CN110492787B - Uniformly-distributed stress piezoelectric simply-supported beam vibration energy collector and energy collecting method - Google Patents

Uniformly-distributed stress piezoelectric simply-supported beam vibration energy collector and energy collecting method Download PDF

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CN110492787B
CN110492787B CN201910730976.7A CN201910730976A CN110492787B CN 110492787 B CN110492787 B CN 110492787B CN 201910730976 A CN201910730976 A CN 201910730976A CN 110492787 B CN110492787 B CN 110492787B
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piezoelectric
simply
supported beam
shaped mass
arc
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CN110492787A (en
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赵立波
王路
罗国希
杨萍
李磊
李支康
王久洪
蒋庄德
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Xian Jiaotong University
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Xian Jiaotong University
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02NELECTRIC MACHINES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • H02N2/00Electric machines in general using piezo-electric effect, electrostriction or magnetostriction
    • H02N2/18Electric machines in general using piezo-electric effect, electrostriction or magnetostriction producing electrical output from mechanical input, e.g. generators
    • H02N2/186Vibration harvesters
    • H02N2/188Vibration harvesters adapted for resonant operation

Abstract

The invention discloses a vibration energy collector and a vibration energy collecting method for uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simply supported beams, which comprise a shell, and a piezoelectric simply supported beam and two circular arc-shaped mass blocks which are packaged in the shell, wherein the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks are symmetrically arranged on the upper side and the lower side of the piezoelectric simply supported beam and are connected into an integral structure; two ends of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks extend to the end parts of two ends of the piezoelectric simply supported beam respectively. In the resonance process of the resonance device of the vibration energy collector with uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simple support beams, the circular arc surface of the circular arc-shaped mass block can limit the maximum bending vibration mode of the piezoelectric simple support beams, and the piezoelectric simple support beams can be tightly attached to the circular arc surface of the circular arc-shaped mass block, so that the piezoelectric simple support beams form equal-stress bending beams. Therefore, the integral stress of the piezoelectric simply supported beam can be maximized, the maximum allowable stress of the piezoelectric material is close, and the piezoelectric energy output is improved.

Description

Uniformly-distributed stress piezoelectric simply-supported beam vibration energy collector and energy collecting method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of new energy devices, and particularly relates to a vibration energy collector with uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simply supported beams and an energy collecting method.
Background
The Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester (PVEH) is a device for collecting environmental vibration energy and generating electricity, and is suitable for sustainable self-power supply of a small system such as a wireless sensor. The typical piezoelectric energy harvesting device is generally composed of a piezoelectric beam and an additional mass block, for example, a piezoelectric simple support beam and the mass block attached to the middle point of the beam are taken as examples, when the vibration energy harvester is in a resonance state, the piezoelectric beam generates large deformation vibration, and the additional mass block can increase the structure inertia and reduce the structure resonance frequency. The stress distribution of the simply supported beam with the additional center mass is that the stress of the center surface is the maximum, and the stress distribution gradually becomes smaller to zero when extending to the positions of the simply supported beams from two ends. The maximum stress of the central surface cannot exceed the allowable stress of the piezoelectric material, and therefore, the piezoelectric voltage output can be improved by increasing the average stress of the piezoelectric beam. The traditional simple beam and cantilever beam PVEH can not maximize the application of piezoelectric materials, and the average stress on the surface of the piezoelectric beam is only half of the maximum stress on the surface.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention provides a vibration energy collector and a vibration energy collecting method for uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simply supported beams.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows:
a vibration energy collector with uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simply supported beams comprises a shell, and piezoelectric simply supported beams and two arc-shaped mass blocks which are packaged in the shell, wherein the two arc-shaped mass blocks are symmetrically arranged on the upper side and the lower side of each piezoelectric simply supported beam and are connected into an integral structure; two ends of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks extend to the end parts of two ends of the piezoelectric simply supported beam respectively.
