CN110376490A  Based on the synchronous high voltage direct current transmission line fault location method for squeezing wavelet transformation  Google Patents
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 CN110376490A CN110376490A CN201910749216.0A CN201910749216A CN110376490A CN 110376490 A CN110376490 A CN 110376490A CN 201910749216 A CN201910749216 A CN 201910749216A CN 110376490 A CN110376490 A CN 110376490A
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 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01R—MEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
 G01R31/00—Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
 G01R31/08—Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks
 G01R31/081—Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks according to type of conductors
 G01R31/085—Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks according to type of conductors in power transmission or distribution lines, e.g. overhead

 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01R—MEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
 G01R31/00—Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
 G01R31/08—Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks
 G01R31/11—Locating faults in cables, transmission lines, or networks using pulse reflection methods

 G—PHYSICS
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 G06F—ELECTRIC DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
 G06F17/00—Digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific functions
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 G06F17/14—Fourier, Walsh or analogous domain transformations, e.g. Laplace, Hilbert, KarhunenLoeve, transforms
 G06F17/148—Wavelet transforms

 Y—GENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSSSECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSSREFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
 Y04—INFORMATION OR COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES HAVING AN IMPACT ON OTHER TECHNOLOGY AREAS
 Y04S—SYSTEMS INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO POWER NETWORK OPERATION, COMMUNICATION OR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR IMPROVING THE ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION, TRANSMISSION, DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT OR USAGE, i.e. SMART GRIDS
 Y04S10/00—Systems supporting electrical power generation, transmission or distribution
 Y04S10/50—Systems or methods supporting the power network operation or management, involving a certain degree of interaction with the loadside end user applications
 Y04S10/52—Outage or fault management, e.g. fault detection or location
Abstract
The present disclosure proposes based on the synchronous high voltage direct current transmission line fault location method for squeezing wavelet transformation, the current traveling wave signal of faulty transmission line is obtained；Current traveling wave signal is decoupled, Aerial mode component is obtained；Variation mode decomposition is carried out to Aerial mode component, obtains the signal of different frequency sections；Extruding wavelet transformation is synchronized to highest frequency signal, the instantaneous frequency of simple component signal is identified, obtains temporal frequency figure；Failure initial traveling wave arrival time and corresponding instantaneous frequency are determined using the first catastrophe point of temporal frequency figure, determine the corresponding line mould wave velocity of instantaneous frequency；Pass through the distance of ranging formula calculating fault point to rectifier terminal.This method precision is higher, and antitransition resistance ability is strong.
Description
Technical field
This disclosure relates to circuit on power system protection technique field, more particularly to based on the synchronous height for squeezing wavelet transformation
Straightening stream fault positioning method for transmission line.
Background technique
D.C. high voltage transmission be using stable DC carry out electric power transmission, have no induction reactance, without capacitive reactance, without together
Step operation, can quick regulation power the advantages that, compared with ac transmission, the conveying capacitance of direct current transportation is higher, transmits electricity
Be more easier apart from farther, current network foundation, the adjusting of highvoltage power it is more convenient, be widely used highpower remote
Among the direct current transportation of distance, HVDC transmission line is more suitable for the geographical vast feature in China compared to ac transmission.By
In air in overhead transmission line exposure, operating condition is severe, is the highest member of probability that breaks down in entire transmission system
Part, DC line, which breaks down, can endanger the safe operation of electrical equipment, the normal transmission of interrupt power, DC system locking,
Stoppage in transit can cause system voltage and frequency stabilization problem or even cause to have a power failure on a large scale.So direct current transmission line fault ranging, failure
It removes and restores, to guarantee equipment safety, raising power supply reliability, maintain the stability of whole system particularly important.
