CN110488246A - A kind of big visual field receiving system of two dimension MEMS scanning laser radar - Google Patents

A kind of big visual field receiving system of two dimension MEMS scanning laser radar Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110488246A
CN110488246A CN201910767177.7A CN201910767177A CN110488246A CN 110488246 A CN110488246 A CN 110488246A CN 201910767177 A CN201910767177 A CN 201910767177A CN 110488246 A CN110488246 A CN 110488246A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
image
light cone
carrying fiber
fiber light
laser radar
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Pending
Application number
CN201910767177.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
吴东岷
范娜娜
王懋
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Suzhou Institute of Nano Tech and Nano Bionics of CAS
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Suzhou Institute of Nano Tech and Nano Bionics of CAS
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Priority to CN201910767177.7A priority Critical patent/CN110488246A/en
Publication of CN110488246A publication Critical patent/CN110488246A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01SRADIO DIRECTION-FINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCE-DETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
    • G01S7/00Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00
    • G01S7/48Details of systems according to groups G01S13/00, G01S15/00, G01S17/00 of systems according to group G01S17/00
    • G01S7/481Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements
    • G01S7/4817Constructional features, e.g. arrangements of optical elements relating to scanning

Abstract

The invention belongs to optical field, the big visual field for disclosing a kind of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar receives system, comprising: optical filter, heavy caliber short-focus lens group, image-carrying fiber light cone, APD array detector;Light successively passes through narrow band filter, heavy caliber short-focus lens group is imaged on image-carrying fiber light cone incident end face, and light is further transmitted to APD array detector surface by image-carrying fiber light cone.The image-carrying fiber light cone shape is pyramidal structure;It is formed by thousands of up to ten thousand conical fiber regular permutations and combinations, the facula position that the APD array detector is exported according to the scanning angle and corresponding echo light of two-dimentional MEMS scanning galvanometer in the image-carrying fiber light cone gates corresponding APD detector acquisition signal.It can expand the visual field of MEMS laser radar in receiving optics bore and focal length and one timing of detector area, reduce interference of the environmental background light to system, improve the received signal-to-noise ratio of laser signal.

