CN110492798A - A kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor - Google Patents

A kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110492798A
CN110492798A CN201910654884.5A CN201910654884A CN110492798A CN 110492798 A CN110492798 A CN 110492798A CN 201910654884 A CN201910654884 A CN 201910654884A CN 110492798 A CN110492798 A CN 110492798A
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CN
China
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motor
zero
crossing
acquisition
brshless
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CN201910654884.5A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
李渤通
杨阳
徐世文
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杭州洲钜电子科技有限公司
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Priority to CN201910654884.5A priority Critical patent/CN110492798A/en
Publication of CN110492798A publication Critical patent/CN110492798A/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02PCONTROL OR REGULATION OF ELECTRIC MOTORS, ELECTRIC GENERATORS OR DYNAMO-ELECTRIC CONVERTERS; CONTROLLING TRANSFORMERS, REACTORS OR CHOKE COILS
    • H02P6/00Arrangements for controlling synchronous motors or other dynamo-electric motors using electronic commutation dependent on the rotor position; Electronic commutators therefor
    • H02P6/14Electronic commutators
    • H02P6/16Circuit arrangements for detecting position
    • H02P6/18Circuit arrangements for detecting position without separate position detecting elements
    • H02P6/182Circuit arrangements for detecting position without separate position detecting elements using back-emf in windings

Abstract

A kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor, comprising: S1: brushless motor receives enabling signal, starts using three-step approach;S2: while the launching process of motor is in positioning stage, bus voltage is detected, and be configured to the resistance value of digital regulation resistance;S3: motor enters the open loop dragging stage, and cuts closed loop phase in due course;S4: detecting the size of duty ratio, and judges whether to need to divide, and the result of zero-crossing examination is determined according to judging result;S5: whether detection signal stops, and is the motor that shuts down, otherwise return step S4.Voltage undulation region caused by afterflow can be avoided to the maximum extent by carrying out back EMF zero-crossing point detection using such AD acquisition strategies, improve the accuracy of zero-crossing examination;And the present invention improves the accuracy of zero-crossing examination in the wider range of speeds, and stronger to the variation adaptability of bus voltage.

Description

A kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor

Technical field

The present invention relates to Motor Control Fields, and in particular to a kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination side of brshless DC motor Method.

Background technique

Brshless DC motor overcomes the birth defects of brushed DC motor, with electronic commutator instead of mechanical commutation Device, so brshless DC motor had not only had the characteristics that the good speed adjusting performance of direct current generator, but also simple with ac motor structure, Non-commutation spark, it is reliable for operation and easy to maintain the advantages that.Position-sensor-free then reduces motor volume, further reduced Motor cost, while motor can be made to adapt to various complex working conditions, therefore the application of brushless DC motor without position sensor is got over Come more extensive.

In the method for various DC motor rotor location of no location sensor brushless detection, most simple and practical method is just It is Based on Back-EMF Method, core is the zero-crossing examination of rotor counter electromotive force, and such position detection is mainly used in Six Steps Motor control method.When brshless DC motor is controlled using three-phase Six Steps, three-phase floats in different sectors over the ground respectively It is empty.There are mainly two types of methods for back EMF zero-crossing point detection at present: indirect back EMF zero-crossing point detection and direct B-EMF Zero-crossing examination.

Counter electromotive force detection method needs manually to build dummy neutral indirectly, while detecting floating phase terminal voltage over the ground and void Quasi- neutral point voltage, the two make the difference to obtain the value of counter electromotive force in this phase.Such method is disadvantageous in that: in detection circuit Need to be added low-pass filter to filter out high-frequency signal, therefore lead to phase shift so that zero-crossing examination to location information go out Existing deviation, and this deviation can increase with the raising of motor speed.

In chopping regulating speed, direct B-EMF detection rule only needs to detect in zero vector action time floats over the ground It is compared with reference zero level, obtains zero crossing information with this by the end voltage of Kongxiang.But such method still has Limitation, when motor needs to run at high speeds, the duty ratio of chopping regulating speed PWM is very big, and low level detection time is very Short, i.e. zero vector action time is very short, since the influences such as afterflow cause to be difficult to detect zero crossing.

