CN110320346A - Tunnelling centrifugal model test method - Google Patents

Tunnelling centrifugal model test method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110320346A
CN110320346A CN201910673057.0A CN201910673057A CN110320346A CN 110320346 A CN110320346 A CN 110320346A CN 201910673057 A CN201910673057 A CN 201910673057A CN 110320346 A CN110320346 A CN 110320346A
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China
Prior art keywords
cylinder
centrifugal
test
soil
casing
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CN201910673057.0A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
梁建辉
胡晶
张紫涛
张雪东
魏迎奇
宋献慧
吴俊鸣
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China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research
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China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research
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Priority to CN201910673057.0A priority Critical patent/CN110320346A/en
Publication of CN110320346A publication Critical patent/CN110320346A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N33/00Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups G01N1/00 - G01N31/00
    • G01N33/24Earth materials

Abstract

The present invention discloses tunnelling centrifugal model test method, and which use centrifugal model test equipment and geotechnical centrifuges, and this method comprises the following steps: installation steps, wherein centrifugal model test equipment is installed on to the rotating part of geotechnical centrifuge;Revolution rotation step, wherein the rotating part of geotechnical centrifuge is made to execute revolution rotation;Data collection steps, wherein data corresponding with the simulation deformation of soil body environment around tunnels mimic cylinder are acquired by detection device;And data processing step, wherein data collected in data collection steps are analyzed and processed, to obtain test result.The present invention turns round model casing around the shaft by geotechnical centrifuge, so that generating centrifugal force in simulation soil body environment in model casing, although, model carries out reduced scale with respect to actual conditions, but centrifugal force can compensate for the reduction of soil body weight stress, to make model that there is stress field environment identical with Practical Project, can simulate and the consistent deformation of engineering.

Description

Tunnelling centrifugal model test method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of tunnelling centrifugal model test method, more particularly to for when simulating tunnelling The tunnelling centrifugal model test method of condition of construction.
Background technique
In the engineering for building highway, railway etc., is especially building subway, seabed or Subaqueous tunnel, is being laid with communication line When cable, there are a large amount of tunnel boring works.Tunnel may pass through the environment such as rock matter, soil property, mud.With underground traffic Development, during tunnel excavation, inevitably encounters the extreme case for passing through existing building or closing on tunnel.Newly-built tunnel The work progress in road inevitably has an impact ambient enviroment.In different soil property environment, excavate what construction generated Influence has very big difference.It is that design mentions there are no reliable theoretical calculation or numerical value emulation method for this extreme operating condition For reference.
In order to guarantee the safety of the environment around tunnel (such as existing building, tunnel, pipeline etc.), excavated Before construction, need to carry out reliable physical analogy.For example, currently existing the physical analogy to tunnelling process.? In this physical analogy, arrangement simulation soil body environment carries out tunnel excavation pick construction in model casing, is then excavated using simulation Device carries out Mining Test.Pass through the various data obtained during test, available results of Physical.
However, there are many limitations for this existing model casing simulation test.
For example, its stress and deformation for being difficult to generate constructing metro tunnel are simulated.In general, the ruler in the tunnels such as subway Very little very big and be normally inside the underground or massif of tens of meters of depths, the soil body around tunnel generates biggish pressure to tunnel wall Power.When using above-mentioned existing physical analogy means, it is difficult to simulate tunnel construction environment according to true size, thus it is general Simulation model of the production including cabinet, simulation excavating gear etc. after proportionally reducing the size.Due to size reduction, mould The weight stress of the soil body in type also correspondingly reduces.Which results in the stress that can not be restored in Practical Project around tunnel wall Field environment, and the soil body is nonlinear material, rigidity and institute are loaded closely related, and the difference of inside soil body stress will lead to mould Quasi- result distortion, it is difficult to influence of the accurate evaluation constructing tunnel to the soil body or existing structure.
Summary of the invention
To solve at least partly technical problem in the prior art, the present invention provides a kind of tunnelling centrifugal model test Method, which use centrifugal model test equipment.The centrifugal model test equipment, which can be installed in geotechnical centrifuge, goes forward side by side Row revolution rotates, so that generating centrifugal force in the simulation soil body environment in centrifugal model test equipment, thereby compensates for moulded dimension The weight stress of the soil body caused by diminution reduces, to obtain the stress field ring for being similar to Practical Project in scale (model) test The deformation of the soil body similar with engineering or surrounding buildings is simulated in border.