The piezoelectric simply-supported beam and the two arc-shaped mass blocks are used as resonance devices, in the resonance process, the arc surface of each arc-shaped mass block can limit the maximum bending vibration mode of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam, the piezoelectric simply-supported beam can be tightly attached to the arc surface of each arc-shaped mass block, and the surface bending curvature of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam is equal to the radius of the arc surface of each arc-shaped mass block, so that the piezoelectric simply-supported beam forms an equal-stress bending beam.
The two circular arc-shaped mass blocks are connected into an integral structure through the mass block fixing plate, and the mass block fixing plate is bonded with the middle parts of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks.
The two ends of the piezoelectric simply supported beam are respectively connected to the two simply supported hinge seats, and the two simply supported hinge seats are used for providing simply supported hinges at the two ends for the piezoelectric simply supported beam; the two simply supported hinge seats are arranged on the base in an adhesion mode.
Be provided with the dog on the base, the dog is used for spacing piezoelectricity simple beam from the width direction of piezoelectricity simple beam.
The two ends of the circular arc-shaped mass block extend to the simply-supported hinge seat, and a gap is reserved between the end part of the circular arc-shaped mass block and the simply-supported hinge seat and can ensure that the circular arc-shaped mass block can vibrate freely.
And one side of each of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks, which is opposite to the circular arc surface, is a flat surface, and when the piezoelectric simply-supported beam is not bent, the flat surfaces on the circular arc-shaped mass blocks are parallel to the piezoelectric simply-supported beam.
And calculating the minimum curvature radius of the arc surface of the circular arc mass block according to the maximum allowable stress of the material adopted by the piezoelectric simply-supported beam, wherein the curvature radius of the arc surface of the circular arc mass block is not less than the minimum curvature radius.
The piezoelectric simply supported beam is a piezoelectric bimorph beam made of piezoelectric bimorphs, and the curvature radius r of the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block1The following were used:
wherein, tpIs the thickness of the single layer piezoelectric layer in the piezoelectric simply supported beam, tsIs the thickness of the intermediate substrate layer in the piezoelectric simply supported beam, Y is the equivalent Young's modulus of the piezoelectric simply supported beam, sigmapThe maximum allowable stress of the piezoelectric material adopted by the piezoelectric simply supported beam.
An energy collecting method based on the uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simply supported beam vibration energy collector.
When the piezoelectric simply-supported beam resonates, the maximum vibration mode of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam is limited by the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block, when the piezoelectric simply-supported beam is tightly attached to the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block, the piezoelectric simply-supported beam reaches the maximum vibration mode, and the surface bending curvature radius of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam is equal to the radius of the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block.
The invention has the following beneficial effects:
in the uniformly-stressed piezoelectric simply-supported beam vibration energy collector, the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks are symmetrically arranged on the upper side and the lower side of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam and are connected into an integral structure, one sides of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks, which face the piezoelectric simply-supported beam, are both arc surfaces, and the top of the arc surfaces of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks clamps the piezoelectric simply-supported beam; two ends of the two arc-shaped mass blocks extend to the end parts of two ends of the piezoelectric simply supported beam respectively; in the resonance process, the maximum bending vibration mode of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam can be limited by the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block, the piezoelectric simply-supported beam can be tightly attached to the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block, and the bending curvature of the surface of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam is equal to the radius of the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block, so that the piezoelectric simply-supported beam forms an equal-stress bending beam. Therefore, the integral stress of the piezoelectric simply supported beam can be maximized and is close to the maximum allowable stress of the piezoelectric material, and the piezoelectric energy output is improved.
