CN110497423A - A kind of manipulator adaptive machining method - Google Patents

A kind of manipulator adaptive machining method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110497423A
CN110497423A CN201910778733.0A CN201910778733A CN110497423A CN 110497423 A CN110497423 A CN 110497423A CN 201910778733 A CN201910778733 A CN 201910778733A CN 110497423 A CN110497423 A CN 110497423A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
manipulator
workpiece
machining
function
machining tool
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Pending
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CN201910778733.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
杨进兴
谢银辉
李俊
冯明琪
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Quanzhou Institute of Equipment Manufacturing
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Quanzhou Institute of Equipment Manufacturing
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Priority to CN201910778733.0A priority Critical patent/CN110497423A/en
Publication of CN110497423A publication Critical patent/CN110497423A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J11/00Manipulators not otherwise provided for
    • B25J11/005Manipulators for mechanical processing tasks
    • B25J11/0065Polishing or grinding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1628Programme controls characterised by the control loop
    • B25J9/163Programme controls characterised by the control loop learning, adaptive, model based, rule based expert control
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B25HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
    • B25JMANIPULATORS; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES
    • B25J9/00Programme-controlled manipulators
    • B25J9/16Programme controls
    • B25J9/1656Programme controls characterised by programming, planning systems for manipulators
    • B25J9/1664Programme controls characterised by programming, planning systems for manipulators characterised by motion, path, trajectory planning

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of manipulator adaptive machining method, and the end of manipulator is equipped with the sensor for acquiring the manipulator and workpiece contact force value, and machining tool is mounted on the sensor;The processing method includes establishing model, first contacts and stable processing, by generating explicit path function, and tracking error is compensated according to the value of feedback of the force value of sensor detection, realize force-location mix control, processing stability relatively preferably and the relatively high function of machining accuracy, simultaneously because tangential direction and the processing face contact of the machining tool along the surface of workpiece, so that after machining tool reaches desired contact force along machining path contact workpiece surface, contact surface normal direction component velocity is zero, it realizes the steady contact between machining tool and workpiece and will not occur to collide greatly, further increase processing stability.

Description

A kind of manipulator adaptive machining method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of automatic processing method, especially a kind of manipulator adaptive machining method.
Background technique
The processing method that traditional manipulator polishing system generallys use teaching mode.Manipulator using teaching path or from Line generates path, the movement of robot work path heavy dependence hard coded, and manipulator independently adapts to the energy of dynamic change environment Power is limited, however, workpiece theoretical model and actual environment error influence factor more (workpiece modeling error, workpiece deformation, fixture Clamping position error, mechanical arm and stage positioning errors etc.), installation, debugging and use are complicated for operation, and workpiece size error Can all cause manipulator actual processing track and theoretical machining locus to generate position deviation with actual environment error etc., can generate compared with Big impact force, and then defective work piece and manipulator, processing stability are relatively poor.
Publication No. is that the Chinese invention patent application of CN108115690A discloses a kind of manipulator adaptive control system And method, the adaptive impedance control algorithm based on force feedback is used, which carries out impedance control using Norma l deviation power Model calculation obtains position correction point, however, when manipulator is applied to processing (such as polishing, polishing), the mill of arm end Tool need to be kept in contact with workpiece, and the vibration force that the vibration and process that grinding tool operation generates generate will lead to manipulator in workpiece Unstable contact on surface, meanwhile, impedance controller manipulator from free space into the transient process contacted with workpiece, Do not ensure that mechanical arm will not be difficult to ensure after first time contact impact in surface rebound, stability.In addition, the above method Process speed is slower, and flat surface grinding process is considered as static process when designing control algolithm, curved surface is not accounted for and adds Working hour arm end sensor because acceleration of motion change and the non-horizontal downward situation of posture under caused by sensor values it is inclined Difference influences machining accuracy.
In view of this, the applicant conducts in-depth research manipulator adaptive machining method, there is this case generation then.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of relatively preferable and relatively high machining accuracy manipulators of processing stability Adaptive machining method.