Description

A kind of big visual field receiving system of two dimension MEMS scanning laser radar
Technical field
The invention belongs to optical fields, and in particular to a kind of big visual field reception system of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar System.
Background technique
MEMS laser radar is one kind using two-dimentional MEMS scanning galvanometer as sweep mechanism, to detection objective emission laser light Beam, receives and processing detects the echo-signal that target reflects, and obtains the characteristic informations such as distance, the position and speed of detection target Radar system has the advantages that small in size, frame per second is high, low in energy consumption, at low cost, automatic Pilot, three-dimensional modeling, mapping, Many occasions such as military field are used widely.
In MEMS laser radar system, echo power that the bore and MEMS laser radar of receiving optics receive Directly proportional, when MEMS laser radar detection distant object, the bore needs for receiving optical system are sufficiently large, and bigbore Receiving optics can also receive more bias lights other than receiving more echo powers, reduce the letter of reception system It makes an uproar ratio.Heavy-caliber optical system also corresponds to long-focus, the focal length of receiving opticsWith receiving optics half field-of-viewWith Image planes diameterRelated, formula is as follows:
In the case where image planes size is certain, bore is bigger, and focal length is longer, and the visual field for receiving system is smaller, and detector is APD times When row detector, photosensitive area is smaller, and Diagonal Dimension is usually 1mm-10mm, greatly limits the view of receiving optics , the scanning field of view for making it be difficult to cover two-dimentional MEMS scanning galvanometer.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is to solve in the biggish situation of optical system bore, the smaller limitation two dimension of APD array detector area The technical issues of field angle of MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar receiving optics increases, the technical solution adopted is as follows:
A kind of big visual field reception system of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar, which is characterized in that in same optical axis, from object Side to image space is set gradually are as follows: narrow band filter, heavy caliber short-focus lens group, image-carrying fiber light cone, APD array detector;Institute The image-carrying fiber light cone shape stated is pyramidal structure, and the big one end of bore is incident end face, and the small one end of bore is exit end Face;The image-carrying fiber light cone is the conic optic fiber beam as made of conical fiber regular permutations and combinations;Light is successively through narrow Band optical filter, heavy caliber short-focus lens group are imaged on image-carrying fiber light cone incident end face, and image-carrying fiber light cone is further by light Line is transmitted to APD array detector surface.The image-carrying fiber light cone has magnifying power M, can be by image-carrying fiber light cone incidence end The picture breakdown that face receives is pixel corresponding with the composition conic optic fiber beam of image-carrying fiber light cone, regularly arranged taper Entrained image element information is transmitted to the other end of image-carrying fiber light cone by fiber optic bundle correspondingly;Pixel is in transmittance process It is exaggerated or minimized with the variation of fibre diameter, presses former arrangement mode combined imaging in outgoing end face.
The image-carrying fiber light cone is different from traditional optically focused cone, and the diameter of the conical fiber is from the image-carrying fiber light cone Incident end face gradually becomes smaller to image-carrying fiber light cone outgoing end face;Every conical fiber is all made of fibre core and covering, fibre core Refractive Index of Material is greater than the Refractive Index of Material of covering.
The heavy caliber short-focus lens group is imaging lens, relative aperture < 1;The heavy caliber short-focus lens group is from object Side is successively made of the first constituent element, the second constituent element, third element to image space, and focal power is successively negative, just, just;Wherein first Constituent element is mainly by the light-receiving of big visual field into lens group, and the second constituent element is used to compress the angle of light, and third element further can Caustic, a face is aspherical in third element, is used for spherical aberration corrector.
The APD array detector is linear array APD detector or face battle array APD detector.APD array detector is visited by APD It surveys device unit to rearrange, according to the scanning angle of two-dimentional MEMS scanning galvanometer and corresponding echo light in the image-carrying fiber The facula position of the output end face output of light cone selects corresponding APD detector cells acquisition signal, can avoid other APD spy Survey device receives environmental background light and interferes to system.
The incident end face of the image-carrying fiber light cone is emitted end face and is close to APD array spy close to heavy caliber short-focus lens group Survey device.
The incident end face of the image-carrying fiber light cone is located at the image space focal plane position of heavy caliber short-focus lens group.
Image-carrying fiber light cone cross section can be the shapes such as round, rectangular.
Compared with prior art, the present invention its remarkable advantage are as follows: (1) present invention introduces image-carrying fiber light cones as heavy caliber Biography optical device between short-focus lens group and APD array detector, image-carrying fiber light cone, which is equivalent to, is exaggerated APD array detector Area, can be under conditions of bore be certain, by field expander multiple identical with image-carrying fiber light cone amplification factor.(2) phase Than in using optically focused to bore the relay element as camera lens and APD array detector, echo beam and bias light illuminate entire detection Device, image-carrying fiber light cone the hot spot of camera lens focal plane can be reduced and be transmitted to APD array detector gating some or it is a few On a APD unit, the interference of bias light can effectively reduce, improve the signal-to-noise ratio of reception system.(3) heavy caliber used herein Short-focus lens group, relative aperture < 1.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is that the big visual field of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar receives System Optics structural schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is image-carrying fiber light cone structural schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram for forming the simple optical fiber of image-carrying fiber light cone;
Fig. 4 is the system construction drawing of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar, and Ith area is emission system, and II Qu Wei great visual field receives System;