It should be noted that the meaning for the term " geotechnical centrifuge " mentioned should be understood as to answer in the present note For the various structures of soil test and the centrifuge of specification, and should not necessarily be limited to commercially available commodity or name of product etc..
Specifically, the present invention includes the following contents.
According to an aspect of the present invention, a kind of tunnelling centrifugal model test method is provided, which use centrifugations Model test equipment and geotechnical centrifuge, the centrifugal model test equipment includes model casing, is provided with tunnel in the model casing Cylinder is simulated in road, and the tunnels mimic cylinder is provided with outer cylinder and inner cylinder, and the outer cylinder can be executed to promote relative to the inner cylinder and be moved It is dynamic, tunnel excavation work progress is simulated, detection device is provided in front of the direction of propulsion of the outer cylinder, for detecting the tunnel Road simulates the simulation soil body environment around cylinder and executes deformation when promoting mobile in the outer cylinder, and during the test, institute The position for stating detection device is fixed relative to the model casing;Described method includes following steps: installation steps, wherein by institute State the rotating part that centrifugal model test equipment is installed on the geotechnical centrifuge;Revolution rotation step, wherein make it is described geotechnique from The rotating part of scheming executes revolution rotation, so that generating simulated gravity in the centrifugal model test equipment;Data acquisition Step, wherein by the detection device, acquisition is held with the simulation soil body environment around the tunnels mimic cylinder in the outer cylinder The corresponding data of deformation when row promotes mobile;And data processing step, wherein adopted in the data collection steps The data collected are analyzed and processed, to obtain test result.
During the test, model casing revolution rotation is made by geotechnical centrifuge, so that the simulation soil body ring in model casing Centrifugal force is generated in border, thus, it is possible to the reductions of the weight stress of the soil body caused by compensation model size reduction, to obtain approximation In the stress field environment of Practical Project.Therefore, the case where even if when the size of model casing is relative to practice of construction, reduces very much, Still can reduce by adjusting the revolving speed of geotechnical centrifuge to compensate accordingly the weight stress of the soil body.It therefore, can be with small The model casing of size carries out reliable physical analogy.This enables tunnelling centrifugal model test method of the invention to make us Satisfactorily it is applied to the physical analogy of the engineerings such as subway tunnel, massif, the bottom (such as river bed, lakebed, seabed) tunnel.It is especially suitable The physical analogy that short distance existing tunnel, ground settlement, surface buildings are influenced for realizing such as tunnelling.
By being provided with the tunnels mimic cylinder of outer cylinder and inner cylinder as described above, current common shield method tunnel can be simulated Tunnel-liner in road digging technology.In revolution rotation step, when outer cylinder is mobile relative to inner cylinder, the outer wall of inner cylinder can be with Outer cylinder it is mobile and be gradually exposed so that the soil body in model casing touches the outer wall of inner cylinder being gradually exposed.This is equivalent to mould Actual soil body environmental activity is in the Bracing Process when digging of tunnel-liner when having intended using shield method tunneling, wherein outer The movement of cylinder is equivalent to the soil body for simulating and being dug up, and the outer wall of inner cylinder, which contacts to be equivalent to the soil body, simulates tunnel-liner and week Enclose the contact of soil body environment.
Preferably, the front end of the outer cylinder is closed end, and the centrifugal model test equipment further includes jack, The opposite side of the closed end is arranged in the jack, and in revolution rotation step, the mandril of the jack is from institute The inside for stating inner cylinder passes through and pushes the closed end of the outer cylinder, to push the outer cylinder to carry out by the jack It is mobile, simulate soil excavation process, wherein the mandril of the jack directly contacts the closed end of the outer cylinder.
The front end of outer cylinder is designed to closed end, is conducive to inside (the i.e., inner cylinder using jack from tunnels mimic cylinder Inside) push outer cylinder mobile.Such structure can be avoided the ejector pin contact soil body environment of jack.
Preferably, the jack is hydraulic jack.
Hydraulic jack has the advantages that output is stable, thrust is big, therefore generates larger centrifugation in simulation soil body environment In the case where power, it still is able to ensure that stablizing for outer cylinder is moved.Hydraulic jack can realize real-time control using servomechanism installation. Furthermore it is possible to realize that host computer connect (such as electrical connection) with the signal for the control unit for being set to geotechnical centrifuge by slip ring, So as to control under geotechnical centrifuge high rotational speeds parameters such as rate of excavation.