To achieve the goals above, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme:
A kind of manipulator adaptive machining method, the end of manipulator, which is equipped with, to be connect for acquiring the manipulator with workpiece The sensor of touch degree, machining tool are mounted on the sensor;
The processing method the following steps are included:
S1 establishes model, establishes the threedimensional model of the workpiece, calculates the machining tool according to the threedimensional model and exists Discrete operating path on the workpiece, and be fitted the discrete operating path and generate an explicit path function;
S2, first contacts, the machining tool is according to the path function from free space to the machined surface of the workpiece It is close, in this process, the machining tool is adjusted relative to the normal velocity of the machined surface and tangential by modulation function Speed, so that tangential direction and the processing face contact of the machining tool along the machined surface;
S3 stablizes processing, and the machining tool processes the workpiece according to the path function, in this process In, according to the deviation between the force value of sensor detection and expectation force value, using dynamical system function and adaptive admittance Control algolithm is analyzed by Liapunov stability, is exported a fine speed adjustment amount and is repaired as the speed of the path function Positive value.
As an improvement of the present invention, the sensor is force snesor or torque sensor, and the manipulator is more Joint Serial manipulator, the machining tool are bistrique.
As an improvement of the present invention, in step sl, it is fitted by regression equation mode encoded motion described discrete Operating path simultaneously obtains the path function Φ (ξ;T), wherein ξ is the middle pose state variable of the end of the manipulator, and t is to add Between working hour.
As an improvement of the present invention, the force value of the sensor detection is the force value after gravity compensation.
As an improvement of the present invention, the dynamical system function isWherein,Point Not Biao Shi robot arm end effector physical location and speed,Robot arm end effector it is expected acceleration,Table Show dynamic system,Indicate the modulation function for adjusting the machining tool all directions movement velocity.
As an improvement of the present invention, the modulation functionWherein Q=[q1(x)… qn (x)], qnOne group of orthonormal basis is indicated, if q1To be directed toward contact surface normal orientation.
As an improvement of the present invention, the adaptive admittance control algorithms are as follows:
In formulaIndicate the relative velocity fastened in the workpiece coordinate of arm end bistrique;
Fd: mechanical arm tail end bistrique and workpiece expectation function power;
Fext: mechanical arm tail end bistrique and workpiece contact action power measured value;
Force measurement FextThe estimated value after gravity compensation and vibration dynamic balance;
Md、Dd: inertial matrix, damping matrix.
By adopting the above technical scheme, the invention has the following advantages:
1, by generating explicit path function, and tracking error is compensated according to the feedback sound of sighing of the force value of sensor detection, Realize force-location mix control, processing stability is relatively preferable and machining accuracy is relatively high.
2, since machining tool is along the tangential direction on the surface of workpiece and the processing face contact, so that machining tool is along processing After path contacts workpiece surface reaches desired contact force, contact surface normal direction component velocity is zero, is realized between machining tool and workpiece Steady contact and will not occur to collide greatly, further increase processing stability.
3, since the force value of sensor detection is force value after gravity compensation, effectively avoid arm end sensor because Caused sensor values deviation under acceleration of motion variation and the non-horizontal downward situation of posture, is further processed precision.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of the manipulator and workbench that provide in embodiment;
Fig. 2 is the flow diagram of manipulator adaptive machining method in embodiment;
Fig. 3 is the machining path schematic diagram in embodiment.
Corresponding mark is as follows in figure:
10- manipulator;20- workpiece;
30- sensor;40- bistrique;
50- workbench;60- fixture.
Specific embodiment
Invention is described further combined with specific embodiments below:
The present embodiment provides a kind of manipulator adaptive machining method and a kind of manipulator processing control methods, should add Manipulator used in work method can be conventional manipulator, in the present embodiment, by taking joint series manipulator as an example into The type of row explanation, processing can be conventional cutting, grinding or polishing, be illustrated by taking grinding as an example in the present embodiment.
As shown in Figure 1, the end of manipulator 10 is equipped with for the contact dynamics between collection machinery hand 10 and workpiece 20 Sensor 30, which is conventional force snesor or torque sensor, and machining tool is mounted on sensor 30, In In the present embodiment, machining tool is bistrique 40, and bistrique 40 is mounted on sensor 30 by shaft.It is provided with by manipulator 10 Workbench 50 is provided with the fixture 60 for clamping workpiece 20 on the workbench 50, wherein the machined surface of workpiece 20 can have It is multiple, it is in the present embodiment to be illustrated by taking continuous face as an example by the machined surface of workpiece 20.
