CN110614922A - Double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for vehicle-mounted electric vehicle and control method - Google Patents

Double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for vehicle-mounted electric vehicle and control method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110614922A
CN110614922A CN201910849979.2A CN201910849979A CN110614922A CN 110614922 A CN110614922 A CN 110614922A CN 201910849979 A CN201910849979 A CN 201910849979A CN 110614922 A CN110614922 A CN 110614922A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
energy
motor
circuit
super capacitor
current
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Pending
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CN201910849979.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
丁石川
孙乐
杭俊
花为
胡超
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Yancheng New-Energy Automobile Academy Of Southeast China University
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Yancheng New-Energy Automobile Academy Of Southeast China University
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Priority to CN201910849979.2A priority Critical patent/CN110614922A/en
Publication of CN110614922A publication Critical patent/CN110614922A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/40Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by capacitors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • B60L50/60Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells using power supplied by batteries
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L7/00Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles in general
    • B60L7/10Dynamic electric regenerative braking
    • B60L7/18Controlling the braking effect
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility

Abstract

The invention discloses a double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device and a control method for an electric automobile, which comprises a hardware circuit and a controller, wherein the controller is connected with the hardware circuit; the hardware circuit comprises a super capacitor bank, a bidirectional DC-DC circuit, a series network, a three-phase voltage type inverter and a permanent magnet synchronous motor; the super capacitor bank consists of C1, C2, C3 and Cn, and the series network consists of a storage battery, a current-limiting resistor, a reverse diode and a power tube SB; the controller is respectively connected with the bidirectional DC-DC circuit, the series network and the three-phase voltage type inverter, and generates control signals in real time according to the running state of the motor so as to drive a switching device in the control circuit. The invention improves the energy recovery efficiency, reduces the volume, saves the cost, reduces the complexity of an energy recovery circuit, and is very suitable for an energy storage system of an electric automobile.