Preferably, it is provided with transparency window in the wall of the model casing being located in front of the tunnels mimic cylinder, it is described transparent Window offers through-hole corresponding with the outer cylinder, and in revolution rotation step, the outer cylinder promotes the mistake of movement executing It is stretched out outside the model casing in journey via the through-hole.
By transparency window, directly can observe or take the simulation soil body environment in simulation box with the movement of outer cylinder and The change procedure of generation.
Preferably, it in the simulation soil body environment in the model casing close to the transparency window, is provided with and is used to indicate displacement Marker, in the data collection steps, the detection device detects the change in location situation of the marker, and In the data processing step, handled in conjunction with change in location situation of the particle image velocimetry method to the marker.
Due to the simulation physical location amplitude of variation of soil body environment and little, directly observation or record position variation has It is difficult.In the case where being provided with marker (such as color grains), can be judged by the change in location of record identification object Simulate the change procedure of soil body environment.Marker is readily identified, therefore is easy observation, records its change in location.
Preferably, it is provided on the inside of the barrel of the inner cylinder and/or in the simulation soil body environment and is answered for detecting The device of change, in the data collection steps, by device acquisition and the variation of the stress in the barrel wall of the inner cylinder and/or with The relevant data of stress variation in the simulation soil body environment.
Using the strain in the barrel and/or the simulation soil body environment of units test inner cylinder, can obtain about inner cylinder Barrel and/or simulation the soil body environmental stress variation high accuracy data, thus facilitate by Numerical Simulation carry out more Specific analysis.
Preferably, the detection device is photographic device and/or laser displacement sensor.
Using photographic device and/or laser displacement sensor can will be simulated in model casing the situation of change of soil body environment with The form of image or video data is recorded, and helps to carry out subsequent analysis of experiments.
Preferably, the centrifugal model test equipment further includes bracket, and the bracket is set to the front side of the model casing, In revolution rotation step, the part outside the stretching model casing of the outer cylinder is supported by the bracket.
It is supported using the part that reaches model casing outside of the bracket to outer cylinder, it can be to avoid this partially due to tenesmus And shake, it avoids generating unnecessary interference to the stress condition of inner cylinder surrounding soil environment.
Preferably, in the data collection steps, after collecting the data to conform to a predetermined condition, stop the geotechnique The rotation of centrifuge.
Preferably, the data collection steps are carried out by the geotechnical centrifuge, and by being centrifuged with the geotechnique The external equipment of machine signal connection carries out the data processing step.
Using tunnelling centrifugal model test method of the invention, can be reduced in moulded dimension relative to actual conditions In the case where obtain the stress field environment for being similar to Practical Project, therefore can satisfactorily be applied to subway tunnel, water The physical analogy of the engineerings such as bottom tunnel.It is particularly suitable for realizing that short distance existing tunnel, ground settlement, earth's surface are built in tunnelling Build the physical analogy of object influence.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is seeing from front for model test equipment used in tunnelling centrifugal model test method of the invention Perspective view when examining.
Fig. 2 is seeing from rear for model test equipment used in tunnelling centrifugal model test method of the invention Perspective view when examining.
Fig. 3 is the vertical direction cross-sectional view for the structure for showing tunnels mimic cylinder.
Fig. 4 is the vertical direction cross-sectional view for the structure for showing model casing.
Fig. 5 is to show the schematic diagram of the working condition and stationary state of geotechnical centrifuge.
Fig. 6 is to show the schematic flow chart of tunnelling centrifugal model test method.
Description of symbols:
100 ... model test equipments;
1,1' ... model casing;11 ... transparent window plates;12 ... flanges;13 ... bottom plates;14 ... first foreboards;Before 15 ... second Plate;16 ... back plates;17 ... flange fastener holes;18 ... cabinet mounting holes;19 ... through-holes;
2 ... tunnels mimic cylinders;21 ... inner cylinders;22 ... outer cylinders;23 ... closed ends;
3 ... brackets;
4 ... jack;41 ... mandrils;
5 ... video cameras;
200 ... geotechnical centrifuges;
201 ... pedestals;202 ... main shafts;203 ... control units;204 ... slip rings;205,205' ... hanging basket;
G ... gravity;Ng ... simulated gravity.
Specific embodiment
The existing various exemplary embodiment that the present invention will be described in detail, the detailed description are not considered as to limit of the invention System, and it is understood as the more detailed description to certain aspects of the invention, characteristic and embodiment.
