CN110230510B - Construction method of cooperative anchoring compound structure of thick-layer composite roof coal roadway - Google Patents

Construction method of cooperative anchoring compound structure of thick-layer composite roof coal roadway Download PDF

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CN110230510B
CN110230510B CN201910502303.6A CN201910502303A CN110230510B CN 110230510 B CN110230510 B CN 110230510B CN 201910502303 A CN201910502303 A CN 201910502303A CN 110230510 B CN110230510 B CN 110230510B
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anchor
anchoring
long
anchor cable
medium
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CN110230510A (en
Inventor
龙景奎
刘碧雁
兰红
冯会杰
曹佐勇
蒋崇辉
范子毅
韩良政
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China University of Mining and Technology CUMT
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China University of Mining and Technology CUMT
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D20/00Setting anchoring-bolts
    • E21D20/003Machines for drilling anchor holes and setting anchor bolts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D20/00Setting anchoring-bolts
    • E21D20/02Setting anchoring-bolts with provisions for grouting
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D21/00Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection
    • E21D21/0026Anchoring-bolts for roof, floor in galleries or longwall working, or shaft-lining protection characterised by constructional features of the bolts

Abstract

The invention relates to a construction method of a cooperative anchoring compound structure of a thick-layer composite roof coal roadway, belongs to the technical field of coal mining, and solves the problems of high control difficulty and high cost of the existing thick-layer composite roof coal roadway. The construction method comprises the following steps: the method comprises the following steps: exploring the loosening ring range of the thick-layer composite top plate of the coal roadway by adopting a geological radar, and determining the range of a multistage anchoring structure area and the length of an anchor rod; step two: drilling and installing an anchor rod on the surrounding rock of the shallow part of the top plate of the newly excavated section to form a shallow anchoring structure; step three: drilling and installing a middle-long anchor cable to form a shallow layer-middle deep layer anchoring structure; step four: and drilling and installing a long anchor cable to form a shallow layer-middle deep layer-deep layer cooperative anchoring compound structure. The method realizes effective control of the stability of the thick-layer composite roof surrounding rock, and promotes safe, economic and efficient production of the coal mine.

Description

Construction method of cooperative anchoring compound structure of thick-layer composite roof coal roadway
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of coal mining, in particular to a construction method of a cooperative anchoring compound structure of a thick-layer composite roof coal roadway.
Background
The coal seam mining of many mining areas in China often meets the laminated composite roof, and due to the fact that joints are developed and the interlayer bonding force is small, separation, deformation and damage are prone to occurring after the roadway is excavated. Particularly, the thick-layer composite top plate has the characteristics of low rock stratum strength, easy delamination between layers, poor overall stability and the like, the accumulated thickness of soft rock stratum is large, the requirements of top plate control cannot be met only by conventional anchor rods and anchor cables, and roof fall accidents often occur if the control is improper. According to statistics, the occurrence proportion of roof accidents accounts for the main part of the total number of coal mine accidents, and casualties cannot be looked at a little. Therefore, the stability control of the thick-layer composite roof coal roadway surrounding rock is one of the technical problems to be solved urgently at home and abroad.
At present, conventional control modes of a coal mine tunnel comprise anchor rod-anchor cable anchoring, anchor rod-anchor cable-shed supporting, guniting, grouting and the like, and the modes play respective due roles under different conditions. However, for the thick-layer composite roof coal roadway, the study and utilization of how to anchor the shallow, medium and deep rock strata into a whole is still insufficient, so that the anchoring efficiency is reduced, and the stability control of the thick-layer composite roof coal roadway or other soft and broken roadway surrounding rocks cannot be realized.
Therefore, how to realize the cooperative design of anchor rod (cable) anchoring variables and anchoring structure mechanical properties forms a cooperative anchoring compound structure with certain thickness, strength and rigidity in the thick-layer composite roof, thereby realizing the effective control of the complex soft lithologic roof surrounding rocks, reducing the occurrence of roof accidents and having important significance for realizing the stability control and safe production of the roadway surrounding rocks.
Disclosure of Invention
In view of the above analysis, the present invention aims to provide a method for constructing a cooperative anchoring compound structure of a thick-layer composite roof coal roadway, so as to solve the problems of high difficulty and high cost in controlling the existing thick-layer composite roof coal roadway.
The purpose of the invention is mainly realized by the following technical scheme:
a construction method of a cooperative anchoring compound structure of a thick-layer composite roof coal roadway comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: exploring the loosening ring range of the thick-layer composite top plate of the coal roadway by adopting a geological radar, and determining the range of a multistage anchoring structure area and the length of an anchor rod;
step two: drilling and installing an anchor rod on the surrounding rock of the shallow part of the top plate of the newly excavated section to form a shallow anchoring structure;
step three: drilling and installing a middle-long anchor cable to form a shallow layer-middle deep layer anchoring structure;
step four: and drilling and installing a long anchor cable to form a shallow layer-middle deep layer-deep layer cooperative anchoring compound structure.
