA15 titanium alloy, that is, a15 mm thick plate and a 4mm thick plate are machined by a numerical control machine. Specifically, the thickness of the side frame 12 and the rear frame 14 is 15mm, the thickness of the front frame 13 is 9mm, and the thickness of the middle skin 11 is 4 mm.
It should be further noted that the outer edges of the front frame 13 and the rear frame 14 are respectively provided with a hot-pressing positioning hole 15, two ends of the front frame 13, the rear frame 14 and the side frame 12 are respectively provided with a welding positioning hole 16, and a U-shaped corner 17 is arranged at a corner of the rear frame 14 and the side frame 12.
Referring to fig. 4, in the connection end between the side frame 12 and the front frame 13, a 9mm and 4mm thick butt joint portion a 121 is left at the bottom of the inner side edge of the side frame 13, and a 4mm thick butt joint portion B131 is left at the inner side edge of the front frame 13, so as to be welded to each other by laser welding.
Referring to fig. 5, in the connecting side of the rear frame 14 and the side frame 12, a butt joint portion C141 with a thickness of 15mm and 4mm is left at the bottom of the inner side of the two ends of the rear frame 14, and a butt joint portion 121 with a thickness of 4mm is left at the inner side of the side frame, so as to be welded with each other by laser welding.
Specifically, during thermoforming and pressing, preheating is carried out in a thermoforming mold for 30min to 60min, then a press is started for pressing, the pressure of the press is 60t ~ 120t, and the pressure maintaining time is not less than 30 min.
Further, when the inner profile of the curved surface blank of the rectification skin is chemically milled, the side frame 12, the front frame 13 and the rear frame 14 are respectively close to the inner edge of the middle skin 11 for positioning, so that the method is simple and accurate, and the precision of chemically milling ribs is easily ensured.
It should be noted that the area of the intermediate skin 11 is chemically milled, specifically, a chemical milling process is adopted in which a colloid protects a non-chemically milled area and a template positions a chemical milling position, and then a strong acid is used to remove an excessive thickness. The process is different from other chemical milling processes in that a chemical milling sample plate is the net size of the middle of a formed blank, and the sample plate and a curved surface blank are positioned by adopting the inner edge of a frame. And after chemical milling, carrying out five-axis numerical control machining on the thick frame of the curved surface blank to obtain the final part.
The rectifying skin manufactured by the method is simple and accurate, and the precision of the chemically milled ribs is easily ensured because the inner edges of the formed frames with different wall thicknesses are used for positioning when the skin grid area is chemically milled.
It should be clear that the embodiments in this specification are described in a progressive manner, and the same or similar parts in the embodiments are referred to each other, and each embodiment focuses on the differences from the other embodiments. For embodiments of the method, reference is made to the description of the apparatus embodiments in part. The present invention is not limited to the specific steps and structures described above and shown in the drawings. Also, a detailed description of known process techniques is omitted herein for the sake of brevity.
The above description is only an example of the present application and is not limited to the present application. Various modifications and alterations to this application will become apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the scope of this invention. Any modification, equivalent replacement, improvement, etc. made within the spirit and principle of the present application should be included in the scope of the claims of the present application.

Claims (7)

1. A method for manufacturing a curved surface member with a variable wall thickness, comprising:
establishing a three-dimensional model of the curved surface component, and performing size accumulation on the position to be processed according to the processing allowance to form a to-be-decomposed three-dimensional model;
unfolding the three-dimensional model to be decomposed to form a planar model to be decomposed, and splitting according to different thicknesses to form data modules with different thicknesses;
processing and forming corresponding entity modules according to the size of the data module, and welding entity modules with different thicknesses together by adopting a fusion welding method to form plane blanks with different wall thicknesses;
putting the plane blank on a hot forming die for preheating, and pressing by a press machine to form a curved surface blank;
and finishing the curved surface blank to form a finished curved surface member.
2. The method for manufacturing a curved member with a different wall thickness as claimed in claim 1, wherein the three-dimensional model to be decomposed is developed to form a planar model to be decomposed by using the outer curved surface of the three-dimensional model to be decomposed as the curved sheet body and the plane perpendicular to the middle plane of the curved sheet body as the development plane.
3. The method for manufacturing the curved surface member with different wall thicknesses according to claim 1, wherein the step of unfolding the three-dimensional model to be decomposed to form a planar model to be decomposed and splitting the planar model according to different thicknesses to form data modules with different thicknesses specifically comprises:
unfolding the three-dimensional model to be decomposed to form a planar model to be decomposed;
designing welding positioning holes for assembling and welding entity modules with different thicknesses on a to-be-decomposed plane model and hot-pressing positioning holes for hot forming of a plane blank;
and splitting the to-be-decomposed plane model according to different thicknesses to form data modules with different thicknesses.
4. The method of manufacturing a curved surface member with unequal wall thickness as claimed in claim 1, wherein before the steps of forming corresponding solid modules according to the size of the data module and welding the solid modules with unequal thickness together by using a fusion welding method to form the planar blank with unequal wall thickness, the method further comprises:
and designing a butt joint structure for the butt joint edge of each data module connected with the adjacent data module.
5. The method for manufacturing a curved surface member with unequal wall thickness as claimed in claim 4, wherein the butt joint structure is characterized in that a welding part with the same thickness as that of each adjacent data module is reserved for the butt joint edge of the data module.
6. The method according to claim 4, wherein if there is a corner on the same data block, the corner is designed to be U-shaped.
7. The method of manufacturing a curved surface member with unequal wall thickness according to claim 3, wherein the welding seam of the welding edge of each solid module is not more than 0.1 mm.
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CN112475052A (en) * 2020-12-18 2021-03-12 北京航星机器制造有限公司 Forming die and forming method for special-shaped curved surface structural part
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CN113275664A (en) * 2021-05-27 2021-08-20 广船国际有限公司 Panel processing method
CN113909825A (en) * 2021-11-09 2022-01-11 湖北三江航天红阳机电有限公司 Processing method of large-size thin-wall load cabin
CN113927256A (en) * 2021-11-18 2022-01-14 航天科工哈尔滨风华有限公司 Machining method for large titanium alloy thin-wall deep-cavity cabin formed through laser deposition

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CN113275664A (en) * 2021-05-27 2021-08-20 广船国际有限公司 Panel processing method
CN113909825A (en) * 2021-11-09 2022-01-11 湖北三江航天红阳机电有限公司 Processing method of large-size thin-wall load cabin
CN113927256A (en) * 2021-11-18 2022-01-14 航天科工哈尔滨风华有限公司 Machining method for large titanium alloy thin-wall deep-cavity cabin formed through laser deposition

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