It should be understood that it is to describe special embodiment that heretofore described term, which is only, it is not intended to limit this hair It is bright.Unless otherwise stated, all technical and scientific terms used herein has the routine techniques in field of the present invention The normally understood identical meanings of personnel.
The present invention is suitable for the physical analogy of various tunnel boring works.Hereinafter, technology to facilitate the understanding of the present invention Physical simulation experiment in conjunction with the subway tunnel excavation carried out using shield method is illustrated by purport.In addition, with In lower explanation, term " centrifugal force " has been used.But for physics angle, the accurate presentation of the term should be " centripetal Power ".The considerations of for usage in accordance with this field, and " centrifugal force " this term will not for those skilled in the art Any misunderstanding is caused, is using " centrifugal force " in description of the present embodiment.
In shield tunnel digging technology, usually excavated using shield machine in underground.It is served as a contrast when excavation using tunnel Block is supported the soil body environment just excavated.In order to ensure construction safety, need to predict by physical simulation experiment just The soil body environment just excavated is to the pressure and soil body environment of tunnel-liner until being supported by tunnel-liner after being excavated Stress variation situation in the process.
Illustrate to make in the tunnelling centrifugal model test method of present embodiment first below with reference to Fig. 1 to Fig. 5 Centrifugal model test equipment 100 and geotechnical centrifuge 200.
The perspective view of model test equipment 100 is shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2, wherein Fig. 1 is solid when observing from the front Figure, perspective view when Fig. 2 is observe from the rear.Model test equipment 100 can be installed to geotechnical centrifuge 200 shown in fig. 5. Geotechnical centrifuge 200 is for making model test equipment 100 carry out revolution rotation.The size of model test equipment 100 is much smaller than and applies The actual size of work environment is reduced come the weight stress to the soil body in model test equipment 100 using geotechnical centrifuge 200 and is carried out Compensation.During the test, it needs for model test equipment 100 to be fixed in the hanging basket 205 of geotechnical centrifuge 200.Usual feelings Under condition, model test equipment 100 can be fixed in hanging basket 205 by self weight and centrifugal force, but can also be for example, by bolt Fixed etc. known fixed means are fixed.
Existing centrifuge product can be selected as making in present embodiment according to the actual conditions that use when test Geotechnical centrifuge 200.For example, can size, the weight and size of model test equipment 100 according to the power of required compensation Etc. parameters select.
A kind of schematic structure of typical geotechnical centrifuge 200 is shown in Fig. 5.Geotechnical centrifuge 200 includes: pedestal 201, it is fixed on building foundation;Main shaft 202 is vertically situated on pedestal 201;Two hanging baskets 205, pass through cantilever Structure is connected to main shaft 202;And the control unit 203 and slip ring 204 of 202 top of main shaft are set.Under static state, hanging basket 205 naturally droop;In the operating condition, it is in be similar to horizontal posture that hanging basket 205, which has been got rid of,.
Rotation direction, velocity of rotation and rotation time of main shaft 202 etc. are controlled by external equipment operation motor.It is sliding Ring 204 is used to form signal connection (such as electrical connection) between control unit 203 and external equipment.In the following description, in order to Convenient for difference, control unit 203 is referred to as slave computer, is set by the outside that slip ring 204 is connect with 200 signal of geotechnical centrifuge It is standby to be referred to as host computer.Computer can be used for example as host computer.
It may include for controlling the hydraulic servo control apparatus of aftermentioned jack 4, for controlling main shaft in control unit 203 The controller of 202 rotation, data collector for carrying out data acquisition etc..Component and/or device in control unit 203 is past Toward needing to select precision equipment that could be competent at, to avoid adverse effect caused by centrifugal force, preferably control unit 203 is arranged in master On equipment mounting frame around the axial line of axis 202.Slip ring 204 is arranged to coaxial with main shaft 202.In this way, being tested When, the centrifugal force very little being subject on control unit 203 and slip ring 204 is not susceptible to shake, to during the whole test process can Realize that slave computer is connect with the reliable signal of host computer.
Two hanging baskets 205 are arranged symmetrically about main shaft 202, in other words, in the circumferential direction centered on the axle center of main shaft 202 Two hanging baskets 205 are spaced each other 180 °.It is fixed with aftermentioned model casing 1 in one hanging basket 205, is arranged in another hanging basket 205 There is counterweight (not shown) to meet the requirement for dynamic balance of centrifugal test.Here, can also in two hanging baskets 205 all placement models Case 1.It, can be at lesser 1 place of a model casing of weight if the model casing 1 in two hanging baskets 205 has differences each other Add counterweight in that hanging basket 205, to guarantee dynamic balancing.