Description

Double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for vehicle-mounted electric vehicle and control method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of energy storage technology and power supply, in particular to a double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for an electric automobile and a control method thereof, which are suitable for energy storage systems of electric automobiles, wind power generation and photovoltaic power generation.
Background
In recent years, electric vehicles are more and more concerned by various countries as zero-emission and zero-pollution new energy vehicles, and regenerative braking is an important method for improving the utilization rate of electric energy, and is one of research hotspots of various research institutions and automobile developers at home and abroad. According to the actual running test result of the electric automobile by the American research institution, the driving range of the electric automobile with the regenerative braking function is improved by about 10 percent under the same charging condition. The traditional pure electric vehicle takes the storage battery as the only energy source, and can have the problems of short driving range, insufficient power performance and the like. The traditional battery has low power density, slow charging and discharging speed, short service life of cyclic charging and needs to be replaced regularly. The super capacitor is used as a novel energy storage device and has the advantage that a battery does not have, the super capacitor with large storage capacity can replace the battery to serve as a storage device, and compared with the battery, the super capacitor is high in power density, high in charging and discharging speed, wide in service temperature range, more environment-friendly, not like the battery needing to be replaced at regular intervals, and long in cycle service life. The super capacitor has wide application prospect due to the excellent performance, can be used as the only power source of the electric automobile, and can also be used as a hybrid power source of the electric automobile together with other energy storage devices such as a rechargeable battery and a fuel cell. In addition, the super capacitor has wide use value in the field of national defense and in the field of electric energy quality control by virtue of the characteristic of instantly releasing high-power energy. The dual energy sources of the storage battery and the super capacitor are integrated into the automobile, so that the dual requirements of the pure electric automobile on the contrast power and the specific energy can be met, the driving range is prolonged, the power performance of the whole automobile is improved, and the recovery rate of the braking energy is greatly improved.
At present, the motor for the electric vehicle mainly comprises a switched reluctance motor, an induction motor, a brushless direct current motor and a permanent magnet synchronous motor. Compared with a direct current motor, the permanent magnet synchronous motor has no electric brush or mechanical commutator, so that the motor has the advantages of simple structure, high operation reliability, small rotor heat productivity and easy realization of large capacity. Compared with an electrically excited synchronous motor, the permanent magnet synchronous motor rotor utilizes a permanent magnet to replace a direct current excitation winding, a slip ring and a carbon brush are omitted, the loss and the heat of the rotor are reduced, and the reliability and the efficiency of the operation of the motor are improved. Compared with an induction motor, the permanent magnet synchronous motor has the advantages of high energy density, high response speed, high efficiency and the like; and the control algorithm is simple, and high-precision control is easy to realize. Compared with a brushless direct current motor, the permanent magnet synchronous motor has small torque pulsation, good torque characteristic and more stability in low-speed running. The permanent magnet synchronous motor has the characteristics of high power density, high efficiency, high torque density, good torque stability, low vibration noise, small volume, low inertia, quick response and the like, and is widely applied to the power driving motor of the electric automobile.
Because the electric automobile needs to be accelerated and decelerated, started and braked frequently in the running process, on one hand, larger instantaneous power needs to be provided frequently to meet the starting requirement, and on the other hand, a considerable part of energy in the braking process can be consumed only wastefully, so that a certain energy storage source capable of solving the 2 problems is necessary to be started. Meanwhile, the specific power of the storage battery for the electric automobile is limited, if the storage battery is directly used for driving the motor, the driving performance of the motor is deteriorated, and the voltage of the battery can be more stable by using the bidirectional DC-DC converter, so that the driving performance of the motor is improved. In general, a bidirectional DC-DC converter can be classified into an isolated type and a non-isolated type. Because the isolated DC-DC converter has a complex structure, the magnetic core of the transformer is easy to saturate, and the isolated DC-DC converter has the advantages of large number of used components, large volume and complex control. In addition, efficiency is also an important factor affecting the operation of the DC-DC converter in an electric vehicle. The non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter has the advantages of simple structure, small volume, reliable performance and the like, thereby being widely applied.
Disclosure of Invention
The purpose of the invention is as follows: the invention provides a double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for an electric vehicle, which is designed aiming at the defects of the existing energy recovery device for the electric vehicle, not only refers to the topological structure of the existing braking energy recovery system, but also reasonably designs the effective combination of a double-energy-source structure of a super capacitor bank and a storage battery and a non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter and the application of a fuzzy control idea, fully exerts the characteristics of multiple charging and discharging times, high speed and long cycle life of the super capacitor, and improves the energy recovery efficiency. And fewer components are used, so that the size is reduced, the cost is saved, and the complexity of an energy recovery circuit is reduced. The energy recovery system adopts a non-isolated DC-DC converter and a fuzzy control strategy, improves the efficiency and the precision of energy recovery, and is very suitable for an energy storage system of an electric automobile.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for an electric automobile comprises a hardware circuit and a controller;