Any range measurement principle is all based on circuit model, is constructed using electrical quantity and the relationship of fault distance.With regard to height
For pressing DC power transmission line, length, which determines, must be based on distributed parameter model to derive ranging formula, and therefore, description divides
The wave equation of cloth parameter line electric characteristic becomes the basis of ranging.The d'alembert solution account for voltage of wave equation, electricity
Stream is superimposed and is formed by preceding traveling wave and antitraveling wave, and traveling wave is and the biography not only to time correlation again and apart from relevant physical quantity
Distance and propagation time are broadcast by the constraint of wave velocity, therefore fixed observer point, can be calculated by the temporal information that traveling wave reaches
Propagation distance, here it is the basic principles of traveling wave method.Traveling wave can between line boundary and fault point catadioptric back and forth, in meter and
Periodic regularity is presented in travelling wave signal within the scope of one longer time of multiple catadioptric, therefore the frequency of travelling wave signal can also
To reflect line boundary to the distance of fault point, this distance measuring method using transient signal frequency domain character is known as intrinsic frequency
Method.The thought that space is changed according to the time, is inscribed when a certain, and the preceding traveling wave in route somewhere can use the history of traveling wave before measurement point
Value obtains, and antitraveling wave can be obtained with the future value of the antitraveling wave of measurement point.Therefore, pass through measurement point voltage and current traveling wave
It can deduce the voltage and current value at any point on route, it is fixed that the feature of combination failure point voltage and current can carry out failure
Position, it is this it is direct using wave equation derive along electrical quantity distribution method be exactly fault analytical method.Traveling wave method, intrinsic frequency
Method and fault analytical method establish between detectable electrical quantity and fault distance from time, frequency and three, space angle respectively
Relationship, be three kinds of mainstream fault distancefinding methods of DC power transmission line.
When DC power transmission line breaks down, the spread speed v of a certain frequency component is that have with frequency in fault traveling wave
The complicated function of pass:
In formula: ω is the angular frequency of the frequency component, the π of ω=2 f；β (ω) is the phase distortion coefficient of the frequency component,
With route unit length relating to parameters.Since line conductor and the earth have collection skin under the electromagnetic field effect of a certain frequency component
Effect, R0 and L0 will change with frequency and be changed, and G0 and C0 are hardly by frequency influence.The resistance of certain route and the frequency of inductance
It is as shown in Figure 1 to become characteristic.The application problem not high the solution is to existing Fault Location Algorithm precision.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this specification embodiment is to provide based on the synchronous HVDC transmission line event for squeezing wavelet transformation
Hinder distance measuring method, is thought using a kind of fault localization based on traveling wave instantaneous frequency and wave head arrival time and velocity of wave organic unity
Think.Using the synchronous timefrequency figure for squeezing wavelet transformation and forming fault transient signals, according to timefrequency icon determine traveling wave arrival time and
The moment specific instantaneous frequency, then corresponding wave velocity is sought via instantaneous frequency, form hvdc transmission line fault localization
Practical algorithm.
This specification embodiment is provided based on the synchronous high voltage direct current transmission line fault location side for squeezing wavelet transformation
Method is achieved through the following technical solutions:
Include:
Obtain the current traveling wave signal of faulty transmission line；
Current traveling wave signal is decoupled, Aerial mode component is obtained；
Variation mode decomposition is carried out to Aerial mode component, obtains the signal of different frequency sections；
Extruding wavelet transformation is synchronized to highest frequency signal, the instantaneous frequency of simple component signal is identified, obtains the time
Frequency diagram；
Failure initial traveling wave arrival time and corresponding instantaneous frequency are determined using the first catastrophe point of temporal frequency figure, are determined
The corresponding line mould wave velocity of instantaneous frequency；
Pass through the distance of ranging formula calculating fault point to rectifier terminal.
Further technical solution when breaking down for transmission line of electricity somewhere, is acquired close to rectification side, inverter side
Faultcurrent signal on positive and negative electrode route.
Further technical solution is decoupled positive and negative anodes current signal to obtain line using Karenbauer transformation matrix
Mould signal, zero mould signal.
Further technical solution carries out variation mode decomposition to Aerial mode component, obtains the signal of different frequency sections, signal
Component by being arranged successively from low to high.