It in order to facilitate the working method for understanding geotechnical centrifuge 200, uses in Fig. 5, is distinguished with appended drawing reference 205' and 1' It indicates the hanging basket (being shown in broken lines) and model casing when remaining static, and indicates with g the weight for acting on model casing 1' at this time Power.Under working condition (carrying out the state of centrifugation rotation), hanging basket 205 has been got rid of, and is greater than weight to generate in model casing 1 The simulated gravity ng of power g.It is seen from fig 5 that the direction of simulated gravity ng be similar to it is vertical with the direction of gravity g.Pass through control Portion 203 processed adjusts the velocity of rotation of main shaft 202, can control the size of simulated gravity ng.
It should be noted that in the range of the prior art, for how according to the size of the gravity g of model casing 1 itself Pair between algorithm and simulated gravity ng and the revolving speed of geotechnical centrifuge 200 to calculate the size of required simulated gravity ng For should being related to, there is mature scheme, therefore thereof will be omitted its detailed descriptions.Correspondingly, it is being not particularly illustrated In the case where, the simulated gravity ng in present embodiment should be understood as being the size with Pass Test requirement.
Control unit 203 is connected by slip ring 204 with host computer, so as to realize in 200 high speed rotation of geotechnical centrifuge Under conditions of to the control of tunnel excavation process and to the real-time display of test relevant information.Turn when centrifuge operating reaches specified When fast, aftermentioned jack 4 can be started via control unit 203 by host computer, carry out Excavation simulation.
It will mainly illustrate model test equipment 100 below.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, model test equipment 100 includes being capable of fixing in the hanging basket 205 of geotechnical centrifuge 200 And as hanging basket 205 carries out the model casing 1 and bracket 3 of revolution rotation.Hanging basket 205 is showing for the rotating part of geotechnical centrifuge 200 Example.The bottom inside of hanging basket 205 is fixed in the bottom of model casing 1 and bracket 3.Model casing 1 and bracket 3 both can mutually have been consolidated each other Determining can also be independent of one another, as long as hanging basket 205 all can be fixed to for model casing 1 and bracket 3, it will be able to meet present embodiment Requirement.
Simulation soil body environment and tunnels mimic cylinder 2 are provided in model casing 1.Herein, term " simulation soil body environment " is main Refer to the soil body situation for construction simulation scene and fills out the simulation for simulating the environment such as rock matter, soil property, mud in model casing 1 The soil body.In addition, in excavating work progress, such as need to consider the shadow to surface structures, neighbouring existing tunnel building facility It rings, the analogies of these building facilities can also be proportionally arranged in model casing 1.At this point, for convenience of description, term " simulation soil body environment " should also be as being understood to include including the analogies of these building facilities.
Tunnels mimic cylinder 2 is arranged in the substantial middle position of model casing 1, and is simulated squeezing for soil body environment by surrounding Pressure.As shown in figure 3, tunnels mimic cylinder 2 is made of inner cylinder 21 and outer cylinder 22.Inner cylinder 21 is the cylindrical drum of both ends open, outer cylinder 23 For front end closing, the cylindrical drum of open rearward end.Inner cylinder 21 and outer cylinder 22 can be made of metal material.Outer cylinder 22 is with can be opposite The front end of inner cylinder 21 is set in the mobile mode of inner cylinder 21.
In the present embodiment, inner cylinder 21 is for simulating tunnel-liner, in tunnel when outer cylinder 22 is excavated for simulating The soil body dug up at lining cutting position.When test, driving outer cylinder 22 is moved forward, and inner cylinder 21 is motionless, so that originally by outer cylinder The simulation soil body environment of 22 supports becomes to be supported by inner cylinder 21.In this way, when the outer wall and mould of inner cylinder 21 are removed and made to outer cylinder 22 When quasi- soil body environment contact, it is equivalent to during simulating actual excavation and digs up the soil body with equipment such as such as shield machines and make around Soil body environment contact and squeeze the operation of tunnel-liner.After outer cylinder 22 is entirely pushed out, caused by the soil body environment of surrounding Soil pressure is all undertaken by inner cylinder 21.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 4, it is provided in the foreboard of model casing 1 (including the first foreboard 14 and second foreboard 15) Bright luffer boards 11.Correspond to tunnels mimic cylinder 2 in transparent window plate 11 and opens up through-hole 19.The front side of model casing 1 is arranged in bracket 3. During the test, the outer cylinder 22 of tunnels mimic cylinder 2 is advanced through through-hole 19 and stretches out model casing 1, and outer cylinder 22 is stretched Part out is supported by bracket 3, to avoid the part of the stretching of outer cylinder 22 that undesirable shaking occurs because falling.Bracket 3 The part for being used to support outer cylinder 22 can be designed to such as half slot, V-groove or U-type groove.