Further, in the third step, when the deformation rate of the shallow anchoring structure rock mass is changed from fast to flat, the medium-length anchor cable is adopted to anchor the shallow anchoring structure rock mass and the middle deep rock stratum of the top plate in a cooperative manner, so that a shallow-middle deep anchoring structure is formed;
and in the fourth step, when the deformation rate of the shallow-middle deep layer anchoring structure rock mass tends to be flat, drilling and installing a long anchor cable, and cooperatively anchoring the shallow-middle deep layer anchoring structure rock mass and the top plate deep layer rock mass to form a shallow-middle deep layer-deep layer cooperative anchoring compound structure.
Further, in the first step, before geological radar detection, a detection position of the thick-layer composite roof coal roadway is selected, and detection lines are arranged; according to the integrity of surrounding rock of the tunnel, 3 testing stations are arranged on each tunnel, and 4 trend detection lines of a right side, a top plate, a left side and a bottom plate are set in each testing station along the trend of the tunnel.
And further, in the step two, when the same row of anchor rod holes are drilled, firstly, two anchor rod holes close to the left and right positions of the central line of the top plate shaft are drilled according to the distance between the anchor rods, then, the reinforcing mesh is laid, the steel belts for the anchor rods are erected, and the installation of the anchor rods is completed.
Further, the anchor rod, the medium-length anchor cable and the long anchor cable are interlocked by adopting a steel belt; the anchor rods are transversely and continuously linked, the middle long anchor cables are longitudinally and discontinuously linked, and the long anchor cables are longitudinally and continuously linked to form a latticed bearing structure.
Further, the anchor rod, the medium-length anchor cable and the long anchor cable are subjected to lengthened anchoring by adopting an anchoring agent; the anchoring agent comprises one or two of a quick anchoring agent and a medium-speed anchoring agent, and the quick-setting anchoring agent is arranged at the bottom of the hole; the anchoring length of the anchor rod is not less than 1000mm, the anchoring length of the medium-length anchor cable is not less than 2000mm, and the anchoring length of the long anchor cable is not less than 2500 mm.
Further, monitoring the deformation of the rock mass of the shallow anchoring structure after the newly excavated section top plate anchor rod is drilled; and after drilling and installing the medium and long anchor cables, monitoring the deformation of the rock mass with the shallow-medium deep anchoring structure.
Further, in the second step, the anchor rod is drilled according to the following angles: the included angles between anchor rods of the top plate close to the shoulder angles of the two sides and the plumb line are both 30 degrees, the upward binding angles of the anchor rods at the uppermost ends of the two sides are both 15 degrees, the downward binding angles of the anchor rods at the lowermost ends of the two sides are both 30 degrees, and the rest anchor rods are arranged perpendicular to the contour line of the roadway;
in the third step, the included angle between the drilling hole angle of the middle-long anchor cable hole and the plumb line is 0 degree;
in the fourth step, the included angles between the long anchor cables of the top plate close to the shoulder angle and the plumb line are both 30 degrees, and the other long anchor cables are installed perpendicular to the contour line of the roadway.
Further, the length of the anchor rod exceeds the range of the roadway surrounding rock loosening zone by 300-500 mm; the length of the medium-long anchor cable is 1500-2000 mm longer than that of the anchor rod; the length of the long anchor cable is 3000-4000 mm longer than that of the medium-long anchor cable.
Furthermore, the medium-length anchor cable is anchored into a relatively complete upper rock stratum, and the depth of the long anchor cable anchored into a relatively firm rock stratum at the deep part is more than 1000 mm.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has at least one of the following beneficial effects:
a) the invention provides a construction method of a thick-layer composite roof coal roadway collaborative anchoring compound structure, which is based on a collaborative action mechanism, carries out collaborative design on a plurality of key variables of an anchor rod, an anchor rope, an anchor net and roadway surrounding rocks, adopts the anchor rod, a middle-long anchor rope and a long anchor rope to carry out collaborative anchoring on the roadway roof rock mass layering to form the collaborative anchoring compound structure, fully exerts the collaborative anchoring effect and the collaborative bearing performance of shallow, middle-deep and deep rock strata, more effectively resists separation, crushing and deformation among the rock strata of the thick-layer composite roof, obviously improves the bearing capacity and deformation resistance of the structure, further realizes effective control on the stability of the roof surrounding rocks, and promotes safe, economical and efficient production of a coal mine.
b) The method for building the cooperative anchoring compound structure of the thick-layer composite roof coal roadway provided by the invention adopts the anchor rods, the medium-long anchor cables and the long anchor cables to perform cooperative anchoring on the roadway roof rock mass layer to form a shallow anchoring structure, a shallow-medium-deep layer anchoring structure and a shallow-medium-deep layer cooperative anchoring compound structure, has the advantages of simple and easy construction, low anchoring and protecting cost, solves the control problem of the complex thick-layer composite roof coal roadway, is suitable for controlling other soft and broken engineering rock masses, and has great application and popularization values.