Jianwen Shao propose in United States Patent (USP) US7301298B2 according to motor speed height respectively in zero vector and Effective vector action time carries out zero-crossing examination, and such method makes the duty ratio of chopping regulating speed PWM can achieve 1, guarantees The utilization rate of power supply.But such method is divided when effective vector action time detecting zero crossing, to drop Low zero-crossing examination precision.

Summary of the invention

To solve the above-mentioned problems, the present invention provides a kind of adaptive mistakes in brushless DC motor without position sensor Pin zero-point detecting method is capable of providing the accuracy of high zero-crossing examination, can be provided for different types of brshless DC motor compared with To be accurately controlled, there is very strong adaptability and accuracy.

Shown in technical scheme is as follows:

A kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor characterized by comprising

S1: brushless motor receives enabling signal, starts using three-step approach;

S2: while the launching process of motor is in positioning stage, bus voltage is detected, and to digital regulation resistance Resistance value is configured;

S3: motor enters the open loop dragging stage, and cuts closed loop phase in due course;

S4: detecting the size of duty ratio, and judges whether to need to divide, and determines zero-crossing examination according to judging result As a result;

S5: whether detection signal stops, and is the motor that shuts down, otherwise return step S4.

This method dynamically changes the intrinsic standoff ratio of terminal voltage detecting circuit by identification motor control voltage, and devises one The strategy of kind AD collection terminal voltage, the accuracy of back-emf zero-crossing examination under different situations is improved with this, improves motor fortune Row state.

Preferably, the detailed process of bus voltage and digital potentiometer resistance setting is detected in the step S2 are as follows: bus Voltage is detected by AD acquisition, and AD acquisition is carried out in the state that positioning stage upper arm switching tube is opened, obtains bus with this Voltage;It is to be configured by mcu programming to digital regulation resistance that resistance value, which is arranged, this uses fundamental operation for digital regulation resistance, There is no any advanced operation.In this example, since bus voltage will not change easily, then no longer heavy in later control Change the resistance value of digital regulation resistance again.If bus voltage will appear fluctuation by a relatively large margin under special operation condition, can also close The bus voltage value that loop order section iterates through acquisition is configured digital potentiometer resistance.

Preferably, the specific method step of zero crossing is obtained in the step S4 are as follows:

It when duty ratio is less than 50%, then does not need to carry out partial pressure setting, directly detects counter electromotive force at this time, point at this time Floating, digital regulation resistance are not involved in counter electromotive force detection voltage-controlled tubulation foot over the ground, are carried out AD in zero vector action time and are adopted Collection, the result of acquisition is compared with 0, obtains zero crossing, and the time for then postponing 30 ° of electrical angles obtains best commutation point;

When duty ratio be greater than 50%, then need to carry out partial pressure setting, need to detect at this time partial pressure after counter electromotive force, such as scheme Shown in 3, partial pressure control pin at this time exports low level, introduces digital regulation resistance and is divided, in effective vector action time Carry out AD acquisition, by the result of acquisition withIt is compared, obtains zero crossing, the time for then postponing 30 ° of electrical angles obtains most Good commutation point.

Preferably, further comprising the steps of in the step S4:

It is respectively TIM2 and TIM2 using two clocks, is set as synchronous mode, and clock frequency is identical;

The TIM1 is arranged as center alignment pattern, to generate chopping regulating speed PWM.When duty ratio is less than 50% the case where It is lower to use PWM1 mode, it is low level in the case that count value is greater than fiducial value, in the case that count value is less than fiducial value For high level;PWM2 mode is used in the case that duty ratio is greater than 50%, is high in the case that count value is greater than fiducial value Level is low level in the case that count value is less than fiducial value;

The periodic quantity of the TIM1 artificially gives, and fiducial value is calculated according to duty ratio size;

The TIM2 is set as edge alignment pattern, to trigger AD acquisition;In the case that count value is greater than fiducial value It is low level in the case that count value is less than fiducial value for high level.Trigger event is set up, when count value reaches fiducial value Setting event triggers AD acquisition.