Further technical solution calculates distance of the fault point to rectifier terminal by ranging formula, specific formula:
Assuming that t_{0}In route somewhere short trouble occurs for the moment, causes traveling wave and propagates to route both ends, respectively at t_{1}And t_{2}When
It is carved into up to rectification side and inverter side, what is reached at this time be frequency is f_{1}With f_{2}Travelingwave component, corresponding wave velocity is respectively v_{1}
And v_{2}If total track length is l, the distance of fault point to rectifier terminal is x, then the following formula can be obtained:
X=v_{1}(t_{1}t_{0})
Lx=v_{2}(t_{2}t_{0})
Simultaneous obtains:
This specification embodiment is provided based on the synchronous high voltage direct current transmission line fault location system for squeezing wavelet transformation
System, is achieved through the following technical solutions:
Include:
Signal pickup assembly, for obtaining the current traveling wave signal of faulty transmission line and being transmitted to signal acquisition process dress
It sets；
Signal acquisition and processing apparatus decouples current traveling wave signal, obtains Aerial mode component；
Variation mode decomposition is carried out to Aerial mode component, obtains the signal of different frequency sections；
Extruding wavelet transformation is synchronized to highest frequency signal, the instantaneous frequency of simple component signal is identified, obtains the time
Frequency diagram；
Failure initial traveling wave arrival time and corresponding instantaneous frequency are determined using the first catastrophe point of temporal frequency figure, are determined
The corresponding line mould wave velocity of instantaneous frequency；
Pass through the distance of ranging formula calculating fault point to rectifier terminal.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effect of the disclosure is:
The disclosure chooses the Aerial mode component for the fault current traveling wave that rectification side and inverter side detect, obtained signal warp
The part that variation mode decomposition generates different frequency sections is crossed, highest frequency is chosen and synchronizes extruding Wavelet transformation, timefrequency figure
First catastrophe point corresponds to failure initial traveling wave arrival time, and traveling wave instantaneous frequency corresponding to the moment can determine wave
Speed, and then pass through the fault localization of ranging formula realization HVDC transmission line.This method precision is higher, theoretically can
Range error is contracted to 0.1%, and antitransition resistance ability is strong.
Detailed description of the invention
The Figure of description for constituting a part of this disclosure is used to provide further understanding of the disclosure, and the disclosure is shown
Meaning property embodiment and its explanation do not constitute the improper restriction to the disclosure for explaining the disclosure.
Fig. 1 is the frequency characteristic of the line resistance R and line inductance L of embodiment of the present disclosure；
Fig. 2 is the bipolar direct current transmission system of embodiment of the present disclosure；
Fig. 3 is the fault localization flow chart of embodiment of the present disclosure；
Fig. 4 is that the echo signal of embodiment of the present disclosure passes through variation mode decomposition, obtains the letter of rectification side different frequency
Number；
Fig. 5 is the temporal frequency figure of the rectification side most highfrequency signal of embodiment of the present disclosure；
Fig. 6 is the rectification side frequency velocity of wave figure of embodiment of the present disclosure.
Specific embodiment
It is noted that following detailed description is all illustrative, it is intended to provide further instruction to the disclosure.Unless another
It indicates, all technical and scientific terms used herein has usual with disclosure person of an ordinary skill in the technical field
The identical meanings of understanding.
It should be noted that term used herein above is merely to describe specific embodiment, and be not intended to restricted root
According to the illustrative embodiments of the disclosure.As used herein, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, otherwise singular
Also it is intended to include plural form, additionally, it should be understood that, when in the present specification using term "comprising" and/or " packet
Include " when, indicate existing characteristics, step, operation, device, component and/or their combination.
Examples of implementation one
This embodiment disclose based on the synchronous high voltage direct current transmission line fault location method for squeezing wavelet transformation, this public affairs
Choicestart takes the line mould point of the fault current traveling wave detected at rectification side and inverter side range unit by variation mode decomposition
Amount chooses highest frequency and synchronizes extruding wavelet transformation, and the first catastrophe point of timefrequency figure corresponds to the initial traveling wave of failure and arrives
Up to the moment, traveling wave instantaneous frequency corresponding to the moment can determine velocity of wave, and then realize event by Twoterminal Fault Location formula
Hinder ranging.Now summary of the invention is described further, the fault location process of the disclosure is as shown in Figure 2.