the hardware circuit comprises a super capacitor bank, a bidirectional DC-DC circuit, a series network, a three-phase voltage type inverter and a permanent magnet synchronous motor; the super capacitor bank is composed of C1、C2、C3、CnThe series network comprises a storage battery, a current-limiting resistor, a reverse diode and a power tube SBComposition is carried out;
the controller is respectively connected with the bidirectional DC-DC circuit, the series network and the three-phase voltage type inverter, and is mainly used for generating control signals in real time according to the running state of the motor so as to drive a switching device in the control circuit.
The control method of the double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for the vehicle-mounted electric vehicle comprises the following steps: in a hardware circuit, a controller monitors the direct current bus voltage in real time, the super capacitor bank side inductive current and the motor three-phase stator current which are composed of C1, C2, C3 and Cn generate control signals through fuzzy control according to the running state of the motor to drive bidirectional DC-DThe energy of the motor during starting, accelerating, cruising and decelerating braking is in the super capacitor bank, the energy of the storage battery, the current-limiting resistor, the reverse diode and the power tube SBThe formed series network is reasonably distributed.
The braking energy feedback device based on the double energy sources for the vehicle-mounted electric automobile can realize reasonable distribution of energy between the super capacitor and the storage battery when the electric automobile is started, accelerated, cruising and decelerated for braking, has high energy recovery rate and efficiency, and can effectively prolong the service life of the storage battery. The invention has simple topological structure, does not use heavy and expensive devices such as a transformer, a complex direct current conversion topological circuit and the like, and has low cost and light weight of the whole device. The invention adopts a fuzzy control method, has good robustness compared with PI control, only needs to monitor the voltage and current of the super capacitor bank, the storage battery and the direct current bus side and the current of the three-phase stator of the motor, generates a proper driving signal according to a selected control strategy, and drives the power switch to carry out correct switching of the running state of the motor.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1) heavy and expensive devices such as a transformer and a complex direct current conversion topological circuit are not used, and the whole device is low in cost and light in weight.
2) The energy can be reasonably distributed between the super capacitor bank and the storage battery when the electric automobile is started, accelerated, decelerated and braked at a constant speed, the energy recovery rate and the efficiency are high, and the service life of the storage battery can be effectively prolonged.
3) And a fuzzy control method is adopted, so that the robustness is good compared with PI control, and only the super capacitor, the storage battery, the voltage and current of the direct current bus side and the three-phase stator current of the motor need to be monitored, and a proper driving signal is generated according to a selected control strategy to drive the power switch device to switch the running state of the motor correctly.
4) By using the device, the running effect of the permanent magnet synchronous motor is stable and good, the super capacitor provides instantaneous energy to the motor during starting and accelerating, and the super capacitor absorbs the pulsating current on the bus side during deceleration and braking of the motor. The storage battery provides energy required by the smooth running of the motor.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the system of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a motor braking energy recovery system interface circuit;
FIG. 3 is a power flow diagram at motor start-up;
FIG. 4 is a power flow diagram for motor acceleration;
FIG. 5 is a power flow diagram of the motor during cruise;
FIG. 6 is an energy flow diagram of regenerative braking of a motor;
FIG. 7 is a three phase current of a motor stator;
FIG. 8 is a waveform of the rotation speed of the motor during starting, accelerating, cruising and decelerating;
FIG. 9 is a cross-axis stator current waveform;
fig. 10 is a battery terminal voltage waveform;
FIG. 11 is a waveform of charging and discharging current of the secondary battery;
fig. 12 is a terminal voltage waveform of a super capacitor;
FIG. 13 is a charge-discharge current waveform of a super capacitor;
fig. 14 is a dc bus terminal voltage waveform;
fig. 15 is a dc bus current waveform.
In the figure: 1. the system comprises a super capacitor bank, 2. a bidirectional DC-DC circuit, 3. a series network, 4. a three-phase voltage inverter, 5. a permanent magnet synchronous motor and 6. a controller.
Detailed Description
The invention is further described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
As shown in FIG. 1, the invention provides a dual-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for an electric vehicle, which is composed of a hardware circuit and a controller.
The hardware circuit comprises C1、C2、C3、CnThe super capacitor group 1 and the bidirectional DC-DC circuit 2 are connected in parallel by a storage battery, a current-limiting resistor and a reverse diodeTube, power tube SBThe system comprises a series network 3, a three-phase voltage inverter 4 and a permanent magnet synchronous motor 5; the controller 6 is respectively connected with the bidirectional DC-DC circuit 2, the series network 3 and the three-phase voltage type inverter 4, and mainly generates control signals in real time according to the running state of the motor so as to drive a switching device in the control circuit.
In the control method of the double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for the electric vehicle, in a hardware circuit, the controller 6 monitors the direct-current bus voltage in real time, and C1、C2、C3、CnThe energy of the motor during starting, accelerating, cruising and decelerating braking is generated by the inductive current at the side of the super capacitor bank 1 and the three-phase stator current of the motor according to the running state of the motor and the power switch devices in the bidirectional DC-DC circuit 2 and the three-phase voltage type inverter 4, and the energy is generated by the super capacitor bank 1, the storage battery, the current-limiting resistor, the backward diode and the power tube SBThe constituent tandem network 3 is distributed reasonably.
