CN110259459B - Tunnel excavation construction organization method based on three-step method - Google Patents

Tunnel excavation construction organization method based on three-step method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110259459B
CN110259459B CN201910641040.7A CN201910641040A CN110259459B CN 110259459 B CN110259459 B CN 110259459B CN 201910641040 A CN201910641040 A CN 201910641040A CN 110259459 B CN110259459 B CN 110259459B
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excavation
team
construction
concrete
support
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CN110259459A (en
Inventor
黄金光
卢建伟
陈孙恩
王哲
屈瀑
闫晓宾
李治中
郝金印
周昆
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China Railway Tunnel Group Co Ltd CRTG
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China Railway Tunnel Group Co Ltd CRTG
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/10Lining with building materials with concrete cast in situ; Shuttering also lost shutterings, e.g. made of blocks, of metal plates or other equipment adapted therefor
    • E21D11/105Transport or application of concrete specially adapted for the lining of tunnels or galleries ; Backfilling the space between main building element and the surrounding rock, e.g. with concrete
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/006Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries by making use of blasting methods

Abstract

The invention provides a tunnel excavation construction organization method based on a three-step method, which innovating a tunnel excavation construction organization mode, adjusting the operation workload of each step by mixing and arranging operation teams, comprehensively considering the construction time required by each operation process, matching the operation personnel, the operation workload and the operation time of each process, forming a construction organization mode combining line production and parallel operation, effectively shortening the single excavation cycle operation time of a tunnel constructed by the three-step method, and improving the excavation construction progress.

Description

Tunnel excavation construction organization method based on three-step method
The technical field is as follows:
the invention relates to a tunnel excavation construction organization method, in particular to a tunnel excavation construction organization method based on a three-step method.
Background art:
at present, aiming at tunnel engineering excavation construction methods, according to the differences of tunnel excavation sections, surrounding rock geology and the like, the adopted excavation construction methods comprise a full-section method, a two-step method, a three-step method, a CD method, a CRD method and the like, and the three-step method is more commonly adopted in weak surrounding rock geological tunnels. The three-step method comprises the basic construction steps of firstly carrying out advanced support, then drilling holes, blasting and primary concrete spraying on each step, then carrying out mucking on each step, carrying out primary support construction such as anchor rod arrangement, arch erection and concrete spraying, and carrying out next cycle construction after one cycle of construction is finished. In one excavation cycle, the method generally divides operators into 1 excavation class, 1 vertical arch support class and 1 shotcrete class for 3 groups, and each group circularly and repeatedly completes corresponding procedures. The main problems with this organization method are: 1. in the method, the procedures of excavating drilling holes, erecting arch supports, spraying concrete and the like are basically flow production, the connection time of the procedures is long, and the time of the circulating process is prolonged; 2. after the concrete is sprayed again, the concrete falling from the upper step needs to be cleaned, the ballast raking of the upper step needs to be carried out after the tunnel face is exploded, the ballast raking of the upper step needs to be carried out for 2 times, the construction machinery repeats multiple operations, and the work efficiency is lower; 3. the workload of construction operators in one operation cycle is relatively small, but the whole project needs to be circulated for many times, so that the construction preparation time is long, the rest time is short, the fatigue degree is high, and the construction efficiency and the safety are influenced.
The invention content is as follows:
in order to overcome the defects, the invention provides a tunnel excavation construction organization method based on a three-step method, which innovating a tunnel excavation construction organization mode, adjusting the operation workload of each step by mixing and arranging operation teams and groups, comprehensively considering the construction time required by each operation process, matching the operation personnel, the operation workload and the operation time of each process, forming a construction organization mode combining line production and parallel operation, effectively shortening the single excavation cycle operation time of the tunnel constructed by the three-step method, and improving the excavation construction progress.