In the invention, the technical schemes can be combined with each other to realize more preferable combination schemes. Additional features and advantages of the invention will be set forth in the description which follows, and in part will be obvious from the description, or may be learned by practice of the invention. The objectives and other advantages of the invention will be realized and attained by the structure particularly pointed out in the written description and claims hereof as well as the appended drawings.
Drawings
The drawings are only for purposes of illustrating particular embodiments and are not to be construed as limiting the invention, wherein like reference numerals are used to designate like parts throughout.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of arrangement of detection lines of the trend of a roadway surrounding rock loosening circle in the embodiment;
FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of arrangement of transverse detection lines of a surrounding rock loosening circle of a roadway in the embodiment;
FIG. 3 is a schematic sectional view of a cooperative anchoring complex according to an embodiment;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged view of a portion of the area I in FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged view of a portion of area II of FIG. 3;
figure 6 is a schematic plan view of the cooperative anchoring compound in the embodiment.
Reference numerals:
1-anchor rod; 2-medium-long anchor cable; 3-long anchor cable; 4-reinforcing mesh; 5-steel strips for anchor rods; 6-anchor rod tray; 7-a nut; 8-steel strips for anchor cables; 9-anchor cable trays; 10-a lock; 11-trend detection line; 12-transverse probe line.
Detailed Description
The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of this application, illustrate preferred embodiments of the invention and together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention and not to limit the scope of the invention.
The invention discloses a method for constructing a cooperative anchoring compound structure of a thick-layer composite roof coal roadway, which comprises the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: and (3) exploring the range of the loosening ring of the thick-layer composite roof of the coal roadway by adopting a geological radar, and determining the range of the multistage anchoring structure area and the length of the anchor rod 1 according to the range of the loosening ring of the roof. The method specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) the detection position of the thick-layer composite roof coal roadway is selected firstly, and detection lines are arranged. The method comprises the following steps of arranging a detection measuring line of the surrounding rock looseness circle of the roadway: dividing each tunnel into 3 survey stations according to general, poor and poor tunnel surrounding rock integrality conditions, setting 4 trend detection lines 11 for a right side, a top plate, a left side and a bottom plate along the trend of the tunnel in each survey station, wherein the length of each detection line is about 20m, as shown in figure 1. Each survey station is evenly provided with 3 survey points, each survey point forms 4 transverse detection lines 12 along the right upper, the top plate, the left upper and the bottom plate which are positioned on the same section of the roadway in the anticlockwise direction, and as shown in figure 2, the lengths of the 4 detection lines 12 are required to be marked when detection is carried out.
(2) After the arrangement of the detection lines 11 and 12 is completed, the geological radar equipment is adopted to detect the loosening zone of the surrounding rock of the underground roadway to obtain detection data, wherein the number of the roadway to be detected is specifically determined according to underground conditions and requirements.
(3) And processing, analyzing and researching the detection data to obtain a detection result of the surrounding rock looseness area of the roadway.
(4) And determining the range of the multi-stage anchoring structure area and the length of the anchor rod 1 according to the obtained detection result of the surrounding rock loosening ring of the roadway. Specifically, the roadway surrounding rock structures are classified according to the size and the distribution rule of the loosening circle range of the roadway surrounding rock, the roadway surrounding rock is preferably divided into three levels of anchoring structures, and the lengths of the anchor rod 1, the medium-length anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3 are determined according to the levels of the anchoring structures and the ranges of the anchoring structures. The anchoring mode in this step is: adopting an anchor rod 1 to carry out cooperative anchoring on surrounding rocks at the shallow part of the roadway roof, particularly rocks in the loose circle range, so as to form a shallow anchoring structure, such as an area A in figure 3; the anchoring rock mass of the anchor rod 1 and the middle-deep rock mass of the top plate are cooperatively anchored by adopting a medium-long anchor cable 2 to form a shallow-middle-deep anchoring structure, such as an A + B region in figure 3; the long anchor cables 3 are adopted to anchor the rock anchored by the anchor rods 1, the rock anchored by the medium and long anchor cables 2 and the deep rock stratum of the top plate into a whole in a cooperative manner, so that a shallow layer-medium deep layer-deep layer cooperative anchoring compound structure is formed, such as an A + B + C region in figure 3.