Jack 4 is preferably hydraulic jack, and is controlled by the control unit of geotechnical centrifuge 200 203.For example, passing through control Hydraulic servo control apparatus in portion 203 processed controls starting and stopping for jack 4.As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 4, in model casing 1 Back plate 16 in be provided with flange 12 corresponding with tunnels mimic cylinder 2.The mandril 41 of jack 4 extend into tunnel from flange 12 In the inner cylinder 21 for simulating cylinder 2, the front end of mandril 41 is contacted with the closed end 23 of outer cylinder 22.To avoid unnecessary interference, The outer diameter of mandril 41 is less than the internal diameter of inner cylinder 21, and mandril 41 does not contact inner cylinder 21 in entire progradation.Mandril 41 Fltting speed is controlled by the control unit 203 of geotechnical centrifuge 200, and control of the control unit 203 by host computer.In such manner, it is possible to Operator is facilitated to realize the control to excavation simulation speed on host computer.
Jack 4 can be set to be fixed in hanging basket 205 and as hanging basket 205 carries out revolution rotation together.It can also be with Jack 4 is set as being fixed together with model casing 1.
The axial length that Fig. 3 shows outer cylinder 22 is less than the axial length of inner cylinder 21, and outer cylinder 22 only covers inner cylinder 21 Front end construction.Due to outer cylinder 22 relative to inner cylinder 21 it is mobile after, the simulation soil body environment of surrounding soon because by The support of inner cylinder 21 and strain variation no longer occurs, therefore outer cylinder 22 need not cover the whole length range of inner cylinder 21, only need root Need to cover the part of inner cylinder 21 according to the study.
As the detection device of present embodiment, video camera 5 as shown in Figure 1 can be used.Video camera 5 is set to bracket 3, positioned at the front of model casing 1, in other words, on the direction of propulsion of the mandril 41 of jack 4, video camera 5 is located at model casing 1 Front.During the test, video camera 5 carries out shooting record to tunnels mimic cylinder 2 and surrounding simulation soil body environment, and will The data transmission being recorded to geotechnical centrifuge 200 control unit 203, to carry out subsequent data analysis.In fact, camera shooting What machine 5 took is the image of the part simulation soil body environment close to transparent window plate 11.
In order to facilitate observing and shooting, in the part of transparent window plate 11 simulation soil body environment, it is provided with and is used for Indicate the marker of displacement.For example, can be using colored particulate matter as marker.Recording colour is shot by video camera 5 The change in location situation of particulate matter.In conjunction with existing PIV (particle image velocimetry method (Particle Image Velocimetry)), processing the stratum deformation cloud in the simulation soil body can be obtained in the data basis that video camera 5 shoots record Figure.
It can be set on the inner wall of inner cylinder 21, particularly on the inner wall for the front end of inner cylinder 21 covered by outer cylinder 22 For detecting the device of strain, to obtain the high accuracy data of the stress in the barrel wall variation about inner cylinder 21.For example, can paste Foil gauge.In addition, also can be set in the simulation soil body environment (such as analogies of building facility) arranged in model casing 1 It is similarly used for the device of detection strain, so as to obtain the high accuracy data about stress variation in simulation soil body environment.
Illustrate the construction of model casing 1 below in conjunction with Fig. 4.
Fig. 4 is the vertical direction cross-sectional view along the perpendicular interception of the axis by through-hole 19.Mould is shown in Fig. 4 The section of the foreboard of molding box 1, bottom plate 13 and back plate 16.The foreboard of model casing 1 includes the first foreboard 14, the second foreboard 15 and transparent Luffer boards 11.In first foreboard 14 of model casing 1, the second foreboard 15, bottom plate 13, back plate 16 and Fig. 4 unshowned side plate by Metal plate with sufficient intensity is made, and aluminium alloy plate can be used for example.Transparent window plate 11 can be by materials such as glass, resins It is made.Multiple cabinet mounting holes 18 are provided in bottom plate 13, for model casing 1 to be fixed on hanging basket 205 using bolt etc..Back plate The through-hole for mounting flange 12 is offered in 16, and the flange fastener hole for clamp flange 12 is provided with around the through-hole 17。
Further, it is also possible to replace detection of the video camera 5 as present embodiment using laser displacement sensor is (not shown) Device, or use laser displacement sensor and video camera 5 together as the detection device of present embodiment.Laser displacement sensing Device can be fixed on bracket 3 as video camera 5, can also be directly fixed on 1 top of model casing, and the sedimentation for recording earth's surface becomes Shape.