The technical scheme adopted by the invention for solving the technical problems is as follows:
a tunnel excavation construction organization method based on a three-step method is implemented after excavation enters a normal construction cycle according to the existing tunnel three-step method, and a single excavation cycle of the method takes line blasting as an end procedure of the cycle, and specifically comprises the following steps:
firstly, combining an excavation team and a vertical arch support team into an excavation support team A and an excavation support team B, wherein the two teams rest in turn;
secondly, ventilating and discharging smoke on the face, excavating a support team A to enter the field, organizing an excavator to enter the face to perform mechanical top finding, and removing dangerous stones on the vault and the side wall;
thirdly, spraying concrete to enter a team, primarily spraying concrete to each step of the upper, middle and lower steps, and primarily sealing the exposed surrounding rock after blasting to ensure the construction safety of subsequent operators;
fourthly, after the primary concrete spraying is finished, the excavator rakes the ballast of the upper step to the middle and lower steps, after the ballast of the upper step is raked, an excavation supporting team A conveys the operation rack, the construction machine and the material to the upper step, and the excavation supporting team A is divided into an excavation supporting team A1 and an excavation supporting team A2;
fifthly, excavating a support team A1 to erect an upper step arch centering, constructing arch centering connecting steel bars, meshes and foot locking anchor rods to stabilize the arch centering, constructing system anchor rods and advanced anchor rods to reinforce surrounding rocks, and performing middle and lower step mucking operation by matching an excavator with a loader and a dump truck while operating in each process of the upper step;
sixthly, after the arch center of the upper step is firmly fixed, the excavation supporting team A1 immediately carries out the drilling construction of the face of the upper step, and simultaneously completes the unfinished work of system anchor rods, advanced anchor rod installation, grouting and the like, and the mucking of the middle step and the lower step is continuously carried out;
and seventhly, after the medium and lower steps are mucked, immediately performing arch erecting support and drilling operation on the medium and lower steps by the excavation support team A2, and particularly distributing personnel of the excavation support teams A1 and A2 to meet a principle that the working time of arch erecting and drilling operation on the upper step is basically matched with the working time of mucking, arch erecting and drilling operation on the medium and lower steps, and the finishing time of all the working procedures of the upper step and the lower step is basically consistent.
Eighthly, after the processes of erecting arches, anchoring rods and drilling holes on the upper step, the middle step and the lower step are completed, spraying concrete teams to perform primary support and re-spraying concrete process construction, wherein the concrete spraying operation on the lower step is performed firstly, then the concrete spraying operation on the middle step is performed, and finally the concrete spraying operation on the upper step is performed;
ninth, measuring the embedded measuring pile points of the vault and the side wall of the primary support, and reading initial data;
tenth, after monitoring and measuring, excavating reserved personnel of the support team A to clean drilling hole sites of all steps, connecting the steps to perform blasting, and finishing the circular construction;
and eleventh, replacing the excavation support team B with the excavation support team A in the next cycle, and repeating the steps till the construction of the whole project is finished.
The operation contents of the excavation support team group A comprise drilling, blasting, arch erection, anchor rod construction and advanced support, and the operation contents of the concrete injection team group are primary support primary injection and secondary injection concrete.
The concrete spraying team adopts the concrete spraying manipulator to operate, and the manual matching wet spraying machine is used for construction in a tunnel without mechanical operation.
The height of the upper step, the middle step and the lower step is determined according to the size of the tunnel excavation section and the requirements of the working amount and the working time of each procedure of the upper step, the middle step and the lower step.
The operation time of the single excavation cycle is the sum of the operation time of ventilation, danger elimination, initial concrete spraying, ballast raking of the upper step, arch support of the upper step, drilling of the upper step, concrete spraying of the upper, middle and lower steps, monitoring and measurement and online blasting.