Step two: and drilling and installing the anchor rod 1 around the rock on the shallow part of the top plate of the newly excavated section to form a shallow anchoring structure.
After the roadway is excavated, the anchor rod 1 is adopted to anchor surrounding rocks of the shallow part of the roadway top plate, particularly rock strata in the range of a loosening zone in a coordinated mode, namely the anchor rod 1 is drilled on the surrounding rocks of the shallow part of the top plate of a newly excavated section, and a shallow anchoring structure A is formed.
Before the construction of the anchor rod 1, the drilling of the hole of the anchor rod 1 and the laying of an anchor net are finished. Preferably, the anchor net is a reinforcing mesh 4, the specification can be specifically selected according to the size of the section of the roadway, and effective overlapping and binding are carried out according to the design specification. The method comprises the following specific steps:
(1) and selecting the length of the anchor rod 1 according to the detection result of the coal roadway surrounding rock loosening ring. Preferably, the length of the anchor rod 1 exceeds the loosening range of the surrounding rock of the roadway by 300-500 mm.
(2) And (3) drilling holes in the anchor rod 1 according to the length arrangement design of the anchor rod 1, wherein the drilling depth is equal to the length of the anchor rod 1-50 mm. Considering the safety of the coal seam roof and being beneficial to the installation of the steel strip, when the holes of the anchor rods 1 in the same row are drilled, the holes of the two anchor rods 1 close to the left and right positions of the axial center line of the roof are drilled according to the distance between the anchor rods 1, then the reinforcing mesh 4 and the steel strip 5 for the anchor rods are laid in sequence, and the installation of the anchor rods 1 is completed. The anchor rod 1 adopts the steel belt 5 for the anchor rod to carry out continuous linkage along the cross section of the roadway.
(3) After drilling holes in the anchor rods 1, drilling holes in the anchor rods 1 on two sides close to the shoulder angles of the two sides according to the positions of the holes in the anchor rods 1 reserved by the steel belts 5 for the anchor rods, and completing installation. And then drilling and installing other anchor rods 1 with the same section according to the same requirement, and the same is true for the construction of other end face anchor rods 1. Wherein, the brill dress of stock 1 is according to following design angle construction: the included angle theta between the anchor rod 1 of the top plate close to the shoulder angle of the two sides and the plumb line2Are all 30 degrees, and the top anchor rod 1 of the two sides is tied up by an angle theta3Are all 15 degrees, the lowest anchor rod1 angle of stabbing theta4All are 30 degrees, and the other anchor rods 1 are drilled and installed perpendicular to the contour line of the roadway.
(4) And according to the tunneling footage of each time of the roadway, after drilling and installing of all anchor rods 1 on the newly excavated section are completed, immediately arranging deformation monitoring of the part of rock mass according to requirements, recording related data, and performing processing and analysis.
In the second step, when the anchor rod 1 is installed, the mining resin anchoring agent is used for lengthening and anchoring, and the anchoring length is not less than 1000mm so as to meet the requirement of high anchoring force. For example, 2 pieces of rapid anchoring agent with the length of 500mm are used, the setting time is 60-70 s, and the requirements of site construction can be met. After the anchoring agent is stirred and condensed, the tray 6 and the nut 7 of the anchor rod 1 are installed, the nut 7 is drilled by a drilling machine of the anchor rod 1, and then the nut 7 is screwed by a pneumatic wrench until the pretightening force of the anchor rod 1 of the top plate reaches about 100kN and the pretightening force of the anchor rod 1 of the side part reaches about 80 kN.
Step three: and drilling the medium and long anchor cables 2 to form a shallow-medium deep anchoring structure.
After the newly excavated section anchor rod 1 is used for cooperatively anchoring the surrounding rock at the shallow part of the top plate of the roadway, the deformation speed and the deformation of the rock mass of the shallow anchoring structure are monitored in real time according to the second step, the deformation rule of the rock mass of the shallow anchoring structure is analyzed, and when the deformation speed of the rock mass of the shallow anchoring structure is changed from fast to flat, the rock mass of the shallow anchoring structure and the rock mass at the middle and deep part of the top plate are cooperatively anchored by adopting the medium and long anchor cables 2, so that a shallow-medium deep anchoring structure A + B is formed. The method comprises the following specific steps:
(1) and drilling holes on the medium and long anchor cables 2 according to the arrangement design of the medium and long anchor cables 2. Drilling holes of the medium-length anchor cables 2 and holes of the anchor rods 1 can be synchronously performed, and the drilling holes can also be sequentially performed in batches according to the construction sequence. The included angle between the drilling angle of the hole 2 of the medium-long anchor cable and the plumb line is 00.