The energy collection method is carried out by adopting the uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simply supported beam vibration energy collector, so that the energy collection method has the characteristic of higher piezoelectric energy output, and meanwhile, due to the limiting effect of the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block, the piezoelectric simply supported beam is more uniformly stressed and is not easy to generate local damage, the piezoelectric energy output is improved, and the service life can be prolonged.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the overall construction of a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural view of a piezoelectric vibration energy harvester of the present invention;
fig. 3 is a schematic structural view of a connecting portion of a piezoelectric simply supported beam, a simply supported base, a circular arc-shaped mass block and a mass block fixing plate in the piezoelectric vibration energy collector of the present invention.
In the drawings: 1. the piezoelectric vibration damper comprises a stop block, 2, a simply supported hinge seat, 3, a packaging shell, 4, a mass block fixing plate, 5, a piezoelectric simply supported beam, 6, a base, 7 and an arc-shaped mass block.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments.
In the description of the present invention, it is to be understood that the terms "center", "longitudinal", "lateral", "up", "down", "front", "back", "left", "right", "vertical", "horizontal", "top", "bottom", "inner", "outer", etc., indicate orientations or positional relationships that are illustrated in the drawings, are merely used for convenience in describing the present invention and simplifying the description, and do not indicate or imply that the device or element being referred to must have a particular orientation, or a particular orientation configuration and operation, and thus, should not be considered as limiting the present invention.
Referring to fig. 1 to 3, the uniformly stressed piezoelectric simply supported beam vibration energy collector of the invention comprises a shell 3, a piezoelectric simply supported beam 5 and two arc-shaped mass blocks 7, wherein the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5 and the two arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are packaged in the shell 3, the two arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are symmetrically arranged on the upper side and the lower side of the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5 and are connected into an integral structure, one sides of the two arc-shaped mass blocks 7, which face the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5, are arc surfaces, and the top of the arc surfaces of the two arc-shaped mass blocks 7 clamps the; two ends of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 respectively extend to the end parts of two ends of the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5. The piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 and the two arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are used as resonance devices, in a resonance process, the maximum bending vibration mode of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 can be limited by the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block 7, and the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 can be tightly attached to the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block 7, so that the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 forms an equal-stress bending beam.
As a preferred embodiment of the invention, the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are connected into an integral structure through the mass block fixing plate 4, and the middle parts of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are fixedly connected through the mass block fixing plate 4.
As a preferred embodiment of the present invention, two ends of the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5 are respectively connected to two simply supported hinge seats 2, and the two simply supported hinge seats 2 are used for providing two-end simply supported hinges for the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5; two simply supported hinge mounts 2 are mounted on the base 6.
As a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the stopper 1 for restricting the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 from the width direction of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 is provided on the base 6.
As a preferred embodiment of the present invention, two ends of the circular arc-shaped mass block 7 extend to the simply supported hinge base 2, and a gap is left between the end of the circular arc-shaped mass block 7 and the simply supported hinge base 2, and the gap can ensure that the circular arc-shaped mass block 7 freely vibrates.
As a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 have flat surfaces on the sides opposite to the circular arc surfaces, and when the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 is not bent, the flat surfaces on the circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are parallel to the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5.
As a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the minimum radius of curvature of the arc surface of the circular arc-shaped mass block 7 is calculated according to the maximum allowable stress of the material used for the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5, and the radius of curvature of the arc surface of the circular arc-shaped mass block 7 is not less than the minimum radius of curvature.
As a preferred embodiment of the invention, the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5 is a piezoelectric bimorph beam made of a piezoelectric bimorph, and the curvature radius r of the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block 71The following were used:
wherein, tpIs the thickness, t, of the single layer piezoelectric layer in the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5sIs the thickness of the intermediate substrate layer in the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5, Y is the equivalent Young's modulus of the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5, σpIs the maximum allowable stress of the piezoelectric material adopted by the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5.
The energy collection method is carried out by adopting the energy collector, when the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 resonates, the maximum vibration mode of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 is limited by the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block 7, when the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 is tightly attached to the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block 7, the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 reaches the maximum vibration mode, and the surface bending curvature radius of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 is equal to the radius of the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block 7.