Due to the adoption of the technical scheme, the invention has the following advantages:
the tunnel excavation construction organization method based on the three-step method adopts a method combining 'line production and parallel operation', fully utilizes the working space in the tunnel, adjusts the working time of the drilling procedure, carries out mixed compilation on various workers of an operation team, and matches the workers, the time and the task amount by adjusting the working amount of the three-step method, thereby realizing the purpose of efficient and rapid construction of the three-step method excavation. The tunnel excavation construction organization method based on the three-step method has the following beneficial effects:
1. by adopting the method combining the line production and the parallel operation, the effective connection of the working procedures of the excavation is promoted, the waiting time of partial working procedures with working conditions is shortened, the single-cycle construction time is shortened, and the tunnel excavation construction progress is improved. When 2 arch frames (the arch frame spacing is 1 m/arch frame) are excavated at the upper step at one time in the IV-grade surrounding rock section of the large-section high-speed railway tunnel, the circulation time is shortened from 20 hours to 15 hours, the circulation time is shortened by 25 percent, and the monthly excavation progress is improved by about 30 percent.
2. The operating personnel such as will bore the hole, found to encircle carry out the mixed compilation to same team, establish 2 teams and groups, 1 team and group operating personnel is after an excavation cycle work, and the next circulation is by the construction of 1 other team and group, and operating personnel rest time is long, and physical power can obtain fully recovering, to the protection operating personnel occupational health, promotes the construction work efficiency and plays good effect.
Description of the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a conventional process flow diagram;
FIG. 2 is a process flow diagram of the present invention;
the specific implementation mode is as follows:
the present invention will be explained in more detail by the following examples, which are intended to disclose all changes and modifications within the scope of the present invention, and the present invention is not limited to the following examples;
example 1: the stratum related to a certain railway tunnel mainly comprises fourth system total new system alluvial deposit, flooded expansive soil, round gravel soil, pebble soil, Xizhi system lower system shale, Ordovician system lower system sandstone with conglomerate, sandstone and shale interbedded layer, limestone with sandstone and limestone, and Hanwu system lower system shale with sandstone and limestone according to new and old sequence. The tunnel site has no large fold and fracture structure, secondary fold is developed, tunnel geology is mainly IV-grade surrounding rock, and tunnel excavation section is 138m2. Construction is carried out on site by taking 1 excavation cycle of an IV-level surrounding rock section and 2 trusses of arch frames constructed in each cycle as an example, and the specific implementation method comprises the following steps:
the excavation team and the vertical arch support team are mixed and organized into an excavation support team A and an excavation support team B, 28 persons in each group work on the excavation support team A, and the excavation support team B has a rest;
1. ventilation and danger elimination
And after the upper circulating blasting is finished, immediately starting ventilation equipment, ventilating and discharging smoke on the tunnel face, wherein the ventilation time is 15-30 min, excavating and supporting team A to enter a field, preparing construction, entering the tunnel face by an excavator to perform mechanical top finding, and removing loose rock masses and dangerous rocks on the vault and two sides of the tunnel.
2. Initial spraying concrete
And (3) entering a sprayed concrete team, and primarily spraying C25 concrete on the exposed surrounding rock of the upper, middle and lower steps after blasting to seal, wherein the thickness of the primarily sprayed concrete is 4cm, so that the construction safety of subsequent operators is ensured.
3. Step climbing and ballast raking:
after the initial concrete spraying is finished, an excavator is instructed to clean the accumulated ballast of the upper step, the accumulated ballast of the upper step is raked to the middle lower step, after the raking of the ballast of the upper step is finished, an excavation supporting team A conveys an operation rack, construction equipment, materials and the like to the upper step, the excavation supporting team A is divided into an excavation supporting team A1 and an excavation supporting team A2, the number of A1 is 16, and the number of A2 is 12.
4. Vertical arch and support for upper step
Firstly, erecting 2I-shaped 18-steel arches on an upper step in a single-circulation mode, wherein the distance is 1m, excavating a supporting team A1 to erect the arches at preset positions respectively, connecting sections of each arch through bolts, drilling locking anchor rods at two sides of each arch to anchor the arches with surrounding rocks, and installing phi 22 connecting steel bars between the arches to form a whole; the upper step is the main working face of excavation operation, and 16 excavators are configured in total for carrying out operation.
