CN110408755B - Aging method for improving size stability of TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material - Google Patents

Aging method for improving size stability of TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material Download PDF

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CN110408755B
CN110408755B CN201910808177.7A CN201910808177A CN110408755B CN 110408755 B CN110408755 B CN 110408755B CN 201910808177 A CN201910808177 A CN 201910808177A CN 110408755 B CN110408755 B CN 110408755B
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aging
alloy
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CN110408755A (en
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肖来荣
涂晓萱
赵小军
蔡圳阳
谭威
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Central South University
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Central South University
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/04General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering with simultaneous application of supersonic waves, magnetic or electric fields
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D6/00Heat treatment of ferrous alloys
    • C21D6/002Heat treatment of ferrous alloys containing Cr
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D6/00Heat treatment of ferrous alloys
    • C21D6/04Hardening by cooling below 0 degrees Celsius

Abstract

The invention discloses an aging method for improving the dimensional stability of a TiC-Cr-Mo steel base composite material, which comprises the following steps: heating the TiC-Cr-Mo alloy sample for ultrasonic aging, then performing liquid nitrogen ultrasonic aging, and performing cold-hot circulation synergistic ultrasonic vibration on the alloy sample according to the process to obtain the alloy sample with stable size. The invention can obviously improve the structural stability of the TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material through the cooperation of cold and hot circulation and ultrasonic vibration, reduce the residual stress in the composite material and finally improve the dimensional stability of the TiC-Cr-Mo alloy. Compared with the alloy obtained by the conventional treatment method, the TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material obtained by the treatment method disclosed by the invention has the advantages that the residual stress on the surface of the alloy is reduced to-10-30 MPa from-250-200 MPa, and the hardness of the alloy is improved to 1000-1200 HV from 900-940 HV.