(2) And (3) according to the result of the loosening ring range of the roof coal roadway, comprehensively considering factors such as the length of the anchor rod 1, the rock stratum structure and the thickness and the like, and selecting the length of the medium-length anchor cable 2. Preferably, the length of the medium-long anchor cable 2 is 1500-2000 mm longer than that of the anchor rod 1, and the medium-long anchor cable needs to be anchored into a relatively complete upper rock stratum. The length of the drill hole of the medium and long anchor cable 2 is equal to the length of the medium and long anchor cable 2-200 mm.
(3) The medium-length anchor cable 2 adopts a lengthening anchoring mode, a mining resin anchoring agent is used, and the anchoring length is not less than 2000mm so as to meet the requirement of high anchoring force. Illustratively, 4 resin anchoring agents with the length of 500mm are adopted, wherein 2 quick anchoring agents are firstly filled into the bottom of a hole, and the setting time is 60-70 s; then 2 middle-speed anchoring agents are filled, and the setting time is 90-100 s; drilling and installing the medium and long anchor cable 2 are then carried out.
(4) And after the anchoring agent is stirred and condensed, timely installing an anchor cable steel belt 8, an anchor cable tray 9 and a lock 10, and tensioning by using an anchor cable tensioning instrument until the pretightening force reaches about 150kN to complete installation.
And in the third step, after drilling and installing the medium and long anchor cables 2, immediately monitoring the deformation of the surrounding rock of the top plate according to requirements, recording related data, and processing and analyzing the data.
Step four: and drilling and installing a long anchor cable 3 to form a shallow layer-middle deep layer-deep layer cooperative anchoring compound structure.
After the drilling of the medium-long anchor cable 2 is completed, the deformation speed and the deformation of the rock mass with the shallow-medium deep anchoring structure are monitored in real time according to the third step, the deformation rule of the rock mass with the shallow-medium deep anchoring structure is analyzed, when the deformation speed of the rock mass with the shallow-medium deep anchoring structure tends to be flat, the long anchor cable 3 is drilled and installed, and the rock mass with the shallow-medium deep anchoring structure and the deep rock mass of the top plate are anchored into a whole in a cooperative mode, so that a shallow-medium deep-deep cooperative anchoring compound structure A + B + C is formed. The method comprises the following specific steps:
(1) and drilling holes on the long anchor cables 3 according to the arrangement design of the long anchor cables 3. The drilling of the long anchor cable 3 and the drilling of the medium and long anchor cable 2 can be carried out synchronously, and can also be carried out in batches in sequence according to the construction sequence. Illustratively, the angle θ between the vertical and the long anchor cable 3 of the top plate near the shoulder angle of two sides1All 30 degrees, and the other long anchor cables 3 are installed perpendicular to the contour line of the roadway.
(2) And determining the length of the long anchor cable 3 according to the roof rock stratum structure. Preferably, the length of the long anchor cable 3 is 3000-4000 mm longer than that of the medium-length anchor cable 2, and the depth of the long anchor cable capable of anchoring into a deep and stable rock stratum is more than 1000 mm. The drilling length of the long anchor cable 3 is equal to the length of the long anchor cable 3-200 mm.
(3) The long anchor cable 3 is installed according to the design scheme, the long anchor cable 3 adopts a lengthening anchoring mode, a mining resin anchoring agent is used, and the anchoring length is not less than 2500mm so as to meet the requirement of high anchoring force. Exemplarily, 5 resin anchoring agents with the length of 500mm are adopted, wherein 2 rapid anchoring agents are placed at the bottom of a hole, and the setting time is 60-70 s; then 3 pieces of medium-speed anchoring agent are filled, and the setting time is 90-100 s; drilling and installing of the long anchor cable 3 are then carried out.
(4) After the anchoring agent is stirred and condensed, installing an anchor cable steel belt 8, an anchor cable tray 9 and a lock 10, and applying a pretightening force of about 200kN to the long anchor cable 3 by using an anchor cable tensioning instrument so as to meet the requirement of high pretightening force. The long anchor cable 3 in this embodiment is continuously interlocked with the steel belt 8 for the anchor cable along the direction of the roadway.
In this embodiment, the diameters of the anchor rod 1, the long and medium anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3 are equal, the diameter of the anchor rod 1 (the long and medium anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3), the resin anchoring agent and the drilling diameter meet the requirement of three-diameter matching, the diameter of the anchor rod 1 (the long and medium anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3) is smaller than the diameter of the resin anchoring agent and smaller than the diameter of the drilling hole, and the diameter difference values of the anchor rod 1 (the long and medium anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3) and the resin anchoring agent and the diameter difference values of the resin anchoring agent and the drilling hole are all between 3 mm and 5mm, so that the requirement of anchoring force is. The adopted resin anchoring agent is divided into a quick anchoring agent and a medium-speed anchoring agent. Preferably, the setting time of the quick anchoring agent is 60-70 s, the setting time of the medium-speed anchoring agent is 90-100 s, and the length of the anchoring agent is 500mm per strip, so that the requirements of site construction can be better met.