Preferably, the periodic quantity of the TIM2 and fiducial value can calculate according to the following formula:

PR2=2PR1

CR2=PR2-CR1-TADf

Wherein PR1For TIM1 periodic quantity, CR1For TIM1 fiducial value;PR2For TIM2 periodic quantity, CR2Compare for TIM2 Value.TADFor AD acquisition time, f is clock frequency.

Due to the presence of freewheeling diode, voltage is held to will appear the fluctuation of a period of time after the switching of PWM level, to protect Card acquisition position avoids the influence of afterflow, and it is respectively TIM1 and TIM2 that the identical timer of two periodic quantities, which is arranged,.

Preferably, duty ratio is to think given in the step S4, is calculated, is needed at each PWM weeks by PI ring Phase is judged.

It is furthermore preferred that stop signal in the step S5 is artificial control, when motor operation, detects error signal Want to stop issuing stop signal when motor afterwards or under motor normal operating conditions.

Beneficial effects of the present invention: method provided by the invention enhances the compatibility of controller, can be compatible with different total The motor control of line voltage, improves the accuracy of zero-crossing examination, and whole process be it is adaptive, do not need to carry out additional Operation;By designing a kind of AD acquisition strategies, influence caused by the voltage of afterflow opposite end is avoided to the maximum extent, improves zero passage The accuracy of point acquisition is come;Intrinsic standoff ratio is accurately set according to bus voltage, being also possible to prevent excessively to divide leads to zero-crossing examination Accuracy decline or intrinsic standoff ratio setting not enough lead to not the problems such as detecting zero crossing.

Detailed description of the invention

Fig. 1 is the flow chart of method provided by the invention.

Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram adaptively divided using digital regulation resistance.

Fig. 3 is the clock configuration diagram of the PWM1 mode in zero crossing AD acquisition in TIM1.

Fig. 4 is the clock configuration diagram of the PWM2 mode in zero crossing AD acquisition in TIM1.

Fig. 5 is the clock configuration diagram in zero crossing AD acquisition in TIM2.

Specific embodiment

As shown in Figure 1, the overall structure and process of this patent are as follows:

After motor receives enabling signal, start using three-step approach;

The first step is positioning stage, while completing motor positioning in this stage, detects bus voltage, and to digital electricity The resistance value of position device is configured, in this example, since bus voltage will not change easily, then in later control no longer Repeat the resistance value of change digital regulation resistance.It, can also be if bus voltage will appear fluctuation by a relatively large margin under special operation condition The bus voltage value that closed loop phase iterates through acquisition is configured digital potentiometer resistance;

Motor enters the open loop dragging stage after positioning stage, and cuts the closed-loop control stage in due course, this stage changes What phase point chose dependence is the detection to back electromotive force zero-crossing;

It is judged according to given duty ratio:

If duty ratio less than 50%, does not need to carry out partial pressure setting, counter electromotive force is directly detected at this time, such as Fig. 2 institute Show, floating, digital regulation resistance are not involved in counter electromotive force detection partial pressure control pin at this time over the ground, in zero vector effect Between carry out AD acquisition, the result of acquisition is compared with 0, obtains zero crossing, then delay 30 ° of electrical angles time obtain most Good commutation point.

If duty ratio is greater than 50%, need to carry out partial pressure setting, the counter electromotive force after needing to detect partial pressure at this time, such as Shown in Fig. 3, partial pressure control pin at this time exports low level, introduces digital regulation resistance and is divided, in the effect of effective vector Between carry out AD acquisition, the result of acquisition and will be compared, obtain zero crossing, then the time of 30 ° of electrical angles of delay obtains most Good commutation point.

Due to the presence of freewheeling diode, voltage is held to will appear the fluctuation of a period of time after the switching of PWM level, to protect Card acquisition position avoids the influence of afterflow, and it is respectively TIM1 and TIM2 that the identical timer of two periodic quantities, which is arranged,.In order to as far as possible Reducing influences caused by afterflow, is respectively TIM2 and TIM2 using two clocks, is set as synchronous mode, and clock frequency phase Together.