Description

Aging method for improving size stability of TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of composite material processing, and particularly relates to an aging method for improving the dimensional stability of a TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material.
Background
The TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material mainly takes TiC as a hard phase and chromium-molybdenum low alloy steel as a matrix, the content of the hard phase TiC is 35 wt.%, and the contents of Cr and Mo are respectively 2 wt.%; after a series of conventional treatments of sintering, forging, annealing and tempering, the material can be used for preparing dynamic pressure gas bearing, cold working die, measuring fixture and the like in a navigation system, and the products need to keep the structural performance stability of the material in the long-term stable and reliable use process. The main factors influencing the structural and performance stability of the material mainly include the evolution of the microstructure of the material in the preparation, processing or service process and the release of the residual stress in the material.
Currently, heat treatment is the traditional method of improving the structural stability of materials. The material is heated to a certain temperature and is preserved for aging treatment, so that the required microstructure is obtained; although the heat treatment method can effectively improve the structural property stability of the material, the dimensional stability of the material is affected by the microstructure and the residual stress, so the method has certain limitation in improving the dimensional stability of the material.
The ultrasonic vibration is an effective method for eliminating the residual stress of the material, and the method mainly utilizes the interaction between the vibration stress generated on the component and the residual stress in the component in the vibration process to relax and release the residual stress, thereby improving the performance stability of the component, being not influenced by the size, the shape and the like of the material and obviously improving the mechanical property of the material. At present, researchers mostly adopt a single heat treatment or vibration method to improve the structural performance stability of the material, for some large-scale components, the vibration aging is still the most common method for eliminating the residual stress of the material, and the residual stress of the material after the vibration aging can be analyzed by adopting a finite element simulation method; heat treatment is the most common method for effectively improving the texture of the material and enhancing the mechanical properties of the material. However, in order to improve the dimensional stability of the TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material treated by the conventional method, the method adopting single heat treatment or ultrasonic vibration still has the following defects: 1. because the elastic modulus of hard-phase TiC particles in the composite material is greatly different from that of a steel matrix, stress concentration is easily caused at an interface to generate cracking, so that the compactness and stable and reliable performance of the material are influenced, and the stability of the material structure and the stress cannot be considered simultaneously by adopting a single treatment mode; 2. the improvement of the dimensional stability of the material is a result of the combined action of the microstructure stability and the residual stress relief of the material, and although a relatively stable microstructure can be obtained by a heat treatment method, the improvement has a certain limitation on effectively relieving the residual stress in the material.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide an aging method for improving the dimensional stability of a TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material, which can effectively reduce the residual stress in the alloy and ensure that the microstructure of a matrix is uniform, thereby achieving the aim of improving the hardness and the dimensional stability of the alloy.
The aging method for improving the dimensional stability of the TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material comprises the following steps of:
and heating the TiC-Cr-Mo alloy sample for ultrasonic aging, then performing liquid nitrogen ultrasonic aging, and performing circulating treatment on the alloy sample according to the process to obtain the alloy sample with stable size.
The heating temperature of the heating ultrasonic aging is 30-100 ℃, the aging treatment time is 5-300 min, the ultrasonic vibration power is 180-1200W, and the vibration frequency is 40 kHz.
The liquid nitrogen ultrasonic aging temperature is-196 ℃, the aging treatment time is 5-300 min, the ultrasonic vibration power is 180-1200W, and the vibration frequency is 40 kHz.
The cycle number of the cycle treatment is 2-12.
The principle of the invention is as follows: the TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material is treated by adopting a method of heating ultrasound and liquid nitrogen ultrasound for multiple cycles, so that the transformation of metastable residual austenite in the matrix material to martensite can be effectively promoted, and the tissue stability of the material is improved; under the synergistic effect of ultrasonic vibration, the residual stress in the material can be further reduced, and the dimensional stability of the TiC-Cr-Mo alloy is improved. The processing method of the invention applies an additional stress to the interior of an alloy sample by assisting ultrasonic vibration through cold-hot circulation processing, when the additional stress is superposed with the residual stress of the workpiece and reaches or exceeds the microscopic yield limit of the material, the workpiece can generate microscopic or macroscopic local and integral elastoplastic deformation (the cold-hot circulation processing can obviously improve the toughness of the alloy on the premise of keeping the strength and the hardness of the alloy), and simultaneously reduces and homogenizes the residual stress in the workpiece, thereby finally achieving the purposes of preventing the deformation and the cracking of the workpiece, stabilizing the size of the workpiece and improving the performance stability of the material structure.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: 1) the invention can obviously improve the structural stability of the TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material by a method of heating ultrasound and liquid nitrogen ultrasound for multiple cycles, reduces the residual stress in the composite material and finally improves the dimensional stability of the TiC-Cr-Mo alloy. 2) Compared with a single heating or ultrasonic vibration treatment mode, the method for heating ultrasound and liquid nitrogen ultrasound multiple circulation is more stable in component size, shorter in experimental period, higher in efficiency, low in energy consumption and free of pollution compared with a single stabilization heat treatment mode. 3) Compared with the alloy obtained by the conventional treatment method (traditional sintering, forging, annealing and tempering), the TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material obtained by the method has the advantages that the surface residual stress of the alloy is reduced to-150-30 MPa from-250 to-200 MPa, and the hardness of the alloy is improved to 1000-1200 HV from 900-940 HV; defining the size change rate of the obtained product after being placed for 30 days at room temperature as A, and the size change rate of the product after being placed for 30 days at room temperature after conventional treatment as B; A/B is 0.4 to 0.6.