To further illustrate the specific operation of the circuit of the present invention, a motor braking energy interface circuit is taken as an example to illustrate the specific operation principle of the present invention, and the circuit is shown in fig. 2.
In this circuit, V1And V2The anti-parallel diode forms a step-down chopper circuit, V2And V1The anti-parallel diodes form a boost chopper circuit. When operating in buck mode, V2Is always in an off state, V1Normally on and off, and2the antiparallel diode is at V1Inductance L when turned offbProvides a freewheeling path.
Its main structure is composed of super capacitor CUAnd a storage battery B. The interface circuit has several different operating states. During the operation of the storage battery, the terminal voltage of the storage battery has small change, and when the super capacitor works, the terminal voltage of the super capacitor has great change. The battery has a strong discharge capacity but a weak charging ability, which is determined by its own electrochemical structure. In contrast, supercapacitors are very high in capacityStrong charge-discharge capacity, more charge-discharge times, high speed and long cycle life. U in FIG. 2DCIs DC bus voltage, C is filter capacitor, B is accumulator, C is DC bus voltageUIs a super capacitor, UUFor the terminal voltage of the super capacitor, V1,D1,,V2,,D2,,LbA component is composed of a bidirectional DC-DC converter, RB is the equivalent internal resistance of the storage battery, RLiAs a current limiting resistor, DBTo prevent energy from being fed back to the diode of the battery.
The power electronic interface circuit can realize two functions: the super capacitor is connected to a bus, and at the moment, the super capacitor is arranged on a low-voltage side, so that the terminal voltage can be changed violently, and the high-current charging and discharging capacity of the super capacitor is fully exerted; secondly, when the storage battery passes through the VB,,RLi,DBAnd RBAfter being connected in series, the direct current bus is connected in parallel. The structure can ensure that the discharging current of the storage battery is arranged in a controllable range, and no charging current flows to the storage battery, thereby prolonging the service life of the storage battery.
The interface circuit can be divided into 4 operation modes according to different operation states of the motor, as shown in fig. 3, 4, 5 and 6. The arrows in the figure represent the current direction. The specific operation of each mode is specifically analyzed below.
1. At the moment of starting the motor, as shown in fig. 3, the starting current is large, the characteristic that the specific power of the super capacitor is high must be fully utilized, the super capacitor provides the starting current for the motor through the bidirectional DC-DC converter, and the converter is in a Boost working state at the moment. The accumulator passes through a current limiting resistor RLiAnd the current limiting resistor is connected to a direct current bus, so that the stability of the bus voltage is ensured, and the discharge current of the storage battery is very small.
2. When the motor is accelerated, as shown in fig. 4, the energy required by the motor becomes smaller than the energy required at the moment of starting, and at this time, the super capacitor and the storage battery operate simultaneously. At the moment, the super capacitor does not consume excessive energy, and the storage battery does not generate over-discharge current.
3. When the motor is cruising, as shown in fig. 5, the change of the rotating speed of the motor is small, at the moment, the three-phase current of the stator of the motor is in the range of rated current, and the storage battery can independently provide required energy.
4. When the motor is decelerated and braked, the inertia energy of the motor is converted into electric energy in a short time and then fed back to the direct current bus, at the moment, the super capacitor has high-current charging capacity and can absorb the energy, and the storage battery continues to clamp the bus voltage.
Performing joint simulation on a permanent magnet synchronous motor control system and an energy storage system, wherein parameters in the simulation are as follows: the rated rotation speed of the motor is 4000r/min, 2 poles are opposite, the direct-axis inductance is 41.631mH, and the quadrature-axis inductance is 24.579 mH. The initial voltage of the super capacitor is 100V, the size of the capacitor is 1F, the nominal voltage of the storage battery is 400V, the initial state of charge (SOC) is 80%, the internal resistance is 4 omega, the buffer resistance is 0.1 omega, and the inductance of the low-voltage side is 75 mH. From the simulation results, it can be seen that the simulation time is 10s, the rotation speed is given to be reduced from 4000r/min to 0r/min at 6s, and the rotation speed is reduced at the set rate in the model, as shown in fig. 8. Fig. 9 shows that the Iq current changes from a positive value to a negative value during braking, and the negative value tends to be stable in magnitude. As can be seen from fig. 7, as the negative electromagnetic torque (proportional to Iq) is stabilized during braking, the amplitude of the stator three-phase current tends to be stable, and the current frequency gradually decreases, which is consistent with the description of the stator three-phase current of the permanent magnet synchronous motor in the stable braking phase shown in fig. 3. As seen from fig. 10 and 11, the battery voltage rises during braking, but the charging current is small. Fig. 12 and 13 show that the bus lateral super capacitor is charged with a constant current during braking, the voltage is greatly increased, and fig. 14 and 15 respectively show that the bus voltage is basically kept stable during braking, and the bus current is a pulse charging current. The simulation result is consistent with the expected target, and the feasibility and the correctness of the permanent magnet synchronous motor braking energy recovery system are proved.
Although the present invention has been described with reference to the preferred embodiments, it is not intended to be limited thereto. Those skilled in the art can make various changes and modifications without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Therefore, the protection scope of the present invention should be determined by the appended claims.