TIM1 is arranged as center alignment pattern, to generate chopping regulating speed PWM.It is adopted in the case that duty ratio is less than 50% Compared at this time as shown in Fig. 2, being low level in the case that count value is greater than fiducial value when count value is less than with PWM1 mode It is high level in the case where value;PWM2 mode is used in the case that duty ratio is greater than 50%, at this time as shown in figure 4, when counting Value is high level in the case where being greater than fiducial value, is low level in the case that count value is less than fiducial value.

The periodic quantity of TIM1 artificially gives, and fiducial value is calculated according to duty ratio size.

TIM2 is set as edge alignment pattern, to trigger AD acquisition.As shown in figure 5, when count value is greater than fiducial value In the case of be high level, when count value be less than fiducial value in the case where be low level.Trigger event is set up, when count value reaches ratio Setting event triggers AD acquisition when compared with value.

The periodic quantity and fiducial value of TIM2 can calculate according to the following formula:

PR2=2PR1

CR2=PR2-CR1-TADf

Wherein PR1For TIM1 periodic quantity, CR1For TIM1 fiducial value;PR2For TIM2 periodic quantity, CR2Compare for TIM2 Value.TADFor AD acquisition time, f is clock frequency.

The clock configuration diagram of zero crossing AD acquisition strategies is as shown in Figure 2.

AD acquisition is carried out in zero vector action time (chopping regulating speed PWM is low level state), holds voltage (with a phase at this time For) may be expressed as:

AD acquisition is carried out in effective vector action time (chopping regulating speed PWM is high level state), holds voltage (with a at this time For phase) it may be expressed as:

Wherein VdcFor bus voltage, eaFor a phase back-emf, e3For triple-frequency harmonics, wherein e3Have no effect on counter electromotive force mistake Zero point detection, can ignore.It is compared, does not need it can thus be seen that carrying out AD acquisition and 0 in zero vector action time Partial pressure, it is only necessary to voltage, which is limited in single-chip microcontroller, to carry out AD acquisition in effective vector action time within tolerance range, andIt is compared, is then divided, but excessively high intrinsic standoff ratio can make precision further decrease.

Wherein digital regulation resistance uses digital control scheme adjusting resistance value, have using flexible, degree of regulation it is high, it is contactless, It is not easy to be stained, anti-vibration, the remarkable advantages such as anti-interference, small in size, the service life is long, it, can be into using the programmable characteristic of its resistance value The accurate control of row intrinsic standoff ratio, if the current-limiting resistance value that end voltage connects is R, single-chip microcontroller maximum input voltage is Vmax, then number is electric Position device resistance value RxThere are following calculation formula:

Carrying out back EMF zero-crossing point detection using such AD acquisition strategies can avoid to the maximum extent caused by afterflow Voltage undulation region substantially increases the accuracy of zero-crossing examination.