Illustrate the tunnelling centrifugal model test method of present embodiment below in conjunction with Fig. 6.The tunnel of present embodiment Excavating centrifugal model test method includes installation steps S1, revolution rotation step S2, data collection steps S3 and data processing step Rapid S4.Installation steps S1, revolution rotation step S2 and data collection steps S3 are executed in geotechnical centrifuge 200, and at data Reason step S4 can both be executed in the control unit 203 of geotechnical centrifuge 200, can also be in the control with geotechnical centrifuge 200 It is carried out in the external equipment of 203 signal of portion connection.
In installation steps S1, by the installation of centrifugal model test equipment 100 into the hanging basket 205 of geotechnical centrifuge 200, and According to centrifugal model test equipment 100, counterweight is set.It, can be according to test requirements document as slave computer in installation steps S1 Various operating parameters are set on geotechnical centrifuge 200 and/or in the external equipment as host computer.
In revolution rotation step S2, rotate the main shaft 202 of geotechnical centrifuge 200, to drive hanging basket 205 and set It sets the centrifugal model test equipment 100 in hanging basket 205 and executes revolution rotation, so that being generated in centrifugal model test equipment 100 Simulated gravity ng.Here it is possible to pass through PC control electricity according to the corresponding relationship of the revolving speed of main shaft 202 and simulated gravity ng Machine driving spindle 202 is until reaching revolving speed corresponding with desired simulated gravity ng and making main shaft 202 constant turn under the revolving speed It is dynamic.In this way, the simulated gravity ng of Pass Test requirement can be stably obtained by revolution rotation step S2.
In data collection steps S3, existed by the simulation soil body environment around detection device acquisition and tunnels mimic cylinder 2 Outer cylinder 22 executes the corresponding data of deformation when promoting mobile.For example, institute is collected when detection device is video camera 5 Data are the image or video of the simulation soil body environment around outer cylinder 22;When detection device is laser displacement sensor, adopted The data collected are the data relevant to displacement exported in laser displacement sensor.When in inner cylinder 21 and/or simulation soil body ring When being provided with device (such as foil gauge) for detecting strain in border, control unit can also be passed through in data collection steps S3 203 acquire the related data with strain of these devices output, at this point, control unit 203 can also regard detection device as.
When the Liang Ge branch process in data collection steps S3 including running parallel, wherein first branch's process includes number According to collecting flowchart S30, second branch's process includes that rotation keeps step S31, data acquisition judgment step S32 and rotation to stop step Rapid S33.In data acquisition flow S30, jack 4 is driven by control unit 203, so that outer cylinder 22, which executes, promotes movement, and Above-mentioned various data are acquired simultaneously.It is kept in step S31 in rotation, keeps the rotary state of geotechnical centrifuge 200 (i.e. Working condition).In data acquisition judgment step S32, judge whether to have collected the data to conform to a predetermined condition, if Judging result is that "Yes" then enters rotation stopping step S33, if it is judged that then entering rotation for "No" keeps step S31. Stop making geotechnical centrifuge 200 stop operating and (stop working) in step S33 in rotation.
In data acquisition judgment step S32, " predetermined condition " needs are specifically determined according to the demand of test.Illustrate below Several illustrative " predetermined conditions ".
For example, can be using the scheduled duration since at the time of entering data collection steps S3 as " predetermined condition ". At this point, if elapsed time has exceeded scheduled duration, data acquisition from the time of entering data collection steps S3 The judging result of judgment step S32 is "Yes", otherwise is "No".
In another example the preset distance that outer cylinder 22 can be pushed out is as " predetermined condition ".At this point, if from number is entered The distance that outer cylinder 22 is pushed out is started at the time of according to acquisition step S3 and has been more than or equal to preset distance, then data acquire judgment step The judging result of S32 is "Yes", otherwise is "No".It, can be by calculating jack 4 in the case where jack 4 is at the uniform velocity released Release time obtain the distance that outer cylinder 22 is pushed out indirectly.