As shown in Figure 1-Figure 3, the processing method the following steps are included:
S1 establishes model, establishing workpiece 20 using conventional 3 d modeling software (such as pro/E, SolidWorks) Threedimensional model calculates discrete operating path of the machining tool on workpiece 20 according to the threedimensional model, and passes through regression equation side Formula encoded motion is directly or indirectly fitted the discrete operating path and generates an explicit path function Φ (ξ;T), wherein ξ is institute The middle pose state variable (variable is usually matrix) of the end of manipulator is stated, t is process time, that is, uses explicit path letter Number Φ (ξ;T) machined surface of workpiece described.Certainly, when calculating discrete operating path, need to consider actual processing technology It is required that and constraint condition.It should be noted that routine curve fitting methods can be used in regression equation, as piecewise polynomial returns Equation etc..
Preferably, in the present embodiment, workpiece 20 is considered as uniform rigid body, uses keIt indicates workpiece stiffness, and assumes bistrique 40 outside the expectation contact force of the normal orientation of the machined surface of workpiece 20 Fe, then in machining path points along finished surface normal direction position Compensation rate is xe=Fe/ke, above-mentioned discrete operating path is adjusted according to the normal direction position compensation amount, expectation mill can be obtained Machining path is cut, is fitted discrete operating path indirectly by being fitted expectation grinding path realization.
Later, by above-mentioned threedimensional model and path function Φ (ξ;T) it imports in the control system of manipulator, and establishes with machine Robot basis coordinates system C1 on the basis of tool hand 10, the sensor coordinate system C2 on the basis of sensor 30 are with machining tool The robot tool coordinate system C3 of the benchmark and workpiece coordinate system C4 on the basis of workpiece 20, while using conventional scaling method Staking-out work is carried out, to determine the relative positional relationship of workpiece coordinate system C4 Yu robot basis coordinates system C1, obtains workpiece coordinate Variation square between each left side systems such as system-basis coordinates system transformation matrix, sensor coordinate system-tool coordinates system transformation matrix Battle array, is coordinately transformed convenient for the control system of mechanical hand.
S2, first contacts, in order to realize the steady contact between machining tool and the machined surface of rigidity and not occur excessive Collision, bistrique 40 must contact machined surface with zero velocity, i.e. bistrique 40 reaches expectation contact along machining path contact workpiece surface After power, contact surface normal direction component velocity is zero, it should be noted that refer in the present embodiment tangentially refer to bistrique 40 with The contact position of machined surface and the tangent direction of machined surface, normal direction refer to the contact position of bistrique 40 and machined surface perpendicular to adding The direction in work face, is tangentially mutually perpendicular to normal direction.
In order to realize said effect, the present embodiment establishes the model of bistrique 40 Yu environmental activity, specifically, machining tool It is close to the machined surface of workpiece 10 from free space (i.e. the position of 40 green surface of bistrique contact) according to path function, at this During a, relative to the normal velocity of the machined surface and cut by dynamical system function adjustment machining tool (i.e. bistrique 40) To speed, so that tangential direction and the processing face contact of the machining tool along the machined surface.
S3 stablizes processing, and machining tool processes workpiece 10 according to path function, in this process, according to biography Deviation between the force value that sensor 30 detects and expectation force value is led to using dynamical system function and adaptive admittance control algorithms Liapunov stability analysis is crossed, exports speed correction of the fine speed adjustment amount as path function, wherein Li Yapu Promise husband's stability analysis is a kind of conventional parser, is mainly used for differentiating under any primary condition of dynamical system, balance Track near state finally can maintain near equilibrium state, not the emphasis of the present embodiment, and and will not be described here in detail.