Specific implementation step includes:
Step 1: obtaining line respectively from transmission line of electricity rectification side and inverter side measuring point when transmission line of electricity breaks down
The current signal on road, emulation sample frequency are 1MHz.
Step 2: there are coupling, need pair between the two poles of the earth currently, HVDC transmission line mostly uses double pole mode to run
Current signal on route carries out decoupling operation.Route both ends transient current signal when taking 5ms after failure in window, utilizes formula
(3) progress is decoupling obtains independent transient current modulus component.Since line mould parameter is stablized than zero mould parameter, therefore use line mould
Electric current carries out distance calculation.
In Fig. 3, u_{Rp}、u_{Rn}、u_{Ip}And u_{In}Voltage by the anode, cathode that are measured at rectification side R and at inverter side I；i_{Rp}、
i_{Rn}、i_{Ip}And i_{In}By anode, the cathodal current measured at rectification side R and at inverter side I.Subscript p and n respectively indicate anode and
Cathode.Relationship between the voltage and current of DC power transmission line in Fig. 1 are as follows:
In formula,C_{s}=C_{0}+
C_{m}, G_{s}=G_{0}+G_{m}；R_{s}And R_{m}The selfresistance and mutual resistance of route；L_{s}And L_{m}Respectively indicate the selfinductance and mutual inductance of route；C_{0}For
Capacitor between poleground, C_{m}For poleinterelectrode capacity；G_{0}The conductance between poleground, G_{m}For poleinterelectrode conductance.
Karenbauer phase mode transformation matrix can be used to decouple bipolar voltage, electric current.Phase mode transformation matrix such as formula
(4):
It is found that S^{1}=S^{T}.Formula (3) is decoupled by the matrix in formula (4), such as calculating modulus expression formula can be obtained:
In formula, u_{m}=S^{1}U, i_{m}=S^{1}I,
Gained modulus after rectifier terminal bipolar voltage, Current Decoupling are as follows:
Wherein, u_{R1}、i_{R1}、u_{R0}And i_{R0}Respectively line mould and zero mode voltage, current component are decoupled and are not deposited between resulting modulus
In the influence of mutual inductance, convenience of calculation.Similarly also inversion end bipolar voltage, electric current are decoupled.
In formula, i_{1}、i_{0}Respectively indicate transient current Aerial mode component, the zero _exit of rectification side or inverter side；i^{+}、i^{}Respectively
Indicate electrode line transient current, the negative line transient current of the side.
Step 3: carrying out variation mode decomposition to faultcurrent signal Aerial mode component, signal obtains variation after VMD is decomposed
Six component of mode function, six components by being arranged successively from low to high, as shown in Figure 4.
Variation mode decomposition is a kind of NEW ADAPTIVE mode decomposition method, and main purpose is to be decomposed into input signal
A series of component signals with sparse characteristic.In general, multicomponent data processing s (t) can be expressed as formula (8).
S (t)=u_{1}(t)+u_{2}(t)+...+u_{k}(t) (k takes 6) (8)
In formula, component signal u_{k}It (t) is the signal with centre frequency and certain bandwidth.
Step 4: fault traveling wave signal generally comprises the frequency component from 0 to several hundred kHz, and due to effect of dispersion and
The limitation of device sample rate is only able to detect the signal higher than a certain amplitude intensity, and highest frequency component reaches measurement end in wave head
At the time of be defined as traveling wave arrival time.At the same time, singularity variation is presented in the transient current of the measurement point, in timefrequency figure
High frequency mutation is shown as, at the time of catastrophe point indicates that fault traveling wave reaches, corresponding frequency as reaches measurement point at first
Traveling wave high fdrequency component frequency.
Extruding wavelet transformation is synchronized to highest frequency signal, the instantaneous frequency of simple component signal is identified, obtains the time
Frequency diagram, for given mother wavelet function ψ (t), to component signal u_{k}(t) continuous wavelet transform as shown in formula is carried out,
Wavelet conversion coefficient W_{u}(a, b) is
In formula: a is contractionexpansion factor, and b is shift factor.