Phi 6.5 steel bar net sheets are arranged on the arch part and the side wall, and the grid interval is 20 multiplied by 20 cm.
Thirdly, constructing phi 25 hollow anchor rods on the upper circulating arch part and phi 22 mortar anchor rods on the side walls, wherein the length of the anchor rods is 3.5m, and the distance (longitudinal multiplied by circumferential) is 1.2m multiplied by 1.2 m.
5. Medium and low step slag discharge
The middle and lower step mucking operation is synchronously carried out with the arch erecting and supporting operation of the upper step, and the middle and lower step mucking operation is carried out by the excavator in cooperation with a loader and a dump truck while the operation of each step of the upper step is carried out.
6. Upper step drilling hole
After the arch centering is fixed firmly, the excavation supporting team A1 immediately carries out the drilling construction of the face of the upper step, the height of the upper step is set to be 4.5m, 14 people are configured to operate the air drill and simultaneously drill the holes according to the number of the drilled holes, in addition, 2 people cooperate with other people to change drill rods, pull the drill rods and the like, at the moment, the slag discharge of the middle step and the lower step is continuously carried out, in the example, no advance anchor rod exists, the mortar anchor rod and the hollow anchor rod in the step 4 can be basically completed in the arch erecting period, if the advance anchor rod, the system anchor rod (the mortar anchor rod and the hollow anchor rod) and the like are not completed after the arch centering is fixed, 3-6 people are left according to the residual workload to continuously complete, and the drilling of the rest people is.
7. Middle and lower step arch-erecting support and drilling
Erecting an arch on a middle step and a lower step: the middle step height is set to be 3.0m, the lower step height is set to be 2.66m, and after the middle and lower steps are mucked, a support team A2 is excavated to immediately implement the middle and lower step arch erection support operation;
the workload of the middle and lower steps is less than that of the upper step, so 6 persons are arranged on the middle and lower steps respectively to carry out the arch erecting support operation.
Drilling holes on the middle step and the lower step:
and after the arch erection support of the middle and lower steps is finished, randomly carrying out drilling operation, configuring 4 pneumatic drills for the middle and lower steps respectively, constructing simultaneously, and excavating a support team A2 for 12 people in total.
The anchor rods of the middle and lower steps have small workload and are drilled with the vertical arch together.
8. Composite spray concrete
After drilling holes of all the steps, the concrete spraying team closes the circulating arch wall re-spraying C25 concrete, the concrete spraying operation of the lower step is firstly carried out, then the concrete spraying operation of the middle step is carried out, finally the concrete spraying operation of the upper step is carried out, the total thickness of the sprayed concrete after re-spraying is 25cm, and the spraying operation is carried out by adopting 1 wet spraying manipulator.
9. Monitoring and measuring
And measuring the embedded measuring pile points of the primary support vault and the side wall, and reading initial data.
10. Charging, blasting
After the concrete is sprayed, 2-3 reserved holes of the drill holes of the support team are excavated to be cleaned, blasting is carried out after connecting lines, and the circular construction is finished.
Comparison of process cycles
1. The improved post-construction process comprises the following steps:
the personnel composition is as follows: 2 excavation supporting teams and groups, 28 persons/team, 1 concrete spraying manipulator, 3 persons are distributed for cooperation, the two teams and the groups are constructed in turn, and the total number of persons is 59;
working time of a single excavation cycle: construction preparation, ventilation and smoke evacuation, danger elimination, primary concrete spraying 0.5h → upper step slag raking 1.5h → upper step arch erection 2h (synchronous slag tapping 2h for middle and lower steps at the same time) → upper step drilling 5.5h (synchronous slag tapping 1.5h for middle and lower steps at the same time) → upper, middle and lower step repeated concrete spraying 5h → line blasting 0.5h → next cycle, wherein the time of single excavation cycle is 15 h;
construction progress: 1-day delay time is deducted from 1 month, the calculation is carried out according to 29 days, the distance between the arch frames is 1m, and the monthly construction progress is about 93 m.