Fig. 5 is the grouping schematic diagram of APD array detector;
Wherein: 1 is narrow band filter, and 2 be heavy caliber short-focus lens group, and 3 be image-carrying fiber light cone, and 4 be APD array detector, 5 For the big one end cross section of image-carrying fiber light cone bore, i.e. incident end face;6 is transversal for the small one end of image-carrying fiber light cone bore Face, i.e. outgoing end face;7 be fibre cladding, and 8 be fiber core, and 9 be conical fiber, and 10 be impulse semiconductor laser, and 11 be half Conductor laser colimated light system, 12 be two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer, and 13 be optical filter, and 14 be heavy caliber short focus reception camera lens, 15 It is APD array detector for image-carrying fiber light cone, 16.
Specific embodiment
In order to illustrate more clearly of invention, it is further described with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments.
Embodiment
A kind of big visual field reception system of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar, as shown in Figure 1, in same optical axis, It successively include: narrow band filter 1, heavy caliber short-focus lens group 2, image-carrying fiber light cone 3, APD array detection to image space from object space Device 4;Light is imaged on the big one end cross section 5 of image-carrying fiber light cone bore by narrow band filter, heavy caliber short-focus lens group Light is further transmitted to APD array detection from the small one end cross section 6 of image-carrying fiber light cone bore by place, image-carrying fiber light cone Device surface;APD array detector is according to the scanning angle and corresponding echo light of two-dimentional MEMS scanning galvanometer in the biography as fine The facula position for tieing up the output end face output of light cone selects corresponding APD detector cells acquisition signal, can avoid other APD Detector cells receive environmental background light and interfere to system.
The image-carrying fiber light cone that the present embodiment uses is different from traditional optically focused cone, and traditional optically focused cone is circular table structure, The echo light and bias light that receive are transmitted to detector surface by multiple total reflection, illuminate entire APD array detection Device is interfered big by bias light;The image-carrying fiber light cone that the present embodiment uses can contract heavy caliber short-focus lens group imaging It is transmitted to the APD array detector cells of corresponding gating in APD array detector after small, greatly reduces environmental background light to system Interference, improve the signal-to-noise ratio of system.
Image-carrying fiber light cone shape described in the present embodiment is pyramidal structure, as shown in Fig. 2, it is by tens million of conical fibers Regular permutations and combinations form;The big one end of the image-carrying fiber light cone bore be incident end face 5, diameter 22mm, bore it is small one End is outgoing end face 6, diameter 10mm;The image-carrying fiber light cone has enlargement ratio 2.2, can be by image-carrying fiber light cone incidence end The picture breakdown that face receives is pixel corresponding with composition tens million of conical fibers of image-carrying fiber light cone, regularly arranged Conical fiber 9 entrained image element information is transmitted to the other end of image-carrying fiber light cone correspondingly;Pixel is transmitting It is exaggerated or minimized in the process with the variation of conical fiber diameter, presses former arrangement mode combined imaging in outgoing end face.
It is worth noting that, Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 is the structural schematic diagram of optical system, positional relationship, rotation between schematic components Turn symmetrical structure;Proportionate relationship does not constitute the specific restriction to this programme between its figure size and all parts.Image-carrying fiber Light cone is the conic optic fiber beam as made of conical fiber regular permutations and combinations;The shape of conic optic fiber beam is frustum, two side ends Face can be processed as rectangle or circle according to APD array detector shape.
Image-carrying fiber light cone described in this example is made of tens million of regularly arranged conical fibers, every conical fiber Diameter gradually becomes smaller from the big one end of the image-carrying fiber light cone bore to the small one end of image-carrying fiber light cone bore, string diameter≤6 μ m;Such as Fig. 3, every conical fiber is all made of fibre core 7 and covering 8, and inner layer is the fibre core that refractive index is n1, and outer layer is refractive index For the covering of n2, n1 > n2.
The big visual field of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar described in the present embodiment receives system and two dimension MEMS scanning vibration Mirror laser radar emission system can be when in use multi-axial light path, as shown in figure 4,10 be impulse semiconductor laser, 11 are Semiconductor laser colimated light system, 12 be two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer, and 13 be optical filter, and 14 receive camera lens for heavy caliber short focus, 15 be image-carrying fiber light cone, and 16 be APD array detector.More optimal solution are as follows: the heavy caliber short-focus lens group, including 5 Eyeglass, by object space to image space be followed successively by the first plano-convex lens, plano-concave lens, the second plano-convex lens, biconvex lens, it is aspherical just thoroughly Mirror;Wherein the convex surface of the first plano-convex lens and the second plano-convex lens is respectively positioned on object space side, and the concave surface of plano-concave lens is located at image space Side.System overall length is 94.35mm, effective focal length 11.01mm;Its vertical light cone direction field angle is greater than ± 20 °, level side It is ± 6 ° to field angle, the light of different visual fields is converged onto the incident end face of the image-carrying fiber light cone, light after lens group Spot diameter≤1mm.
The APD array detector can be linear array APD detector, be also possible to face battle array APD detector;The present embodiment is adopted With 1 × 16 linear array APD detector, single APD detector cells area is 1mm × 0.45mm, by 16 APD detector cells roots According to the spot size that the output end face of the image-carrying fiber light cone exports, with two neighboring APD detector cells for one group, totally 15 Group, be followed successively by A, B, C ..., O group, as shown in Figure 5.