In the present embodiment, the anchor rods 1, the medium-long anchor cables 2, the long anchor cables 3, the reinforcing mesh 4, the anchor rod steel belts 5, the anchor rod trays 6, the nuts 7, the anchor cable steel belts 8, the anchor cable trays 9, and the locks 10 are constructed as shown in fig. 3 to 6. Illustratively, the anchor rod tray 6 is 150 × 150 × 10mm in specification, and the anchor cable tray 9 is 300 × 300 × 20mm in specification; all adopt W type steel band, the specification of anchor rod steel band 5 is 220 x 2.5mm, the specification of anchor rope steel band 8 is 280 x 3.0 mm.
The invention provides a collaborative anchoring method aiming at the support of a complex thick-layer composite roof coal roadway innovatively, and collaborative design is carried out on an anchor rod 1, a medium-long anchor cable 2 and a long anchor cable 3 in the aspects of drilling and assembling time, pre-tightening force, anchoring length selection, drilling and assembling angle and the like, and the collaborative design is embodied in the following aspects:
(1) the anchor rod 1, the medium-long anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3 realize cooperation in deformation yielding and installation time, and particularly, the anchor rod 1 is quickly drilled after a roadway is excavated and temporary support is completed; when the deformation rate of the rock mass anchored by the anchor rod 1 rapidly tends to be gentle and the primary yielding is finished, immediately drilling and installing a medium-length anchor cable 2; and when the deformation of the rock body anchored by the medium-length anchor cable 2 tends to be gentle and secondary yielding is finished, drilling and installing the long anchor cable 3 immediately.
(2) Stock 1, well long anchor rope 2, long anchor rope 3 realize in coordination in length, and is specific, 1 length of stock surpasss the tunnel country rock loose circle scope 300 ~ 500mm, and 2 length of well long anchor rope are than 1 long 1500 ~ 2000mm of stock, and 3 length of long anchor rope are than 2 long 3000 ~ 4000mm of well long anchor rope. Through the coordination and matching of different anchoring materials, a more reasonable anchoring structure can be formed, wherein the roadway surrounding rock loosening zone is measured on site by using a geological radar.
(3) The anchor rod 1, the medium-long anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3 realize synergy on pretightening force. Specifically, the pretightening force of the roof anchor rod 1 is 100kN, the pretightening force of the side anchor rod 1 is 80kN, the pretightening force of the medium-long anchor cable 2 is 150kN, the pretightening force of the long anchor cable 3 is 200kN, the pretightening forces are gradually applied from small to large, and the requirements of high pretightening force and synergistic effect can be met.
(4) The anchor rod 1, the medium-long anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3 realize synergy in anchoring length and anchoring force. The anchoring length of the anchor rod 1 is not less than 1000mm, the anchoring length of the medium-long anchor cable 2 is not less than 2000mm, the anchoring length of the long anchor cable 3 is not less than 2500mm, and the quick and medium-speed anchoring agents can be matched for use. The anchoring length of the anchor rod 1, the medium-length anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3 is reasonably selected according to the length of the anchor rod, so that the requirement of high anchoring force can be met, and the coordination with high pre-tightening force can be realized.
(5) The anchor rod 1, the medium-long anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3 realize the cooperation in the drilling and installation angle. The included angle theta between the top plate and the plumb line is close to the shoulder angle anchor rod 1 at two sides2Are all 30 degrees, and the top anchor rod 1 of the two sides is tied up by an angle theta3Is 15 degrees and the bottommost anchor rod 1 is downwards pricked by an angle theta4The angle is 30 degrees, and the other anchor rods 1 are arranged perpendicular to the contour line of the roadway; the included angle between the drilling angle of the hole 2 of the medium-length anchor cable and the plumb line is00(ii) a Included angle theta between long anchor cable 3 leaning on shoulder angle of two sides of top plate and plumb line1All are 30 degrees, and the other anchor cables are installed perpendicular to the contour line of the roadway. The angle design can form relatively uniform anchoring areas on the periphery of the roadway, and effectively avoid obvious stress concentration areas formed at shoulder angles and bottom angles. Meanwhile, the anchor rod 1 and the long anchor cable 3 of the top plate close to the shoulder angle are inclined to the upper part at a certain angle, so that the function of diagonal pulling can be achieved, and the top plate is prevented from falling; the bottom angle anchor rod 1 is downwards rolled for a certain angle, so that the bottom heave can be effectively prevented.