2. And (3) conventional construction procedures:
the personnel composition is as follows: 26 excavating teams, 19 erecting hoops and 1 concrete spraying manipulator, and distributing 3 persons for cooperation, wherein the total number of persons is 48.
The process cycle time is as follows: construction preparation is 0.5h → drilling of upper, middle and lower steps 6h → blasting of connecting lines 0.5h → ventilation and smoke evacuation, danger elimination, primary concrete spraying 0.5h → raking of upper steps 1.5h → erecting of upper steps arch, bolting foot 4h (simultaneously slag discharge of middle and lower steps 4h) → erecting of middle and lower steps arch, bolting 2h → guniting 5h → next cycle, and the time of single cycle is 20 h.
Construction progress: 1 month deducts 1 day delay time, and the delay time is calculated according to 29 days, the distance between the arch frames is 1m, and the monthly construction progress is about 70 m.
From the above comparison, it is apparent that the following points are present:
1. although the number of the improved hands is 11 more than that before the improvement, the rising rate is 22.9%, the construction progress per month can be about 23 m more, and the construction rising rate is 32.9%, so that the improved scheme is better than the scheme before the improvement;
2. in the process after the improvement, the working time of the excavation supporting team is continuous, such as: the method comprises the following steps of erecting an arch on the upper step for 2h (synchronously deslagging the middle step and the lower step for 2h), → drilling the upper step for 5.5h (synchronously deslagging the middle step and the lower step for 1.5h, erecting the arch and drilling for 4h), wherein the total time is 7.5 h, 28 people in each team and the rest can be carried out after the drilling is finished after 2-3 people are reserved for connecting the line for blasting, and the whole working process has no intervals;
the concrete spraying team only needs 3 people to enter the field after drilling holes on each step for carrying out primary support and re-spraying concrete, then the concrete is initially sprayed after waiting for measurement, blasting, next cycle preparation, smoke discharge and risk elimination, the interval time is about 1-2 hours, the working time is compact, and much waiting is not needed;
3. the rest time of the working personnel is improved
Generally, when the initial support concrete is sprayed, an excavation support team needs to enter the field and perform related construction preparation work, and the improved excavation support team works in turn, so that after working for 9.5 hours, a rest time of about 20.5 hours is provided; the sprayed concrete team has a rest time of about 9 hours between the primary sprayed concrete and the secondary sprayed concrete;
the excavators before improvement can rest after blasting until the cycle is finished, and the time is about 13 hours; the support group can rest after the support of the vertical arch of each step is completed, the time is about 12 hours until the ventilation and smoke exhaust stage of the next cycle, the concrete spraying group needs to wait for 7.5 hours after the concrete is sprayed for the first time to carry out re-spraying, and needs to wait for about 7 hours after the re-spraying to carry out the initial spraying of the next cycle, so the rest time is the least.
Therefore, the tunnel excavation construction organization method based on the three-step method adopts a method combining 'line production and parallel operation', fully utilizes the working space in the tunnel, adjusts the working time of the drilling procedure, carries out mixed compilation on various workers of a working team, and matches the workers, the time and the task amount by adjusting the working load of the three-step method, thereby realizing the purpose of efficient and rapid excavation construction by the three-step method and simultaneously ensuring enough rest time of the constructors.
The details of the above are not described in detail since they are prior art.