Assuming that mother wavelet function ψ (t) has rapid decay, corresponding Fourier transformationIt is approached in negative frequency domain
In 0, and in a=ω_{0}It is concentrated at/ω.By can instantaneous frequency values according to a preliminary estimate to wavelet coefficient derivation
Step 5: determining initial traveling wave arrival time and corresponding instantaneous frequency using timefrequency figure.Determine instantaneous frequency pair
The line mould wave velocity answered.Fault traveling wave signal generally comprises the frequency component from 0 to several hundred kHz, and due to effect of dispersion and
The limitation of device sample rate is only able to detect the signal higher than a certain amplitude intensity, and highest frequency component reaches measurement end in wave head
At the time of be defined as traveling wave arrival time.At the same time, singularity variation is presented in the transient current of the measurement point, in timefrequency figure
High frequency mutation is shown as, at the time of catastrophe point indicates that fault traveling wave reaches, corresponding frequency as reaches measurement point at first
Traveling wave high fdrequency component frequency.If taking high fdrequency component u_{k}(t) SST transformation is carried out, obtains timefrequency figure as shown in figure 5, timefrequency figure
First catastrophe point correspond to t at the time of the initial traveling wave of failure reaches rectification side_{1}=0.3017, traveling wave corresponding to the moment
Rectification side instantaneous frequency f_{1}=107800Hz.Therefore, initial wavefront can effectively be demarcated by the method, and can solves to go
Wave wave head and instantaneous frequency organic unity and the problem of demarcate simultaneously.Work as f_{1}When=107800Hz, corresponding rectification side wave velocity v_{1}
It is 2.9742 × 10^{8}m/s.It similarly, can also be in the hope of the wave velocity v of inverter side_{2}With corresponding time t_{2}。
Step 6: assuming t_{0}In route somewhere short trouble occurs for the moment, causes traveling wave and propagates to route both ends, respectively at
t_{1}And t_{2}Moment reaches rectification side and inverter side.Reach at this time be frequency be f_{1}With f_{2}Travelingwave component, corresponding wave velocity
Respectively v_{1}And v_{2}.If total track length is l, the distance of fault point to rectifier terminal is x, then the following formula can be obtained:
X=v_{1}(t_{1}t_{0})
Lx=v_{2}(t_{2}t_{0})
Simultaneous obtains:
By the expression formula (1) and line parameter circuit value frequency dependent characteristic figure of traveling wave speed, the wave of fault traveling wave component can be deduced
Speed is closely related with frequency.Different frequency components has different wave velocities, and wave velocity changes with the variation of frequency,
Referring to shown in attached drawing 6.
It obtains under each fault condition after corresponding wave velocity, the velocity of wave of former fixed value is replaced with the wave velocity being calculated
Degree realizes the improvement to conventional failure location algorithm.By building ultrahightension power transmission line pscad model, fault data is obtained, is passed through
The calculating for crossing this algorithm, as a result see the table below.By following table one it is found that the antitransition resistance ability of this algorithm is stronger, it can be used for route
Fault localization.
Table one
Examples of implementation two
This specification embodiment is provided based on the synchronous high voltage direct current transmission line fault location system for squeezing wavelet transformation
System principle, is achieved through the following technical solutions:
Include:
Signal pickup assembly, for obtaining the current traveling wave signal of faulty transmission line and being transmitted to signal acquisition process dress
It sets；
Signal acquisition and processing apparatus decouples current traveling wave signal, obtains Aerial mode component；
Variation mode decomposition is carried out to Aerial mode component, obtains the signal of different frequency sections；
Extruding wavelet transformation is synchronized to highest frequency signal, the instantaneous frequency of simple component signal is identified, obtains the time
Frequency diagram；
Failure initial traveling wave arrival time and corresponding instantaneous frequency are determined using the first catastrophe point of temporal frequency figure, are determined
The corresponding line mould wave velocity of instantaneous frequency；
Pass through the distance of ranging formula calculating fault point to rectifier terminal.