In data processing step S4, to acquisition in data collection steps S3 (more specifically, being data acquisition flow S30) To various data be analyzed and processed, to obtain test result.For example, shooting recording colour particulate matter by video camera 5 Change in location situation when, the position of color grains object can be become in conjunction with particle image velocimetry method in data processing step S4 Change situation to be handled, to obtain the stratum deformation cloud atlas in the simulation soil body.
Without departing substantially from the scope or spirit of the invention, the specific embodiment of description of the invention can be done more Kind improvements and changes, this will be apparent to those skilled in the art.Other realities obtained by specification of the invention Applying mode for technical personnel is apparent obtain.Present specification and embodiment are merely exemplary.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of tunnelling centrifugal model test method, which use centrifugal model test equipment and geotechnical centrifuge, It is characterized in that,
The centrifugal model test equipment includes model casing, and tunnels mimic cylinder, the tunnels mimic are provided in the model casing Cylinder is provided with outer cylinder and inner cylinder, and the outer cylinder can execute relative to the inner cylinder and promote movement, and simulation tunnel excavation was constructed Journey,
It is provided with detection device in front of the direction of propulsion of the outer cylinder, for detecting the soil of the simulation around the tunnels mimic cylinder Body environment executes deformation when promoting mobile in the outer cylinder, and during the test, the position of the detection device is opposite It is fixed in the model casing;
Described method includes following steps:
Installation steps, wherein the centrifugal model test equipment is installed on to the rotating part of the geotechnical centrifuge;
Revolution rotation step, wherein make the rotating part of the geotechnical centrifuge execute revolution rotation, so that the centrifugal mold Simulated gravity is generated in type testing equipment;
Data collection steps, wherein the simulation soil body environment by the detection device, around acquisition and the tunnels mimic cylinder The corresponding data of deformation when promoting mobile are executed in the outer cylinder;And
Data processing step, wherein the data collected in the data collection steps are analyzed and processed, to obtain Obtain test result.
2. tunnelling centrifugal model test method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The front end of the outer cylinder is closed end, and the centrifugal model test equipment further includes jack, the jack The opposite side of the closed end is set,
In revolution rotation step, the mandril of the jack passes through from the inside of the inner cylinder and pushes the outer cylinder Soil excavation process is simulated, wherein described to push the outer cylinder to be moved by the jack in the closed end The mandril of jack directly contacts the closed end of the outer cylinder.
3. tunnelling centrifugal model test method according to claim 1 or 2, which is characterized in that
The model casing, which is located in the wall in front of the tunnels mimic cylinder, is provided with transparency window, the transparency window offer with it is described The corresponding through-hole of outer cylinder,
In revolution rotation step, the outer cylinder stretches out the mould via the through-hole during executing propulsion movement Outside molding box.
4. tunnelling centrifugal model test method according to claim 3, which is characterized in that
In simulation soil body environment of the model casing close to the transparency window, it is provided with the marker for being used to indicate displacement,
In the data collection steps, the detection device detects the change in location situation of the marker, and
In the data processing step, in conjunction with particle image velocimetry method to the change in location situation of the marker at Reason.
5. tunnelling centrifugal model test method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The device for detecting strain is provided on the inside of the barrel of the inner cylinder and/or in the simulation soil body environment,
In the data collection steps, changed by device acquisition with the stress in the barrel wall of the inner cylinder and/or with it is described Simulate the relevant data of stress variation in soil body environment.
6. tunnelling centrifugal model test method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The detection device is photographic device and/or laser displacement sensor.
7. tunnelling centrifugal model test method according to claim 3, which is characterized in that
The centrifugal model test equipment further includes bracket, and the bracket is set to the front side of the model casing, in the revolution It rotates in step, the part outside the stretching model casing of the outer cylinder is supported by the bracket.
8. tunnelling centrifugal model test method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
In the data collection steps, after collecting the data to conform to a predetermined condition, stop turning for the geotechnical centrifuge It is dynamic.
9. tunnelling centrifugal model test method according to claim 1, which is characterized in that
The data collection steps are carried out by the geotechnical centrifuge, and
The data processing step is carried out by the external equipment connecting with the geotechnical centrifuge signal.
CN201910673057.0A 2019-07-24 2019-07-24 Tunnelling centrifugal model test method Pending CN110320346A (en)

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