The force value that sensor 30 detects is preferably the force value after gravity compensation, gravity supplement therein i.e. supplement bistrique 40, shaft and sensor 30 are because own wt and acceleration change lead to 30 stress of sensor.Specifically, force snesor or Torque sensor acquires the force value information acted on the sensor in real time, and is become by sensor coordinate system-tool coordinates system Changing matrix conversion is active force in tool coordinates system, then subtracts bistrique 40, shaft and the sensing under current pose and acceleration The gravity and inertia force component of device 30, numerical value obtained are the force value after gravity compensation.
Dynamical system function isWherein,It indicates dynamic system, can use conventional Second-order dynamic systemsIn formula, A, B are constant matrices, xrIt indicates under workpiece coordinate system 40 physical location of bistrique and speed, bistrique 40 under the robot basis coordinates system that can be directly read from the control system of manipulator Position and speed and be converted to by basis coordinates system-workpiece coordinate system transformation matrix.xdRespectively indicate workpiece Expectation acceleration, speed and the position of bistrique 40 under coordinate system.It indicates for adjusting the machining tool all directions The modulation function of movement velocity passes through modulation matrix coefficient tune for modulating according to the state of manipulator 10 to dynamic system Bistrique all directions movement velocity is saved, free space moves and transient process steadily contacts to meet.In the present embodiment, it modulates Function isWherein Q=[q1(x)…qn(x)], qnOne group of orthonormal basis is indicated, if q1It is connect to be directed toward Contacting surface normal orientation, if For the item of matrix Λ, indicate along orthonormal basis direction (standard Orthogonal basis refers to that element pairwise orthogonal in the inner product space, the mould length of base vector are all the bases of unit length 1) zoom ratio of speed, By to λijThe modulation of all directions velocity component is realized in numerical value adjustment.
In addition, the region that size of the definition ρ for transitional region, i.e. modulation function influence;E is that bistrique contacts front and back speed change Change coefficient;0 < ε expression is modulated at free space disappearance speed.Defining D (x) is bistrique along contact surface normal orientation and contact surface Distance function, D (x)=0 indicate that bistrique and contact face contact, ρ < D (x) indicate that bistrique is in free space, and 0 < D (x) < ρ is indicated Bistrique is located at spatial transition, and D (x)≤0 indicates that bistrique is in attaching space, thenFunction are as follows:
The control to velocity error is realized by above-mentioned dynamical system function, institute can be obtained according to the integral of required speed The update for needing position, according to bistrique 40 machined surface path function Φ (ξ;T) with bistrique physical location and speed, movement is assessed The measurement of track and actual speed, real-time update next step desired speed
Due to workpiece modeling error, workpiece deformation, fixture clamping position error, manipulator and stage positioning errors etc. because Element, bistrique is moved along desired machining path to be difficult to ensure and workpiece in normal direction keeps stable contact force, is needed by adaptive Admittance control algorithms realize the real-time pose compensation of normal direction contact force, and adaptive admittance control algorithms are as follows:
In formulaIndicate the relative velocity fastened in the workpiece coordinate of arm end bistrique;
Fd: mechanical arm tail end bistrique and workpiece expectation function power;
Fext: mechanical arm tail end bistrique and workpiece contact action power measured value;
Force measurement FextThe estimated value after gravity compensation and vibration dynamic balance;
Md、Dd: inertial matrix, damping matrix, the two parameters can adjust in real time, and specific method of adjustment is conventional Method, such as adaptively adjusted using fuzzy self-adaption gain adjustment or genetic algorithm, it is also no longer described in detail herein.
Arm end may be implemented from free movement to touching workpiece surface in processing method provided in this embodiment The smooth transition of process.Polishing power and position for complexity existing for environment in bruting process and uncertainty, according to feedback Dynamic relationship between confidence breath, using the control strategy of adaptive admittance parameter, dynamic tracing polishing power and trajectory path are used Dynamic system optimal control method inhibits grinding and polishing process vibrations problem, is assessed in terms of stability, convergence and optimality, To realize stable process.