The APD array detector is acquired using gating signal, as shown in figure 4, when the scanning of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer When angle corresponds to target 1, the echo-signal reflected by target 1 enters heavy caliber short-focus lens group via narrow band filter, then It is imaged on the incident end face of image-carrying fiber light cone, light is further transmitted to by certain group APD detector by image-carrying fiber light cone On unit, as shown in solid in Fig. 4, when the scanning angle of two-dimentional MEMS scanning galvanometer corresponds to target 2, reflected by target 2 Echo-signal is transmitted to another group of APD detector cells by narrow band filter, heavy caliber short-focus lens group, image-carrying fiber light cone On, as shown in phantom in Figure 4.With the variation of two-dimentional MEMS scanning galvanometer scanning angle, single gates corresponding one group of APD and visits It surveys device unit and acquires signal, can avoid other group of APD array detector cells and receive bias light interfering system, improve The signal-to-noise ratio of reception system.
The incident end face of the image-carrying fiber light cone is emitted end face and is close to APD array spy close to heavy caliber short-focus lens group Survey device, the two optics gluing knot.
The incident end face of the image-carrying fiber light cone is located at the focal plane position of heavy caliber short-focus lens group.
It can also be rectangle that the both ends of the image-carrying fiber light cone, which can be processed as circle, and effective area can cover APD times Row detector area.
The narrow band filter is the narrowband narrow band filter of 905nm or 1550nm, emits system according to MEMS laser radar Depending on the transmitting optical maser wavelength of system, to filter out the interference light of its all band.
The narrow band filter is located at the front end of reception system.
The MEMS laser radar large visual field optical system of above-mentioned technical proposal is short as heavy caliber using image-carrying fiber light cone Relay element between zoom lens group and APD array detector is reduced by image-carrying fiber light cone and transmits heavy caliber short-focus mirror Head group imaging receives optical system bore and focal length and detector in MEMS laser radar to APD array detector surface Under conditions of area is certain, the visual field of MEMS laser radar can be expanded.APD array detector is according to the scanning of MEMS laser radar Orientation uses gated mode, can reduce interference of the environmental background light to system, improve the optical s/n ratio of echo signal reception.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of big visual field of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar receives system, which is characterized in that in same optical axis, from Object space to image space is set gradually are as follows: narrow band filter, heavy caliber short-focus lens group, image-carrying fiber light cone, APD array detector; The image-carrying fiber light cone shape is pyramidal structure, and the big one end of bore is incident end face, and the small one end of bore is outgoing End face;The image-carrying fiber light cone is the conic optic fiber beam as made of conical fiber regular permutations and combinations;
It is incident that laser radar echo light successively passes through narrow band filter, heavy caliber short-focus lens group is imaged on image-carrying fiber light cone On end face, light is further transmitted to APD array detector surface by image-carrying fiber light cone.
2. a kind of big visual field of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar according to claim 1 receives system, special Sign is that the diameter of the conical fiber is emitted end face gradually from the image-carrying fiber light cone incident end face to image-carrying fiber light cone Become smaller;Every conical fiber is all made of fibre core and covering, and the Refractive Index of Material of fibre core is greater than the Refractive Index of Material of covering.
3. a kind of big visual field of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar according to claim 1 receives system, special Sign is that the heavy caliber short-focus lens group is successively made of the first constituent element, the second constituent element, third element from object space to image space, Its focal power is successively negative, just, just;Wherein the first constituent element is used for the light-receiving of big visual field into lens group, and the second constituent element compresses The angle of light, third element further assemble light, and a face is aspherical in third element, is used for spherical aberration corrector.
4. a kind of big visual field of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar according to claim 1 receives system, special Sign is that the APD array detector is rearranged by APD detector cells, according to the scanning of two-dimentional MEMS scanning galvanometer The facula position that angle and corresponding echo light are exported in the output end face of the image-carrying fiber light cone, selects corresponding APD Detector cells acquire signal.
5. a kind of big visual field of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar according to claim 1 receives system, special Sign is that the incident end face of the image-carrying fiber light cone is emitted end face and is close to APD array detection close to heavy caliber short-focus lens group Device.
6. a kind of big visual field of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar according to claim 5 receives system, special Sign is, by optics gluing knot between the image-carrying fiber light cone and APD array detector.
7. a kind of big visual field of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar according to claim 1 receives system, special Sign is that the incident end face of the image-carrying fiber light cone is located at the image space focal plane position of heavy caliber short-focus lens group.
8. a kind of big visual field reception system of two dimension MEMS scanning galvanometer laser radar according to one of claims 1 to 7 System, which is characterized in that the heavy caliber short-focus lens group include 5 eyeglasses, from object space to image space be followed successively by the first plano-convex lens, Plano-concave lens, the second plano-convex lens, biconvex lens, aspherical positive lens;Wherein the first plano-convex lens and the second plano-convex lens Convex surface is respectively positioned on object space side, and the concave surface of plano-concave lens is located at image space side.
CN201910767177.7A 2019-08-20 2019-08-20 A kind of big visual field receiving system of two dimension MEMS scanning laser radar Pending CN110488246A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111308477A (en) * 2019-11-29 2020-06-19 深圳市镭神智能系统有限公司 Laser radar receiving system and laser radar
CN111366907A (en) * 2020-04-07 2020-07-03 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳)(哈尔滨工业大学深圳科技创新研究院) MEMS three-dimensional laser radar system

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111308477A (en) * 2019-11-29 2020-06-19 深圳市镭神智能系统有限公司 Laser radar receiving system and laser radar
CN111308477B (en) * 2019-11-29 2022-05-24 深圳市镭神智能系统有限公司 Laser radar receiving system and laser radar
CN111366907A (en) * 2020-04-07 2020-07-03 哈尔滨工业大学(深圳)(哈尔滨工业大学深圳科技创新研究院) MEMS three-dimensional laser radar system

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