(6) The anchor rod 1, the medium-long anchor cable 2 and the long anchor cable 3 realize synergy in structural arrangement. The steel belt is adopted to transversely and continuously interlock the anchor rod 1, longitudinally and discontinuously interlock the middle long anchor cable 2 and longitudinally and continuously interlock the long anchor cable 3, and a criss-cross latticed bearing structure can be formed under the action of the anchor net, so that stress diffusion and uniform bearing can be better realized.
In addition, in view of the poor mechanical property of the thick-layer composite roof coal roadway, the construction quality is improved strictly according to a design scheme and related requirements, the field monitoring is comprehensively enhanced, the stability condition of the surrounding rock of the roadway is judged through comprehensive data analysis such as roadway deformation and pressure coming, the existing problems are optimized and perfected, and the cooperative anchoring compound structure suitable for the engineering real-time situation is formed.
Compared with the prior art, the method for building the cooperative anchoring compound structure of the thick-layer composite roof coal roadway provided by the embodiment is based on a cooperative action mechanism, a plurality of key variables of the anchor rod 1, the anchor cable, the anchor net and the roadway surrounding rock are cooperatively designed, and the cooperative anchoring compound structure suitable for the thick-layer composite roof is finally formed by exerting the cooperative action among anchoring materials and between the anchoring materials and rock strata, namely the anchor rod 1 is adopted to cooperatively anchor the surrounding rock of the shallow part of the roadway roof, particularly the rock mass of a loose circle, so as to form the shallow anchoring structure; adopting a medium-long anchor cable 2 to anchor the anchoring rock mass of the anchor rod 1 and the middle-deep rock mass of the top plate in a coordinated manner to form a shallow-middle-deep anchoring structure; the long anchor cable 3 is adopted to anchor the rock mass anchored by the anchor rod 1, the rock mass anchored by the medium and long anchor cable 2 and the deep rock stratum of the top plate into a whole in a cooperative manner, so that a shallow layer-medium deep layer-deep layer cooperative anchoring compound structure with larger thickness, strength and rigidity is formed, the cooperative anchoring effect and the cooperative bearing performance of the shallow layer, the medium deep layer and the deep rock stratum are fully exerted, separation, crushing and deformation among the rock strata of the thick-layer composite top plate are more effectively resisted, the bearing capacity and deformation resistance of the structure are obviously improved, further, the effective control on the stability of the surrounding rock of the top plate is realized, and the safe, economic and efficient production of a coal mine is promoted. The method has the advantages of simple and easy construction, low anchoring and protecting cost, solving the control problem of the complex thick-layer composite roof coal roadway, being suitable for controlling other soft and broken engineering rock masses, and having great application and popularization values.
The above description is only for the preferred embodiment of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any changes or substitutions that can be easily conceived by those skilled in the art within the technical scope of the present invention are included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. A construction method of a cooperative anchoring compound structure of a thick-layer composite roof coal roadway is characterized by comprising the following steps:
the method comprises the following steps: exploring the loosening ring range of the thick-layer composite top plate of the coal roadway by adopting a geological radar, and determining the range of a multistage anchoring structure area and the length of an anchor rod;
step two: drilling and installing an anchor rod on the surrounding rock of the shallow part of the top plate of the newly excavated section to form a shallow anchoring structure;
step three: drilling and installing a middle-long anchor cable to form a shallow layer-middle deep layer anchoring structure;
step four: drilling and installing a long anchor cable to form a shallow layer-middle deep layer-deep layer cooperative anchoring compound structure;
in the third step, when the deformation rate of the shallow anchoring structure rock mass is changed from fast to flat, the medium-length anchor cable is adopted to anchor the shallow anchoring structure rock mass and the middle deep rock layer of the top plate in a cooperative manner, so as to form a shallow-medium deep anchoring structure;
in the fourth step, when the deformation rate of the shallow-middle deep layer anchoring structure rock mass tends to be flat, long anchor cables are drilled and installed, and the shallow-middle deep layer anchoring structure rock mass and the top plate deep layer rock mass are anchored in a cooperative mode to form a shallow-middle deep layer-deep layer cooperative anchoring compound structure;
the anchor rod, the medium-length anchor cable and the long anchor cable are interlocked by steel belts;
the anchor rods are transversely and continuously linked, the medium-length anchor cables are longitudinally and discontinuously linked, and the long anchor cables are longitudinally and continuously linked to form a grid-shaped bearing structure;
the anchor rod, the medium-long anchor cable and the long anchor cable are anchored in an lengthening manner by adopting an anchoring agent;