The present invention is described in detail above in conjunction with attached drawing, but embodiments of the present invention be not limited in it is above-mentioned Embodiment, those skilled in the art can make various modifications to the present invention according to the prior art, these belong to the present invention Protection scope.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of manipulator adaptive machining method, which is characterized in that the end of manipulator is equipped with for acquiring the machinery The sensor of hand and workpiece contact dynamics, machining tool are mounted on the sensor;
The processing method the following steps are included:
S1 establishes model, establishes the threedimensional model of the workpiece, calculates the machining tool described according to the threedimensional model Discrete operating path on workpiece, and be fitted the discrete operating path and generate an explicit path function;
S2, first contacts, the machining tool is close to the machined surface of the workpiece from free space according to the path function, In this process, the machining tool is adjusted relative to the normal velocity of the machined surface and tangential speed by dynamical system function Degree, so that tangential direction and the processing face contact of the machining tool along the machined surface;
S3 stablizes processing, and the machining tool processes the workpiece according to the path function, in this process, According to the deviation between the force value of sensor detection and expectation force value, controlled using dynamical system function and adaptive admittance Algorithm is analyzed by Liapunov stability, exports speed correction of the fine speed adjustment amount as the path function.
2. manipulator adaptive machining method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the sensor is six-dimensional force/power Square sensor, the manipulator are joint series manipulator, and the machining tool is bistrique.
3. manipulator adaptive machining method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that in step sl, by recurrence side Journey mode encoded motion is fitted the discrete operating path and obtains the path function Φ (ξ;T), wherein ξ is the manipulator End middle pose state variable, t is process time.
4. manipulator adaptive machining method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the force value of sensor detection is Force value after gravity compensation.
5. manipulator adaptive machining method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the dynamical system function isWherein, xr,Robot arm end effector physical location and speed are respectively indicated,Mechanical arm End effector it is expected acceleration,Indicate dynamic system,It indicates each for adjusting the machining tool The modulation function of direction movement velocity.
6. manipulator adaptive machining method as claimed in claim 5, which is characterized in that the modulation functionWherein Q=[q1(x) … qn(x)], qnOne group of orthonormal basis is indicated, if q1To be directed toward contact surface method To direction.
7. manipulator adaptive machining method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the adaptive admittance control algorithms It is as follows:
In formulaIndicate the relative velocity fastened in the workpiece coordinate of arm end bistrique;
Fd: mechanical arm tail end bistrique and workpiece expectation function power;
Fext: mechanical arm tail end bistrique and workpiece contact action power measured value;
Force measurement FextThe estimated value after gravity compensation and vibration dynamic balance;
Md、Dd: inertial matrix, damping matrix.
CN201910778733.0A 2019-08-22 2019-08-22 A kind of manipulator adaptive machining method Pending CN110497423A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111037562A (en) * 2019-12-27 2020-04-21 广东博智林机器人有限公司 Robot control method and device and robot
CN111805538A (en) * 2020-06-18 2020-10-23 北京卫星制造厂有限公司 Robot real-time motion planning method based on force feedback
CN111941421A (en) * 2020-06-22 2020-11-17 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳)(哈尔滨工业大学深圳科技创新研究院) Self-adaptive fuzzy force tracking control method based on multi-robot cooperative operation
CN112025708A (en) * 2020-08-31 2020-12-04 北京理工大学 Control system and method for completing knocking task by using field tool
CN112372630A (en) * 2020-09-24 2021-02-19 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳) Multi-mechanical-arm cooperative polishing force compliance control method and system

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111037562A (en) * 2019-12-27 2020-04-21 广东博智林机器人有限公司 Robot control method and device and robot
CN111037562B (en) * 2019-12-27 2021-04-06 广东博智林机器人有限公司 Robot control method and device and robot
CN111805538A (en) * 2020-06-18 2020-10-23 北京卫星制造厂有限公司 Robot real-time motion planning method based on force feedback
CN111941421A (en) * 2020-06-22 2020-11-17 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳)(哈尔滨工业大学深圳科技创新研究院) Self-adaptive fuzzy force tracking control method based on multi-robot cooperative operation
CN112025708A (en) * 2020-08-31 2020-12-04 北京理工大学 Control system and method for completing knocking task by using field tool
CN112025708B (en) * 2020-08-31 2021-09-21 北京理工大学 Control system and method for completing knocking task by using field tool
CN112372630A (en) * 2020-09-24 2021-02-19 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳) Multi-mechanical-arm cooperative polishing force compliance control method and system

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