Claims (5)

1. A tunnel excavation construction organization method based on a three-step method is implemented after excavation enters a normal construction cycle according to the existing tunnel three-step method, and the single excavation cycle of the method takes line blasting as the ending procedure of the cycle, and is characterized in that: the method specifically comprises the following steps:
firstly, combining an excavation team and a vertical arch support team into an excavation support team A and an excavation support team B, wherein the two teams rest in turn;
secondly, ventilating and discharging smoke on the face, excavating a support team A to enter the field, organizing an excavator to enter the face to perform mechanical top finding, and removing dangerous stones on the vault and the side wall;
thirdly, spraying concrete to enter a team, primarily spraying concrete to each step of the upper, middle and lower steps, and primarily sealing the exposed surrounding rock after blasting to ensure the construction safety of subsequent operators;
fourthly, after the primary concrete spraying is finished, the excavator rakes the ballast of the upper step to the middle and lower steps, after the ballast of the upper step is raked, an excavation supporting team A conveys the operation rack, the construction machine and the material to the upper step, and the excavation supporting team A is divided into an excavation supporting team A1 and an excavation supporting team A2;
fifthly, excavating a support team A1 to erect an upper step arch centering, constructing arch centering connecting steel bars, meshes and foot locking anchor rods to stabilize the arch centering, constructing system anchor rods and advanced anchor rods to reinforce surrounding rocks, and performing middle and lower step mucking operation by matching an excavator with a loader and a dump truck while operating in each process of the upper step;
sixthly, after the arch center of the upper step is firmly fixed, the excavation supporting team A1 immediately carries out the drilling construction of the face of the upper step, and simultaneously, the installation of the anchor rod and the advanced anchor rod of the system and the operation that the grouting is not finished are finished, and the mucking of the middle step and the lower step is continuously carried out;
seventhly, after the medium and lower steps are mucked, the excavation support team A2 immediately implements the arch erecting support and drilling operation of the medium and lower steps, particularly the personnel distribution of the excavation support team A1 and A2 meets a principle that the working time of the arch erecting and drilling operation of the upper step is basically matched with the working time of the mucking, arch erecting and drilling operation of the medium and lower steps, and the finishing time of all the working procedures of the upper step and the lower step is basically consistent;
eighthly, after the processes of erecting arches, anchoring rods and drilling holes on the upper step, the middle step and the lower step are completed, spraying concrete teams to perform primary support and re-spraying concrete process construction, wherein the concrete spraying operation on the lower step is performed firstly, then the concrete spraying operation on the middle step is performed, and finally the concrete spraying operation on the upper step is performed;
ninth, measuring the embedded measuring pile points of the vault and the side wall of the primary support, and reading initial data;
tenth, after the concrete is sprayed, excavating reserved personnel of the support team A to clean drilling hole sites of all the steps, connecting the steps to perform blasting, and finishing the circular construction;
and eleventh, replacing the excavation support team B with the excavation support team A in the next cycle, and repeating the steps till the construction of the whole project is finished.
2. The method for organizing tunnel excavation construction based on the three-step method as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the operation contents of the excavation support team group A comprise drilling, blasting, arch erection, anchor rod construction and advanced support, and the operation contents of the concrete injection team group comprise primary support primary spray concrete and primary support secondary spray concrete.
3. The method for organizing tunnel excavation construction based on the three-step method as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the concrete spraying team adopts the concrete spraying manipulator to operate, and the manual matching wet spraying machine is used for construction in a tunnel without mechanical operation.
4. The method for organizing tunnel excavation construction based on the three-step method as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the height of the upper step, the middle step and the lower step is determined according to the size of the tunnel excavation section and the requirements of the working amount and the working time of each procedure of the upper step, the middle step and the lower step.
5. The method for organizing tunnel excavation construction based on the three-step method as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the operation time of the single excavation cycle is the sum of the operation time of ventilation, danger elimination, initial concrete spraying, ballast raking of the upper step, arch support of the upper step, drilling of the upper step, concrete spraying of the upper, middle and lower steps, monitoring and measurement and online blasting.
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