Examples
As shown in fig. 1 to 3, in this embodiment, 2 simple-supported hinge seats 2 arranged left and right block two ends of a piezoelectric simple-supported beam 5, so as to limit the left and right movement of the piezoelectric simple-supported beam 5, and provide a two-end simple-supported hinge for the piezoelectric simple-supported beam 5. Each simple-support hinge seat 2 is provided with a stop block 1 in the front and back directions, and the stop blocks 1 are used for limiting the front and back movement of the piezoelectric simple-support beam 5. Therefore, the piezoelectric simple beam 5 can vibrate only in the up-down direction. One surface of each circular arc-shaped mass block 7 is a flat surface, the other surface opposite to the flat surface is a circular arc surface, the top parts of the circular arc surfaces of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 clamp the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5, and the top parts of the circular arc surfaces of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are in contact with the central line of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 in the length direction (namely the middle position of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 in the left-right direction in fig. 1-3). The mass block fixing plates 4 are arranged in the front and back directions of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7, the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are fixed by the two mass block fixing plates 4 from the front and back directions, the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are fixedly connected into an integral structure by the two mass block fixing plates 4 in the middle of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7, and the flat surfaces of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are parallel to the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 when the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks 7 are. The 2 left and right simply supported hinge seats 2 and the 4 stop blocks 1 are all arranged on the base 6, and the shell 3 encapsulates the whole structure.
The curvature of the curved surface of the circular arc-shaped mass block 7 is calculated according to the maximum allowable stress of the piezoelectric material adopted by the piezoelectric simply-supported beam. When the piezoelectric simply-supported beam in this embodiment reaches the maximum vibration mode, the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 is tightly attached to the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block 7, and at this time, the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 is an equal-stress bending beam. The piezoelectric simple beam 5 of the present embodiment is a piezoelectric bimorph beam made of a piezoelectric bimorph. Therefore, when the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5 is an isostress bending beam, the minimum curvature radius of the neutral layer of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam 5Wherein, tpIs the thickness, t, of the single layer piezoelectric layer in the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5sIs the thickness of the intermediate substrate layer in the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5, Y is the equivalent Young's modulus of the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5, σpThe maximum allowable stress of the piezoelectric material adopted by the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5 is obtained, so the curvature radius of the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block 7
According to 31 mode piezoelectric energy formulaWherein the content of the first and second substances,is the piezoelectric coupling coefficient of the piezoelectric element,is the dielectric coefficient, σ is the actual stress of the piezoelectric material, and V is the piezoelectric layer volume. Given the piezoelectric material and volume, to increase the piezoelectric energy, the average stress across the piezoelectric layer needs to be increased.
When the piezoelectric simply supported beam with the structure of the embodiment resonates, the maximum vibration mode is limited by the arc surfaces of the two additional mass blocks (namely, the arc-shaped mass blocks 7), when the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5 is tightly attached to the arc surfaces of the arc-shaped mass blocks 7, the bending curvature radius of the surface of the piezoelectric simply supported beam is equal to the radius of the arc surfaces of the arc-shaped mass blocks 7, and at the moment, the surface stress of the piezoelectric simply supported beam 5 is uniformly distributed, so that the overall average stress of the piezoelectric simply supported beam is larger and is close to the maximum allowable stress of a piezoelectric material. More piezoelectric energy can be generated. The maximum power generation energy can be calculated as
In summary, the present invention has at least the following beneficial effects:
1) the invention limits the maximum vibration mode of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam by adopting the arc surfaces of the two arc-shaped mass blocks arranged up and down, so that the surface stress of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam is uniformly distributed, and the problems that the surface stress of the traditional piezoelectric simply-supported beam is large at the center of the surface and is sequentially reduced to the zero stress of the end part of the simply-supported beam towards the left side and the right side along the length direction of the beam are solved. The average stress of the whole surface of the uniformly-distributed stress piezoelectric beam is larger, and more generating voltage and energy can be generated. Meanwhile, compared with the existing piezoelectric simply supported beam vibration energy collector, the piezoelectric vibration energy collector has the advantages of small structural change, novel and simple structure and capability of greatly improving the stress condition of the piezoelectric simply supported beam.