the anchoring agent comprises one or two of a quick anchoring agent and a medium-speed anchoring agent, and the quick anchoring agent is arranged at the bottom of the hole;
the anchoring length of the anchor rod is not less than 1000mm, the anchoring length of the medium-long anchor cable is not less than 2000mm, and the anchoring length of the long anchor cable is not less than 2500 mm;
in the second step, the anchor rod is drilled according to the following angles: the included angles between anchor rods of the top plate close to the shoulder angles of the two sides and the plumb line are both 30 degrees, the upward binding angles of the anchor rods at the uppermost ends of the two sides are both 15 degrees, the downward binding angles of the anchor rods at the lowermost ends of the two sides are both 30 degrees, and the rest anchor rods are arranged perpendicular to the contour line of the roadway;
in the third step, the included angle between the drilling hole angle of the middle-long anchor cable hole and the plumb line is 0 degree;
in the fourth step, the included angles between the long anchor cables of the top plate close to the shoulder angle and the plumb line are both 30 degrees, and the other long anchor cables are installed in a way of being vertical to the contour line of the roadway;
the length of the anchor rod exceeds the range of the roadway surrounding rock loosening zone by 300-500 mm;
the length of the medium-long anchor cable is 1500-2000 mm longer than that of the anchor rod;
the length of the long anchor cable is 3000-4000 mm longer than that of the medium-length anchor cable;
the middle-long anchor cable is anchored into a relatively complete upper rock stratum, and the depth of the long anchor cable anchored into a relatively firm rock stratum at the deep part is more than 1000 mm;
the pre-tightening force of the top plate anchor rod is 100kN, the pre-tightening force of the side anchor rod is 80kN, the pre-tightening force of the middle and long anchor cables is 150kN, the pre-tightening force of the long anchor cable is 200kN, the pre-tightening forces are gradually applied from small to large, and the requirements of high pre-tightening force and synergistic effect can be met;
selecting a detection position of a thick-layer composite roof coal roadway before geological radar detection, and arranging detection lines;
according to the integrity of surrounding rock of the roadways, 3 testing stations are arranged on each roadway, and 4 trend detection lines of a right side, a top plate, a left side and a bottom plate are set in each testing station along the trend of the roadway;
on the section of the roadway, the number of the long anchor cables is 3, and the number of the medium and long anchor cables is 2;
a first long anchor cable and a second long anchor cable are arranged at the position, close to the shoulder angle, of the top plate, included angles between the first long anchor cable and the plumb line are both 30 degrees, and a third long anchor cable is arranged perpendicular to the top plate of the roadway and is positioned between the first long anchor cable and the second long anchor cable;
the 2 medium-long anchor cables are positioned on two sides of the third long anchor cable and between the first long anchor cable and the second long anchor cable, and the medium-long anchor cables are installed perpendicular to the top plate of the roadway;
4 anchor rods are arranged between the medium-length anchor cables and the long anchor cables, and 1 anchor rod is arranged between each medium-length anchor cable and each long anchor cable and is vertical to the top plate of the roadway;
8 anchor rods are arranged in the space from the peripheries of the first long anchor cable and the second long anchor cable arranged at the position, close to the shoulder angle, of the top plate to the roadway bottom plate; the top plate is provided with a first anchor rod and a second anchor rod respectively close to the shoulder corners of the two sides, the included angles between the first anchor rod and the plumb line and the included angles between the second anchor rod and the plumb line are both 30 degrees, the upward binding angles of the third anchor rod and the fourth anchor rod which are positioned at the uppermost ends of the two sides are both 15 degrees, the downward binding angles of the fifth anchor rod and the sixth anchor rod which are positioned at the lowermost ends are both 30 degrees, and the seventh anchor rod and the eighth anchor rod are arranged perpendicular to the side wall of the roadway.
2. The method for constructing a cooperative anchoring compound structure of a thick-layer composite roof coal roadway according to claim 1, wherein in the second step, when the anchor rod holes in the same row are drilled, two anchor rod holes close to the left and right positions of the center line of the roof shaft are drilled according to the distance between the anchor rods, and then the steel bar mesh is laid and the steel belt for the anchor rods is erected in sequence to complete the installation of the anchor rods.
3. The method for constructing the cooperative anchoring compound structure of the thick-layer composite roof coal roadway according to claim 1, wherein the deformation of the rock mass of the shallow anchoring structure is monitored after the drilling of the anchor rod of the newly excavated cross section roof is completed;
and after drilling and installing the medium and long anchor cables, monitoring the deformation of the rock mass with the shallow-medium deep anchoring structure.
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CN104790991B (en) * 2015-04-28 2016-11-23 河南理工大学 A kind of surrounding rock of actual mining roadway long top anchoring process by force
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