Claims (2)

1. The utility model provides an on-vehicle braking energy feedback device based on two energy sources that uses of electric automobile which characterized in that: comprises a hardware circuit and a controller;
the hardware circuit comprises a super capacitor bank, a bidirectional DC-DC circuit, a series network, a three-phase voltage type inverter and a permanent magnet synchronous motor; the super capacitor bank consists of C1, C2, C3 and Cn, and the series network consists of a storage battery, a current-limiting resistor, a reverse diode and a power tube SB;
the controller is respectively connected with the bidirectional DC-DC circuit, the series network and the three-phase voltage type inverter, and generates control signals in real time according to the running state of the motor to drive a switching device in the control circuit.
2. The control method of the braking energy feedback device based on the double energy sources for the vehicle-mounted electric vehicle as claimed in claim 1 comprises the following steps: in a hardware circuit, a controller monitors the direct current bus voltage in real time, and a super capacitor bank side inductive current and a motor three-phase stator current which are composed of C1, C2, C3 and Cn generate control signals through fuzzy control according to the running state of a motor to drive power switching devices in a bidirectional DC-DC circuit and a three-phase voltage type inverter, so that energy of the motor during starting, accelerating, cruising and decelerating and braking is reasonably distributed in a super capacitor bank and a series network composed of a storage battery, a current-limiting resistor, a backward diode and a power tube SB.
CN201910849979.2A 2019-09-09 2019-09-09 Double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for vehicle-mounted electric vehicle and control method Pending CN110614922A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201910849979.2A CN110614922A (en) 2019-09-09 2019-09-09 Double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for vehicle-mounted electric vehicle and control method

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201910849979.2A CN110614922A (en) 2019-09-09 2019-09-09 Double-energy-source-based braking energy feedback device for vehicle-mounted electric vehicle and control method

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111211599A (en) * 2020-02-13 2020-05-29 许昌许继风电科技有限公司 Energy feedback management system and control method of fan variable pitch system

Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111211599A (en) * 2020-02-13 2020-05-29 许昌许继风电科技有限公司 Energy feedback management system and control method of fan variable pitch system
CN111211599B (en) * 2020-02-13 2021-08-03 许昌许继风电科技有限公司 Energy feedback management system and control method of fan variable pitch system

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