The specific calculating process of the examples of implementation can be found in the detailed description in examples of implementation one, not do herein specifically
It is bright.
It is understood that in the description of this specification, reference term " embodiment ", " another embodiment ", " other
The description of embodiment " or " first embodiment~N embodiment " etc. means specific spy described in conjunction with this embodiment or example
Sign, structure, material or feature are contained at least one embodiment or example of the disclosure.In the present specification, to abovementioned
The schematic representation of term may not refer to the same embodiment or example.Moreover, the specific features of description, structure, material
The characteristics of can be combined in any suitable manner in any one or more of the embodiments or examples.
The foregoing is merely preferred embodiment of the present disclosure, are not limited to the disclosure, for the skill of this field
For art personnel, the disclosure can have various modifications and variations.It is all within the spirit and principle of the disclosure, it is made any to repair
Change, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., should be included within the protection scope of the disclosure.
Claims (6)
1. based on the synchronous high voltage direct current transmission line fault location method for squeezing wavelet transformation, characterized in that include:
Obtain the current traveling wave signal of faulty transmission line；
Current traveling wave signal is decoupled, Aerial mode component is obtained；
Variation mode decomposition is carried out to Aerial mode component, obtains the signal of different frequency sections；
Extruding wavelet transformation is synchronized to highest frequency signal, the instantaneous frequency of simple component signal is identified, obtains temporal frequency
Figure；
Failure initial traveling wave arrival time and corresponding instantaneous frequency are determined using the first catastrophe point of temporal frequency figure, are determined instantaneous
The corresponding line mould wave velocity of frequency；
Pass through the distance of ranging formula calculating fault point to rectifier terminal.
2. the high voltage direct current transmission line fault location method as described in claim 1 based on synchronous extruding wavelet transformation,
It is characterized in, when breaking down for transmission line of electricity somewhere, acquires the failure on the positive and negative electrode route of close rectification side, inverter side
Current signal.
3. the high voltage direct current transmission line fault location method as described in claim 1 based on synchronous extruding wavelet transformation,
It is characterized in, is decoupled positive and negative anodes current signal using Karenbauer transformation matrix to obtain line mould signal, zero mould signal.
4. the high voltage direct current transmission line fault location method as described in claim 1 based on synchronous extruding wavelet transformation,
It is characterized in, variation mode decomposition is carried out to Aerial mode component, obtains the signal of different frequency sections, signal component is by from low to high
It is arranged successively.
5. the high voltage direct current transmission line fault location method as described in claim 1 based on synchronous extruding wavelet transformation,
It is characterized in, distance of the fault point to rectifier terminal is calculated by ranging formula, specific formula:
Assuming that in route somewhere short trouble occurs for the t0 moment, causes traveling wave and propagated to route both ends, respectively at t_{1}And t_{2}Moment arrives
Up to rectification side and inverter side, reach at this time be frequency be f_{1}With f_{2}Travelingwave component, corresponding wave velocity is respectively v_{1}With
v_{2}If total track length is l, the distance of fault point to rectifier terminal is x, then the following formula can be obtained:
X=v_{1}(t_{1}t_{0})
Lx=v_{2}(t_{2}t_{0})
Simultaneous obtains:
6. based on the synchronous high voltage direct current transmission line fault location system for squeezing wavelet transformation, characterized in that include:
Signal pickup assembly, for obtaining the current traveling wave signal of faulty transmission line and being transmitted to signal acquisition and processing apparatus；
Signal acquisition and processing apparatus decouples current traveling wave signal, obtains Aerial mode component；
Variation mode decomposition is carried out to Aerial mode component, obtains the signal of different frequency sections；
Extruding wavelet transformation is synchronized to highest frequency signal, the instantaneous frequency of simple component signal is identified, obtains temporal frequency
Figure；
Failure initial traveling wave arrival time and corresponding instantaneous frequency are determined using the first catastrophe point of temporal frequency figure, are determined instantaneous
The corresponding line mould wave velocity of frequency；
Pass through the distance of ranging formula calculating fault point to rectifier terminal.
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