Drawings
FIG. 1 XRD patterns of TiC-Cr-Mo alloy samples after conventional treatment (a) and after treatment of example 1 (b).
FIG. 2 SEM images of TiC-Cr-Mo alloy samples after conventional treatment (a) and after treatment of example 1 (b).
Detailed Description
Example 1
Firstly, placing a TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based alloy sample in ultrasonic equipment using distilled water as an ultrasonic medium to carry out heating ultrasonic vibration treatment, wherein the heating temperature is 80 ℃, the vibration time is 60min, the vibration frequency is 40kHz, and the power is 240W; immediately placing the TiC-Cr-Mo alloy sample in ultrasonic equipment using liquid nitrogen as an ultrasonic medium for ultrasonic vibration treatment after the heating ultrasonic treatment is finished, wherein the cooling temperature is-196 ℃, the vibration time is 120min, the vibration frequency is 40kHz, and the power is 240W; and 6 times of circulation is carried out according to the process to obtain the treated TiC-Cr-Mo alloy sample.
The alloy obtained by the treatment of this example had a residual stress of-9 MPa, a hardness of 1042HV and a magnetic saturation of 93emu/g, and the dimensional change rate of the obtained product after being left at room temperature for 30 days was measured and calculated to be a/B-0.4-0.6.
XRD analysis is carried out on TiC-Cr-Mo alloy samples treated by the conventional method (traditional sintering, forging, annealing and tempering treatment) and the method disclosed by the invention, and the results are shown in figure 1: as can be seen from the figure, the main composition phases of the TiC-Cr-Mo alloy in the initial state are TiC, alpha-Fe and a small amount of residual austenite; after the cold and hot circulation and ultrasonic vibration treatment are cooperated, the retained austenite basically disappears, which is beneficial to improving the dimensional stability of the alloy, and the vibration aging is an effective method for improving the structural and performance stability of the TiC-Cr-Mo alloy.
SEM analysis of TiC-Cr-Mo alloy samples after conventional treatment (conventional sintering + forging + annealing + tempering treatment) and after the treatment by the method of the invention, and the results are shown in FIG. 2; as can be seen from fig. 2: after the vibratory ageing treatment, the amount of martensite in the matrix increases. This is probably because as the vibratory ageing progresses, the carbide particles increase in the matrix of the steel and more carbide particles are aggregated in the vicinity of the TiC particles. The segregation of carbon atoms reduces the carbon content in the retained austenite, destroys its chemical stability, and causes the transformation of the retained austenite to martensite; meanwhile, with the increase of the vibration time, the martensite structure in the matrix grows, the internal energy storage of the alloy is increased under the action of temperature and vibration, and the driving force is provided for the growth of the martensite structure to promote the growth of the martensite structure.
Example 2
Firstly, placing a TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based alloy sample in ultrasonic equipment using distilled water as an ultrasonic medium to carry out heating ultrasonic vibration treatment, wherein the heating temperature is 100 ℃, the vibration time is 180min, the vibration frequency is 40kHz, and the power is 240W; immediately placing the TiC-Cr-Mo alloy sample in ultrasonic equipment using liquid nitrogen as an ultrasonic medium for ultrasonic vibration treatment after the heating ultrasonic treatment is finished, wherein the cooling temperature is-196 ℃, the vibration time is 240min, the vibration frequency is 40kHz, and the power is 240W; and (4) circulating for 4 times according to the process to obtain the treated TiC-Cr-Mo alloy sample.
The alloy obtained by the treatment of this example had a residual stress of 11MPa, a hardness of 1098HV, and a magnetic saturation strength of 97emu/g, and the dimensional change rate of the obtained product after being left at room temperature for 30 days was measured, and calculated as a/B being 0.4 to 0.6.
Example 3
Firstly, placing a TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based alloy sample in ultrasonic equipment using distilled water as an ultrasonic medium to carry out heating ultrasonic vibration treatment, wherein the heating temperature is 100 ℃, the vibration time is 240min, the vibration frequency is 40kHz, and the power is 240W; immediately placing the TiC-Cr-Mo alloy sample in ultrasonic equipment using liquid nitrogen as an ultrasonic medium for ultrasonic vibration treatment after the heating ultrasonic treatment is finished, wherein the cooling temperature is-196 ℃, the vibration time is 300min, the vibration frequency is 40kHz, and the power is 240W; and circulating for 8 times according to the process to obtain the treated TiC-Cr-Mo alloy sample.
The alloy obtained by the treatment of this example had a residual stress of 23MPa on the surface, a hardness of 1134HV and a magnetic saturation strength of 112emu/g, and the dimensional change rate of the obtained product after being left at room temperature for 30 days was measured and calculated to be a/B of 0.4 to 0.6.

Claims (3)

1. An aging method for improving the dimensional stability of a TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material comprises the following steps:
heating and ultrasonically aging a TiC-Cr-Mo alloy sample, then performing liquid nitrogen ultrasonic aging, and performing circulating treatment on the alloy sample according to the process to obtain an alloy sample with stable size; the heating temperature of the heating ultrasonic aging is 30-100 ℃, the aging treatment time is 5-300 min, the ultrasonic vibration power is 180-1200W, and the vibration frequency is 40 kHz.
2. The aging method for improving the dimensional stability of the TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material according to claim 1, wherein the liquid nitrogen ultrasonic aging temperature is-196 ℃, the aging treatment time is 5-300 min, the ultrasonic vibration power is 180-1200W, and the vibration frequency is 40 kHz.
3. The aging method for improving the dimensional stability of the TiC-Cr-Mo steel-based composite material according to claim 1, wherein the number of cycles of the cyclic treatment is 2-12.
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