The embodiment of example described above is only used to explain the present invention, all in this hair without applying limitation to the present invention Within bright spirit and principle, any modifications and changes are done to the present invention, are all included in the scope of protection of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor characterized by comprising
S1: brushless motor receives enabling signal, starts using three-step approach;
S2: while the launching process of motor is in positioning stage, bus voltage is detected, and to the resistance value of digital regulation resistance It is configured;
S3: motor enters the open loop dragging stage, and cuts closed loop phase in due course;
S4: detecting the size of duty ratio, and judges whether to need to divide, and the knot of zero-crossing examination is determined according to judging result Fruit;
S5: whether detection signal stops, and is the motor that shuts down, otherwise return step S4.
2. a kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor according to claim 1, which is characterized in that The detailed process of bus voltage and the setting of digital potentiometer resistance is detected in the step S2 are as follows: bus voltage by AD acquisition come Detection carries out AD acquisition in the state that positioning stage upper arm switching tube is opened, obtains bus voltage with this;It is logical that resistance value, which is arranged, It crosses mcu programming to be configured digital regulation resistance, this uses fundamental operation for digital regulation resistance, without any advanced operation.
3. a kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor according to claim 1, which is characterized in that The specific method step of zero crossing is obtained in the step S4 are as follows:
It when duty ratio is less than 50%, then does not need to carry out partial pressure setting, directly detects counter electromotive force, partial pressure control at this time at this time Floating, digital regulation resistance are not involved in counter electromotive force detection tubulation foot over the ground, carry out AD acquisition in zero vector action time, will The result of acquisition is compared with 0, obtains zero crossing, and the time for then postponing 30 ° of electrical angles obtains best commutation point;
When duty ratio be greater than 50%, then need to carry out partial pressure setting, need to detect at this time partial pressure after counter electromotive force, such as Fig. 3 institute Show, partial pressure control pin at this time exports low level, introduces digital regulation resistance and is divided, is carried out in effective vector action time AD acquisition, by the result of acquisition withIt is compared, obtains zero crossing, the time for then postponing 30 ° of electrical angles is most preferably changed Phase point.
4. a kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor according to claim 1, which is characterized in that It is further comprising the steps of in the step S4:
It is respectively TIM2 and TIM2 using two clocks, is set as synchronous mode, and clock frequency is identical;
The TIM1 is arranged as center alignment pattern, to generate chopping regulating speed PWM.It is adopted in the case that duty ratio is less than 50% It is low level in the case that count value is greater than fiducial value with PWM1 mode, is high in the case that count value is less than fiducial value Level;PWM2 mode is used in the case that duty ratio is greater than 50%, is high level in the case that count value is greater than fiducial value, It is low level in the case that count value is less than fiducial value;
The periodic quantity of the TIM1 artificially gives, and fiducial value is calculated according to duty ratio size;
The TIM2 is set as edge alignment pattern, to trigger AD acquisition;It is high in the case that count value is greater than fiducial value Level is low level in the case that count value is less than fiducial value.Trigger event is set up, is arranged when count value reaches fiducial value Event triggers AD acquisition.
5. a kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor according to claim 4, which is characterized in that The periodic quantity and fiducial value of the TIM2 can calculate according to the following formula:
PR2=2PR1
CR2=PR2-CR1-TADf
6. a kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor according to claim 1, which is characterized in that Duty ratio is to think given in the step S4, is calculated by PI ring, needs to be judged in each PWM cycle.
7. a kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor according to claim 1, which is characterized in that Stop signal in the step S5 is artificial control, and when motor operation detects after error signal or motor works normally Want to stop issuing stop signal when motor under state.
CN201910654884.5A 2019-07-19 2019-07-19 A kind of adaptive zero-crossing examination method of brshless DC motor CN110492798A (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060152181A1 (en) * 2005-01-07 2006-07-13 Stmicroelectronics, Inc. Back EMF detection circuit and method for a sensorless brushless DC (BLDC) motor
CN201307843Y (en) * 2008-09-27 2009-09-09 刘瑜 Commutation point detection circuit of sensorless and brushless DC motor
CN101615877A (en) * 2008-06-26 2009-12-30 上海日立电器有限公司 A kind of driving device of direct current frequency conversion refrigerator
CN103018541A (en) * 2012-11-06 2013-04-03 中南林业科技大学 Counter-potential zero-crossing detection circuit and counter-potential zero-crossing detection method for brushless direct-current motor
US20190020292A1 (en) * 2013-07-22 2019-01-17 Texas Instruments Incorporated Hybrid controller for brushless dc motor

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US20060152181A1 (en) * 2005-01-07 2006-07-13 Stmicroelectronics, Inc. Back EMF detection circuit and method for a sensorless brushless DC (BLDC) motor
CN101615877A (en) * 2008-06-26 2009-12-30 上海日立电器有限公司 A kind of driving device of direct current frequency conversion refrigerator
CN201307843Y (en) * 2008-09-27 2009-09-09 刘瑜 Commutation point detection circuit of sensorless and brushless DC motor
CN103018541A (en) * 2012-11-06 2013-04-03 中南林业科技大学 Counter-potential zero-crossing detection circuit and counter-potential zero-crossing detection method for brushless direct-current motor
US20190020292A1 (en) * 2013-07-22 2019-01-17 Texas Instruments Incorporated Hybrid controller for brushless dc motor

Non-Patent Citations (1)

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Title
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