Claims (8)

1. The vibration energy collector is characterized by comprising a shell (3), a piezoelectric simply supported beam (5) and two arc-shaped mass blocks (7), wherein the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5) and the two arc-shaped mass blocks (7) are packaged in the shell (3), the two arc-shaped mass blocks (7) are symmetrically arranged on the upper side and the lower side of the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5) and are connected into an integral structure, one sides of the two arc-shaped mass blocks (7) facing the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5) are arc surfaces, and the top of the arc surfaces of the two arc-shaped mass blocks (7) clamps the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5); two ends of the two arc-shaped mass blocks (7) respectively extend to the end parts of two ends of the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5);
the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks (7) are connected into an integral structure through the mass block fixing plate (4), and the mass block fixing plate (4) is bonded with the middle parts of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks (7);
a base (6) is arranged in the shell (3); two ends of the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5) are respectively connected to the two simply supported hinge seats (2), and the two simply supported hinge seats (2) are used for providing simply supported hinges at two ends for the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5); the two simply supported hinge seats (2) are arranged on the base (6) in an adhesion mode;
the two simply-supported hinge seats (2) arranged on the left and right sides block two ends of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam (5) and are used for limiting the left and right movement of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam (5) and providing a simply-supported hinge at two ends for the piezoelectric simply-supported beam (5).
2. The uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simply supported beam vibration energy collector according to claim 1, wherein the base (6) is provided with a stopper (1), and the stopper (1) is used for limiting the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5) from the width direction of the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5).
3. The uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simply supported beam vibration energy collector according to claim 1, wherein two ends of the circular arc-shaped mass block (7) extend to the simply supported hinge seat (2), and a gap is reserved between the end part of the circular arc-shaped mass block (7) and the simply supported hinge seat (2), and the gap can ensure that the circular arc-shaped mass block (7) can vibrate freely.
4. The uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simply supported beam vibration energy collector according to claim 1, wherein one side of each of the two circular arc-shaped mass blocks (7) opposite to the circular arc surface is a flat surface, and when the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5) is not subjected to bending deformation, the flat surfaces of the circular arc-shaped mass blocks (7) are parallel to the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5).
5. The uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simple beam vibration energy collector according to claim 1, wherein the minimum radius of curvature of the circular arc surface of the circular arc-shaped mass block (7) is calculated according to the maximum allowable stress of the material adopted by the piezoelectric simple beam (5), and the radius of curvature of the circular arc surface of the circular arc-shaped mass block (7) is not less than the minimum radius of curvature.
6. A uniformly distributed stress piezoelectric simple beam vibration energy collector according to claim 5, characterized in that the piezoelectric simple beam (5) is a piezoelectric bimorph beam made of a piezoelectric bimorph, and the radius of curvature r of the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block (7) is1The following were used:
wherein, tpIs the thickness, t, of the single-layer piezoelectric layer in the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5)sIs the thickness of the intermediate substrate layer in the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5), Y is the equivalent Young's modulus of the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5), sigmapIs the maximum allowable stress of the piezoelectric material adopted by the piezoelectric simply supported beam (5).
7. An energy harvesting method based on the uniformly stressed piezoelectric simple beam vibration energy harvester of any one of claims 1-6.
8. The energy collection method according to claim 7, wherein when the piezoelectric simply-supported beam (5) resonates, the maximum vibration mode of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam (5) is limited by the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block (7), when the piezoelectric simply-supported beam (5) is tightly attached to the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block (7), the maximum vibration mode of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam (5) is achieved, and the radius of curvature of the surface of the piezoelectric simply-supported beam (5) is equal to the radius of the arc surface of the arc-shaped mass block (7).
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